Who and What is the Howard Association
Norfolk Howard Report


The Howard Association was named after John Howard (1726-1790) a British philanthropist/reformer. The first Howard Association was begun in Boston in 1812. Any city facing a disaster could form an association made up of its citizens and it existed independently of any central organization.

For source information see: The Handbook of Texas Online.

The following selection appears in The Lower Norfolk County Virginia Antiquary, edited by Edward Wilson James. Baltimore, MD: The Friedenwald Co., 1904.

On the 10th of August some of the citizens held a meeting and established the Howard Association. "It's chief objects were to procure, and furnish a hospital, to provide for and relieve the sick and bury the dead."

William B. Ferguson, President (William Boyd Ferguson was born in Baltimore, Maryland, May 22, 1824, and died the 22nd of September, 1855. He was the son of Thomas Ferguson who was for more than 40 years a merchant on Bowlys wharf, Baltimore. He moved to Norfolk about four years before the fever. While a resident of Baltimore he was a member of the First Baltimore Fire Company and represented the 19th ward in the City Council. His wife who was a Miss Watson of Norfolk died a few days later, September 29.)

James I. Bloodgood, Vice-President (was a native of Maryland and was a dry goods merchant in Norfolk. He married a Miss Bonsal)

Robert W. Bowden, Treasurer.

James A. Saunders, Secretary

Dulton Wheeler, Assist. Secretary

William M. Wilson, Residing Physician

W. H. Freeman, Thomas Penniston and De Castro, Assistant Physicians.

Robert W. Rose, Francis L. Higgins, George L. Upshur, Visiting Physicians.

William H. Garnett, Augustus B. Cooke, the former engaged by the Association, and the latter by the Board of Health, assistants to the Mayor, in removing the sick to the Hospital.

Thomas M. Martin, Thomas H. Beveridge, Conductors

J. A. Kirkpatrick, W. A. Graves, A. Dorney, Richard Gatewood, Jr., Marshall Ott, receivers, etc., of orders for provision, etc.

Nurses—Captain Boyd, H. Dodds, Caroline Hinson, Julia Partington, P. Handy, A. Baum, E. Tremayne, C. Weaver, Margaret A. Steward, Caroline Henderson, David Swindle, R. Brumley, Miss Annie M. Andrews and six sisters of Charity.

William Hinchman, driver of provision wagon.

John Cavanaugh, Captain of sick lighter.

Trainer, waterman at the Hospital.

W. D. Seymour, E. and John Delany, R. Woodward, J. K. Hodges, John T. Elliot, William F. Tyler, and several others, keepers of provision store."


The Howard Association has taken the office over Noah Walker's Clothing Store, corner of Main and Talbot Streets. A. Committee will be in attendance daily from 6 A. M., to 9 P. M.

James A. Saunders, Sec'y.

The members of the Association will please hand in their subscriptions to Capt. R. W. Bowden, Treasurer (From Norfolk Herald, Aug. 13, 1855)

Norfolk, Sept. 27
Owing to the death of Col. Ferguson, president of the Howard Association, and the absence of several of the officers, that institution has elected A. B. Cooke, president*; Thomas J. Corprew, 1st vice president; R. M. Ball, 2d vice president; R. W. Bowden, treasurer; J. Taylor, assistant treasurer; J. A. Saunders, secretary. D. Wheeler, assistant corresponding secretary; Wm. D. Reynolds, assistant corresponding secretary (From Baltimore Sun, Oct. e, 1855.

* A. B. Cooke was the son of Colonel Mordecai and Margaret Kearns Cooke, and was born in the city of Portsmouth, Va., February 8, 1824. He received his early education in the schools of Portsmouth, and afterwards attended Professor Coleman's academy, Hanover, Va., where he completed his course. In May, 1847, he married Miss Sarah Langley. He was among the first to go to California during the gold fever of 1849, where he remained for three years, and was made a member of the committee of safety. On his return to Norfolk, 1852, he entered the custom house under collector Simpson. When Norfolk was stricken with yellow fever he remained.

