YELLOW FEVER

IN NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH, VIRGINIA, 1855,
as reported in the DAILY DISPATCH of Richmond, Virginia.

Introduction

1843 Engraving by J. O. Montalant of Gosport Navy Yard.
Published in 1845 in Historical Collections of Virginia, by Henry Howe,
Babcock & Co., Charleston, SC, 1846, page 401.

July 24 - August 22
August 23 - 29
August 30 - September 5
September 6 - 11
September 12 - 17
September 18 - 25
September 26 - October 1
October 6 - December 27, 1855.

INDEXES.
General Index * Doctors, their families & druggists * Nurses & volunteers
* Ministers and families * African Americans * Prisoners
* Cemeteries * Orphans * Addendum to General Index

ILLUSTRATIONS.
Harbor Scenes, Buildings, Street Scenes, Maps, People, Old Documents, Medal.

LETTERS.
To Captain Samuel Barron of Gosport Navy Yard.
Letters by Col. Winchester Watts of the Portsmouth Relief Association.
Vector Control Correspondence of the 1940's.

Yellow Fever in Newsprint from October 1855 to the Present.
including
Harper's Weekly, June 6, 1857.
"Two Noble Women" and
New York Herald - September 20, 1857.
"The Heroes of the Pestilence" by Annie M. Andrews.

Southern Churchman
Episcopalian newspaper published in Alexandria, VA.
Yellow Fever Articles Pertaining to Norfolk & Portsmouth
from August 1855 to February 1856.
Indexed.

CEMETERY PHOTO FILES.
The cemetery photographs were taken and are owned by the compiler. Please write for permission to use them.
Index (small file with photo links)
Photos (large photo files include tombstone inscriptions)
Cedar Grove Cemetery, Norfolk, VA
Cedar Grove Cemetery, Portsmouth, VA
Elmwood Cemetery, Norfolk, VA
Forest Lawn Cemetery, Norfolk, VA
Hebrew Cemetery, Norfolk, VA
Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, VA
Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA
Naval Hospital Cemetery, Portsmouth, VA
Oak Grove (Portlock) Cemetery , Portsmouth, VA
Saint Mary's Catholic Cemetery, Norfolk, VA
Shockoe Cemetery, Richmond, VA
Saint Paul's Catholic Church, Portsmouth, VA, Fr. Devlin Memorial

West Point Cemetery (annex of Elmwood), Norfolk, VA

CHURCH REGISTERS.

REGISTERS OF DEATH.
Norfolk, Princess Anne County, and Norfolk County.

RELIEF REPORTS

WHO AND WHAT IS THE HOWARD ASSOCIATION?

REPORT OF THE PORTSMOUTH RELIEF ASSOCIATION.
To the Contributors of the Fund For the Relief of Portsmouth, Virginia,
During the Prevalence of the Yellow Fever in that Town in 1855;
the Exhibit of the Treasurer of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Fund,
and Statements of other Members of the Association;
together with a Sketch of the Fever, Etc., Etc.,
Richmond: H. K. Ellyson's Steam Power Presses, 147 Main Street, 1856.

REPORT OF THE HOWARD ASSOCIATION OF NORFOLK, VIRGINIA.
To All Contributors Who Gave Their Valuable Aid in Behalf of the
Sufferers From Epidemic Yellow Fever During the Summer of 1855.
Philadelphia: Inquirer Printing Office, 121 South Third Street, 1857.
(includes) REPORT ON THE ORIGIN OF THE YELLOW FEVER IN NORFOLK
DURING THE SUMMER OF 1855.
Made to the City Councils by a Committee of Physicians.
also found in the Virginia Medical Journal, August 1857, Vol. 9, pp. 89-130.

REPORT OF THE PHILADELPHIA RELIEF COMMITTEE,
Appointed to Collect Funds For The Sufferers by Yellow Fever, At Norfolk & Portsmouth, Va., 1855.
Philadelphia, Inquirer Printing Office, 57 South Third Street, 1856.

BOOKS ABOUT THE EPIDEMIC

THE GREAT PESTILENCE IN VIRGINIA;
Being An Historical Account of the Origin, General Character, and Ravages of the Yellow Fever
in Norfolk and Portsmouth in 1855; Together with Sketches of Some of the Victims,
Incidents of the Scourge, Etc.
By William S. Forrest,
New York: Derby & Jackson, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1856.


THE SUMMER OF THE PESTILENCE:
A History of the Ravages of the Yellow Fever in Norfolk, Virginia, A. D., 1855.
By George D. Armstrong, D. D., Pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Norfolk.
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1856.

THE EPIDEMIC OF YELLOW FEVER IN NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH, VIRGINIA,
during the summer and fall of 1855.
By J. D. Bryant, M. D.
Philadelphia: T. K. and P. G. Collins, 1856.
Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNTS

MEMOIR OF REV. JAMES CHISHOLM, A. M.
Late Rector of St. John's Church, Portsmouth, VA.
By David Holmes Conrad.
New York: Protestant Episcopal Society for the Promotion of Evangelical Knowledge, 1856.
Chapters IX-XIII, pp. 76-152: Memoranda of the Pestilence.

A SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF REV. WILLIAM M. JACKSON
Late Rector of St. Paul's Church, Norfolk, VA,
by the Rev. George D. Cummings,
Washington, DC: Gray & Ballantyne, 1856.
Chapters VII-IX, pp. 65-108: The Pestilence in Norfolk & Portsmouth,
Labors During the Pestilence, Closing Scenes of His Life.

"SADNESS IN OUR CIRCLE":
Grace Whittle's Account of the 1855 Norfolk Yellow Fever Epidemic
Edited by Jennifer Davis McDaid, 1997, Archives Research Coordinator, The Library of Virginia.
Reproduced with the permission of the author and the Library of Virginia.

SERMONS OF THE PESTILENCE

DEATH ARBITRARY.
Funeral Sermon of Dr. P. Claiborne Gooch Who Died of Yellow Fever in Portsmouth, Va., Sept. 1855;
Delivered in Richmond, Va., March 2, 1856, By J. F. Burrows.
Richmond: Printed by C. H. Wynne, 1856.

THE LESSON OF THE PESTILENCE
A Discourse Preached in the Presbyterian Church, Norfolk, VA.,
on Sabbath, Dec. 2nd, 1855,
By George D. Armstrong, D. D., Pastor
Richmond: Printed by Charles H. Wynne, 1855.
Courtesy Library of Virginia, Richmond.

THE PESTILENCE—GOD'S MESSENGER AND TEACHER
Discourse in Behalf of the Sufferers of Norfolk and Portsmouth, VA.
Delivered in Trinity Church, Washington, September 9, 1855
By Rev. George D. Cummins, Rector
Washington: George D. Gideon, Printer, 1855.
Courtesy Library of Virginia, Richmond.

Sermon Preached on Occasion of the Funeral of the Rev. William Jackson,
by the Right Rev. B. B. Smith, Bishop of the Diocese of Kentucky
from REMAINS OF THE REV. WILLIAM JACKSON,
New York: Stanford & Swords, 1846.

"THE TERRIBLE DOINGS OF GOD"
A Sermon Delivered in the Court St. Baptist Church, Portsmouth, VA,
Commemorative of Twenty-eight Members of Old Dominion Lodge, No. V,
Who Died During the Late Epidemic.
By Isaac W. K. Handy

"TERRORS OF THE PESTILENCE"
A sermon by Rev. Richard S. Storrs, Jr., of the Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, NY, September 30, 1855,
on the occasion when his church collected funds for the sufferers of the pestilence at Norfolk.

THE TRUE AND THE FALSE IN PREVALENT THEORIES OF DIVINE DISPENSATIONS.
A Discourse Delivered in the Unitarian Church, Washington City,
on Sunday, September 16, 1855, by Moncure D. Conway, Minister.
Washington, D. C.: Taylor & Maury, 1855.

THESIS

THE YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC OF 1855 IN NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH:
an analysis of social response and climate.
By Lara Marie Hamilton.
This thesis may not be reproduced in any format without the written permission of both
the author and the University Archives, The College of William & Mary.

YELLOW FEVER IN JOURNALS

DISEASE AND URBAN IMAGE:
Yellow Fever in Norfolk, 1855.
Reproduced with the permission of David R. Goldfield and the Library of Virginia.
Originally published in VIRGINIA CAVALCADE, vol. 23, no. 2, (Autumn 1973): 34-41.

THE CITY OF PESTILENCE.
Poetry by Samuel Selden.
THE MONTHLY VISITOR, Vol. 13, Aug. 1872, pp. 23-26
Obtained from the Virginia Historical Society.

ON THE YELLOW FEVER OF NORFOLK AND PORTSMOUTH
By E. D. Fenner, M. D., New Orleans.
The Virginia Medical & Surgical Journal, December 1855, pp 509-511.

The Virginia Medical & Surgical Journal: See MEMORIALS

ACCOUNTS OF THE EPIDEMIC BY LOCAL HISTORIANS

MEDICINE IN VIRGINIA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
By Wyndham B. Blanton, M. D.
Richmond: Garrett & Massie, Inc., 1933.
Excerpt from Chapter XII: Epidemics, pp. 224-238.

HISTORY OF PORTSMOUTH
by Miss Mildred M. Holladay
Yellow Fever,
Chapter XIII, pp. 292-306
Also a feature of Portsmouth Star, 41st Annual Edition, January 19, 1936.

THE HISTORY OF NORFOLK, VIRGINIA
By H. W. Burton of the Norfolk Virginian,
Norfolk Virginian, Job Print, 1877.
The Yellow Fever, pp. 20-25.

Norfolk in By-Gone Days by W. H. T. Squires
"The Pestilence" & "After the Pestilence"
Ledger Dispatch December 16, 1937

MEMORIALS. Indexed.

FOR YOUNG READERS

HEALTH HEROES: WALTER REED
Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., New York, 1926.

In 1900 Walter Reed and the Yellow Fever Commission
exposed the mosquito as the carrier of yellow fever.
"He robbed the pestilence of its terrors and caused the cities of the southland
to sit in peace within their gates."

From memorial plaque at Kings County Hospital, NYC.

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This site was built and is maintained by the transcriber and compiler Donna Bluemink.
Materials were provided by Norfolk Public Library & other libraries listed and all are in the public domain
with the exception of five copyrighted items and the photographs of which permission must
be obtained in order to use.

For further Virginia history transcription see Virginia Archives.

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