As appearing in the Howard Association Board Minutes
Sept. 9, 1949 to December 18, 1986.

Like other seaports, Norfolk in former days was constantly exposed to epidemics of smallpox and yellow fever. Whenever a vessel came in from the west Indies, from Cadiz, or even from England, there was the possibility that it might spread wholesale death. Little was known of the causes of these epidemics, so that preventive measures were misdirected.

There was a terrible harvest of death from yellow fever in the year 1795 and then again in 1821 and 1826 there were epidemics which caused widespread terror. After this, twenty-nine years passed in which Norfolk was practically free of yellow fever. People began to think that the paving and draining of the streets and the widespread use of cisterns for drinking water had rendered the town immune to yellow fever. Then, on June 7, 1855, the steamer "Ben Franklin", bound from St. Thomas to New York, put into Hampton Roads in distress, with yellow fever on board. It was imperative that the steamer be repaired, and upon giving assurances that his crew were all in good health, the captain, on June 19, was permitted to take her to Page and Allen's shipyard, at [2] Gosport. A few days later a laborer employed in "breaking up her hold," contracted yellow fever, and, on July 8, died. The steamer was at once put in quarantine, but pandora's box had been opened, and the furies let loose over Portsmouth and Norfolk.

As new cases began to appear in various parts of the city, terror seized the people. Every head of a family had to decide whether to leave his business engagements and flee, or to remain, facing the danger of death for himself, his wife and children. Before the end of August the city had become a great hospital and grave. The deaths now mounted to seventy, eighty, or even a hundred a day.

In the face of the disaster, some of the leading men of Norfolk formed a society called the Howard Association. This organization undertook the herculean task of providing for the wants of the sick and burying the dead.

The association set up a hospital, first in the buildings of the Julappi Race Course on Lamberts Point, and then in the City Hotel downtown.

It paid for the burial of 2,300 persons.

[3] It established a home for children orphaned by the fever.

It collected and distributed vast quantities of stores — even providing for 500 families the Winter after the epidemic.

The plight of the seaport cities aroused a sympathetic response throughout the republic, and gifts of goods and money, totaling $157,237, poured in to the Howard Association.

From Americans on the Panamanian Isthmus, from the then frontier regions of Missouri and Illinois, from London, England, arrived aid in large and small amounts, W. H. Macy, Manhattan store owner, gave more than $15,000. The Baltimore Steam Packet Company continued to send supplies to Norfolk when it was the city's only link to the outside world and when there were no funds to pay for the goods, stores of all kinds arrived from Salem, Massachusetts to Smithfield, isle of Wight County. Barrels of beef and molasses, live chickens from Murfreesboro, North Carolina, 10,000 loaves of bread from Baltimore, even 300 leeches for medical use — all these and other stores arrived in profusion to help the stricken city.

The greatest aid came in the persons of 50 doctors from Southern States and the cities of New York and Philadelphia. [4] These and resident medical men struggled to care for the sick, and, in the struggles 36 of them died—victims of the disease they sought to conquer.

Then, at last, with two heavy frosts in October, the epidemic was checked. The medical fraternity was not at that time able to point to the mosquito as the agent of transmission of the fever.

William B. Ferguson was elected the first president of the Howard Association and the Association was modeled on the Howard Association of New Orleans that had been formed in August 1837 to combat the almost annual yellow fever epidemics in that city.

The "Howard" in the association's name came from John Howard (1726-1790), a famous English philanthropist whose work among the sick and dying all over Europe had gained him an international reputation.

A total of $179,288.30 was contributed locally and nationally to help the Norfolk yellow fever sufferers. At the end of 1855, after all incidental expenses had been paid, $66,686.37 was left in the hands of the Association officers.

[5] Of this sum, $50,000 was invested in conservative securities, the interest to be used to provide for and educate the orphans of Norfolkians who had died of the fever.

It is the interest on this original investment that enables the Association to assist in Norfolk charities today.

The $16,686,37 left after the $50,003.00 had been invested was used to set up what was known as the Howard Asylum, an institution created to house and look after the yellow fever orphans.

Later, when the upkeep of this institution was deemed too expensive, the asylum was closed and the Norfolk Female Orphan Asylum was paid an annual sum to look after those orphans who still remained under age.

The Civil War brought temporary troubles to the Howard Association.

This incident was described by Henry B. Constable, the Associations Secretary and Treasurer, in a preface to a new set of records that were opened on March 31, 1872, after the original records had been destroyed in a down town fire, as follows:

"On or about 1st December 1863 for some reason then unknown, but supposed to be from complaints made by the Military Authori- [6] ties of the alleged disloyalty of the membership, the Accounts of the Association were taken out of the hands of the Treasurer by the Military Authorities, and after the most rigid investigation everything was found correct, and the Association was notified that upon the removal of the members regarded as disloyal, and the election of others, the funds would be restored."

The same record notes that the Association funds were returned intact to the officers in May 1864.

The Association now donates all of the interest on its investments to Norfolk charitable groups and institutions. In the year ending July 31, 1971, the Association donated $7,000 to such organizations. Of this amount $3500.00 went to the United Communities Fund; $250.00 to the United Daughters of the Confederacy; $2250.00 was paid to the Research Institute, Norfolk Area Medical Center Authority, and, $1,000.00 to the Norfolk Academy Educational Fund. In several other recent years Norfolk General Hospital and DePaul Hospital have received contributions of $1,000.00 each toward their building funds.

In making the annual contributions the members of the Howard Association are constantly mindful of the sources from which its funds were derived, and strive to continue to advance the benevolent purposes for which the funds were originally given in its contemplated continuous existence.

The Norfolk Foundation Newsletter - Winter 1996

Yellow Fever Fund Still at Work
(Permission to use granted by The Norfolk Foundation)

Nearly a decade ago the Howard Association board resolved a major dilemma - how to dissolve the charitable association while guaranteeing its assets would perpetually benefit the Norfolk community. Founded in 1855, the nonprofit Howard Association had long since fulfilled its original mission of aiding Norfolk victims of yellow fever. After the disease was eradicated around 1900, the association shifted its focus to helping hospitals, the United Way and other local nonprofit organizations. By 1986 the association's eight board members were ready for a permanent change. They voted in December of that year to dissolve the association and transfer its $128,472 in assets to The Norfolk Foundation. "We wanted the Howard Association name to continue and the funds to continue for charity," recalls Cyrus W. Grandy V, a member of the association's final board.

"The only logical place to go was The Norfolk Foundation." Norfolk was under siege from yellow fever in September 1855 when seven local business executives banded together to create the Howard Association. For nearly three months, as many as 100 citizens a day died from yellow fever after a sick sailor's steamer berthed for repairs in a local shipyard. The epidemic ravaged Portsmouth and quickly swarmed through neighboring Norfolk.

Businesses were transformed into hospitals. A third of Norfolk's population died, and survivors dug mass graves when the city ran out of coffins. Norfolk's Howard Association was modeled on a similar New Orleans association and named for John Howard, an 18th-century English philanthropist known for his work with the sick and dying. During its first few months, the Howard Association received $179,288 in donations from around the world. It used the funds to bury 2,300 residents, set up a hospital and establish a home for children orphaned by the fever. After the fever subsided in late 1855, the Howard Association invested the remaining funds for future use. Today as a component of The Norfolk Foundation, the Howard Association Fund is valued at about $170,000 and provides grants each year for local charitable causes.

* * * * * *

To All Contributors Who Gave Their Valuable Aid
In Behalf Of The Sufferers From
Epidemic Yellow Fever
During the Summer of 1855.

Philadelphia: Inquirer Printing Office: 121 South Third Street, 1857.

Transcribed by Donna Bluemink

* * * * * *

[Numbers in brackets denote page # in original book.]

[2] Members of the Howard Association of Norfolk, Va.

A. B. Cooke, President, Chas. E. Miles,
Thos. J. Corprew, 1st Vice President, Capt. Jas. L. Henderson,
R. M. Balls, 2d Vice President, Jas. G. Pollard,
R. W. Bowden, Treasurer, Edward Delany,
Jas. A. Saunders, Secretary, Wm. F. Tyler,
Solomon Cherry, Corresponding Sec., Wm. D. Seymour,
W. D. Reynolds, Simon Stone,
Dr. R. W. Rose, Geo. H. Wales,
Dr. Wm. M. Wilson, J. J. Bloodgood,
Jno. R. Langley, L. L. Brickhouse,
George Drummond, Wm. T. Nimmo,
Dulton Wheeler, Jno. B. Whitehead,
  Alex. M. Cunningham.


Of the Howard Association to all contributors who gave their valuable aid in behalf of the Sufferers from Epidemic Yellow Fever during the summer of 1855.

More than a year has now elapsed since the Howard Association of Norfolk was first organized for the purpose of rendering aid to the sufferers during the terrible calamity of Epidemic Yellow Fever in 1855. Now that all the trying, emergency has passed, and an exhibit of its affairs becomes necessary, the Association desire to offer some few remarks in explanation of its early history and proceedings.

It can easily be understood that the establishment of any society during a season of severe public affliction, with disease and death rapidly invading every abode, must be attended with extreme difficulty. Such was peculiarly the case at the time this society had its origin.

About the 10th of August, 1855, five gentlemen, citizens of Norfolk, seeing the alarming amount of want and distress daily increasing in the city, proposed the formation of a "Howard Association."

Wm. B. Ferguson was elected President, J. J. Bloodgood and John B. Whitehead 1st and 2d Vice Presidents, B. W. Bowden, Treasurer, and James A. Saunders, Secretary. At the increase of the epidemic two of these gentlemen were required by the ill health of their families, and the surrounding panic, to leave the city. Major Bowden, the Treasurer, was suddenly taken ill, and hence became unable to attend at the office of the association.

All of these embarrassments occurred within a week of the time of the first meeting, thus reducing the active members to only two. (They were assisted by D. Wheeler and W. T. Nimmo.) Soon Mr. Saunders being taken ill, Mr. Ferguson was left alone (so far as membership was concerned) with all the responsibilities of the society resting upon him. With all the instincts of a noble nature, but not without some error of judgment in endeavoring to perform too much by his own individual exertions, he failed for a time to secure the co-operation of many of his fellow-citizens, who were actively engaged in service upon the sick, and who desired to be united as joint and harmonious members of the existing association. An unfortunate oversight seems to be traceable in the above course of action, yet it is one for which an apology [4] may fairly be offered. Unprecedented confusion had been rapidly induced in all the relations of public and private life, which was alone sufficient to distract the strongest mind, while, added to this circumstance, the call of a meeting of any kind, with trouble fast increasing on every side, seemed likely to end in disappointment and loss of time.

At this juncture, several gentlemen of our city, as well as volunteers from other places, and amongst them, particularly, Judge W. Milo Olin and Mr. Taliafero, of Augusta, Georgia, came to the assistance of Mr. Ferguson, and rendered invaluable services in dispensing of money and provisions, paying nurses and carrying on correspondence. It was soon found that the duties imposed on these were so arduous, that much was neglected that ought to have been done,—tardy and unsatisfactory answers to letters, sometimes even an entire neglect of this occurred; while confusion and derangement were hourly produced in the pecuniary affairs of the association.

Matters thus continued until the death of Mr. Ferguson, on the 22d of September, when Major Bowden, who was the only member now in health, called together such gentlemen as had volunteered their services and rendered assistance to their fellow sufferers from the beginning of the epidemic.

An invitation having been extended by Major Bowden, all present expressed their willingness to become members, which was now for the first time proffered to them. It was mentioned as an act of justice to their own conduct, that they had been engaged in services of charity throughout the epidemic, and had shrunk from no duty however fatiguing or humiliating for the public relief.

The first meeting held for the re-organizing of the association was on the 26th day of September, when Augustus B. Cooke was elected President, Thos. J. Corprew, 1st Vice President, R. M. Balls, 2d Vice President, R. W. Bowden, Treasurer, James A. Saunders, Secretary, and Solomon Cherry, Corresponding Secretary.

Mr. Cooke took the Chair and proposed at once the consideration of such measures as would place the society upon a new and sound basis.

For this purpose the adoption of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Howard Association of New Orleans was proposed, a copy of which was produced and read, and with slight alterations was agreed to. The meeting then adjourned, every member being fully apprised of his respective duty, agreed to meet daily at their office on Main Street. From this period the association is conscious of no neglect of duty; all business proceeded with regularity; a simple apology being all that seems necessary to the public for the delay in publishing this report.

The death of Mr. Ferguson occurred at a moment of unparalleled trouble, when but few citizens of Norfolk were left in the possession of health. Mr. Ferguson himself was early called upon to suffer affliction [5] in his immediate family, before the attack of fever which soon ended his own life. In consequence of these disturbances, and the universal confusion and panic, no search could be quietly made into the letters, orders, and important papers belonging to the association. When a period arrived when this could be done, an investigation was instituted, when, as might be expected, every species of writing was found in a state of derangement. To restore order to these documents required much more care and labor than would be supposed by those who are unacquainted with the voluminous correspondence of the association, all of which it became necessary to examine, to ascertain the correct amount of receipts, in money, provisions, clothing, &c, which was so generously sent from every portion of our country. These various matters required much time. And whilst they were in process of arrangement, poverty and suffering, which had accumulated in the city after the epidemic had subsided, called loudly for continued charitable services on the part of the association. As the succeeding winter set in early, and was unusually severe, a regular distribution of money, provisions and fuel was instituted to the poor, which was continued until the 1st of April, 1856, (the association having superseded the Humane Society during the entire winter,) preparation of a burial place in the "Elmwood Cemetery," for such of our own members or others engaged in our service who had died during the epidemic, supervision of the Orphan Asylum, preparations of medals to physicians and nurses who had come to our relief from abroad; all these must be added as concerns which consumed in their discharge a large portion of the past year. While making these statements, the association is fully aware that even now errors may exist in our account, which the most diligent enquiry cannot avoid. Being aware of this, and at the same time desirous of having everything correct, has delayed the report, which a clamorous, and we fear an uncharitable public has for some time demanded.

We are fully aware, that moneys have been received, for which no correct account can be given. But when we take into consideration the emergencies under which the association laboured at its commencement, the frequent distribution of moneys in the streets or wherever its first president might be called upon for aid, this small deficiency should not create prejudice in the mind of any rational man. Allow us to express the belief, that few, very few, similarly situated, would have done better. For a correction of faults, and also for a mention of omissions in the acknowledgment of moneys, provisions, or letters which may be found in this report, the association will feel obliged to any person so stating them, promising at the same time to make every reparation in its power.

It may not be uninteresting to offer a few remarks, upon the subject of several works, whose origin, while it was directly connected with the [6] epidemic, called forth during a period of ten months the earnest and undivided labours of the association, at the same time exhausting largely its pecuniary resources.

The first of these deserving mention are the hospitals. Soon after the discovery of the fever in "Barry's Row," (a block of buildings not very distant from the wharf at the foot of Church street,) Mr. Hunter Woodis, then Mayor of the city, deemed it advisable to place a barricade, with a view of cutting off communication with the above named infected locality, it being the only seat of disease in the city for a length of time during the month of July. To remove the sick into an open country climate, seemed to offer the double advantage of speedier relief to these sufferers, whilst it also promised to lessen some of the danger which may be due to contagion, especially in that crowded portion of the city where the disease then existed. With this purpose in view, a site was selected just without the limits of the city, where a "pest house" was fitted up, and immediately patients from the infected district were conveyed to it. And here allow us to digress to mention a circumstance that occurred. The belief was very general, that if this infected block of buildings could be destroyed by fire, an end would be put to the fever. Accordingly, when it was ascertained that all of the patients had been removed, the buildings were discovered to be on fire—whether by design or accident it is not our province to enquire. Suffice it to say, that, in a short time, the whole block, numbering, we believe, fourteen tenements, lay a heap of smouldering ruins. But did this stop the ravages of disease? Alas! let the mournful sequel answer. But to return to our subject. Patients were removed to the ''pest house" in a large wagon. This mode of transport was found objectionable for several reasons, but chiefly from unpleasant sensations created in the public mind, and to great fatigue and exposure to the sick themselves.

Moreover, the locality fixed upon, as the epidemic spread, was found totally inadequate and was consequently abandoned. The epidemic was now rapidly spreading, so that it became necessary to obtain some more suitable location, with sufficient accommodations for a large and permanent hospital. Such a position was sought for by Mayor Woodis, and A. B. Cooke, Esq., then acting as agent for the Board of Health. After some difficulty in finding one, they at last rented the buildings at the "Julappi Race Course," which, with some improvements, were made to answer the purpose.

This place is distant from the city about three miles by land, and two by water, and although quite in a country atmosphere, great fears and opposition were manifested by the surrounding neighbours at the supposed danger from an introduction of yellow fever. These difficulties being obviated, and plans matured, transportation of the sick to this new location was commenced by means of lighters by water, and the hospital [7] thus established was placed in charge of Dr. Wm. M. Wilson, a young and skilful physician, who received the sufferers, and ministered every attention possible under such trying circumstances. Dr. Wilson is a member of the Howard Association; and it affords us much pleasure to bear testimony in favor of his excellent management, and successful treatment of the patients committed to his charge. The nurses and attendants, as well as the surviving patients who were under his care, we know would cordially unite with us in bestowing praise on one who so justly merits it. This establishment was maintained until the close of the season; and after the decease of the lamented Woodis, on the 26th of August, its entire care devolved on the Howard Association. About 150 patients were here treated and supported during their convalescence, which in some instances was not complete until the month of November. Many of these poor people were residents of "Barry's Row," and lost their all in the conflagration that destroyed those buildings. These we provided with homes for the balance of the year, and furnished the necessary furniture and provisions for house-keeping.

When the epidemic had extended its progress over the entire city, and it was found that numbers were pining for medical and other assistance which could not be obtained, the necessity of opening an hospital in the city, that all such sufferers might be concentrated at one point, was deemed indispensable. To accomplish this purpose the agents of the Board of Health held a consultation with Mr. Ferguson, President of the Howard Association upon this matter, and their deliberations were aided by Drs. Fenner and Beard, two volunteer physicians from New Orleans. These gentlemen were appointed a committee to select some building and supervise its arrangements. Obstacles of great embarrassment now presented themselves. The idea of accumulating the sick and dying in the centre of the city was seriously opposed, as likely to add to a panic, that had already risen to an alarming extent; yet the only available spot seemed to be the "Old City Hotel" but recently vacated by Mr. Walters. No alternative being left, this building was secured, and steps at once taken for removing old furniture, clearing away and cleaning out the rooms which demanded the constant occupation of ten or twelve laborers for two days. The furnishing stores as well as all others being closed in Norfolk, much difficulty resulted in procuring beds, cots, tables, and various other articles which were requisite for the equipment of an hospital. In this emergency application was immediately made to Baltimore, when the relief committee with that promptitude which characterized them, dispatched by the return steamer nearly all such furniture and stores as were needed for general use. It was found subsequently, that many small articles were needed; but these, through the kindness of Messrs. Schisano & Kerr, were readily procured in Norfolk. A cooking range was next procured from W. D. Roberts, Jr.,—cooks then being hired and [8] nurses secured, physicians were appointed to their respective wards, and the admittance of sick persons commenced on the 29th of August. For the management of this Institution we beg leave to refer to the Report of Dr. Fenner in another part of this report.

Whilst these various concerns devolved chiefly upon the association, it became also their duty to meet the demand for daily supplies, not only to the inmates of the hospital, but likewise to numerous persons who were lying sick in every portion of the city. For the accommodation of all such, it was found necessary to maintain within the hospital an apothecary shop, and this matter next received the attention of the association. By its aid, not only to hospital patients but to the community at large, a very convenient place for dispensing medicines was afforded, and this at a time when only one other drug store in Norfolk was left open. Very many articles of diet, together with such fruit as oranges and lemons, which were in great demand by the sick, could here be obtained; bread too after night was procurable here, when no other method remained for providing this necessary of life.

At one period the demand for coffins threatened to become a serious evil, and this fact being made known at the Navy Yard, a number of rough boxes (through the kindness of the late Commandant, Capt. McKeever) were made and generously sent for distribution. While attending to this matter as a part of the duty of the association, application was made to Baltimore and our sister city of Richmond for aid in this particular also, and we soon received from them such supplies as to afford decent burial to all, except five cases amongst the colored population. This small number it became necessary to commit to the earth in blankets, from an impossibility to procure the ordinary provision for sepulture at the required time.

In consequence of fatigue and exhaustion to all who ministered upon the sick as nurses, it was often necessary to employ a separate set of bands for the hospital drudgery work. A room being set apart for the reception of all bodies which had died during each day, these after due preparation for burial, were placed in coffins, which were subsequently brought down from an upper story to the ground floor at night, in order that no detention should occur to their ready removal early every morning. Speedy conveyance of all corpses to the cemetery was a subject of constant care to the association, while an oppressively hot season rendered it imperative that information of a death in any part of the city, should at once be reported, and immediate provision made for interment. So numerous, however, were the embarrassments for the accomplishment of this purpose, and in spite of every exertion, many hours often elapsed before dead bodies could be interred. This will not appear extraordinary when it is remembered that for consecutive days forty to fifty persons were perishing by fever, and on some days the number reached from 70 [9] to 80 deaths. This at a time when nearly all were worn down by fatigue and illness.

About the first of September, 1855, another institution was established about which a few words may not be inappropriate.

This is known as the "Howard Orphan Asylum." Whilst the epidemic continued to produce its worst ravages amongst the population of Norfolk, it often happened that entire families, with the exception of their youngest and most helpless members, were swept away. Some of these deplorable cases occurring just after the establishment of a city hospital, it was believed that one large apartment in it reserved for destitute children might answer all temporary purposes of shelter, and furnish at the same time a safe-guard from starvation. Accordingly a room was provided, competent nurses secured, and many admitted. It was soon found that all the space in the hospital would be required, whilst that intended for more youthful inmates could not contain their fast multiplying number.

With this burden the association felt itself rightly charged, and by the kind assistance of the Rev. Wm. Jackson, Rector of St. Paul's Church, a lecture room belonging to Christ Church congregation, on Freemason Street, was procured, and at once prepared with nurses, beds, and all the general necessaries for nursing the sick and maintaining the well. This institution during the month of September, contained between 75 and 100 children, and in order to insure every assistance which was at this time available, it received a daily visit from Dr. R. W. Rose, a member of the association, and also the almost constant attendance of Commander Jas. L. Henderson, of the U. S. Navy, another devoted and useful member of the association. Nothing can better exhibit the difficulty which was encountered in this undertaking, than the fact that many infants just from the breast were here collected, and these, in addition to every other want, it was necessary to provide with wet nurses. It was peculiarly fortunate that the services of such worthy and competent persons as Mr. and Mrs. Parker, of Charleston, S. C, were secured to take charge of the establishment, who devoted themselves in the most praiseworthy manner to all the little sufferers under their charge, and won for themselves the lasting respect and esteem of the members of the association. When it became necessary for them to return to their home in South Carolina, in the month of October, that deserving lady, Mrs. Martha A. White, (who still retains the position,) was chosen matron for the asylum. In justice to her faithful and judicious management, the most honorable mention is due on the part of the association, who feel that, in addition to the necessary duties imposed upon her, she has exercised ever that rarer and more delicate discipline belonging to a mother in superintendence of her own family. We would mention a fact which recently occurred in a case when it became necessary to speak of her qualifications. One of our most talented and highly esteemed members of the bar, in speaking of Mrs. White, said, [10] "he had known her from her childhood, and if all the qualifications of all of the ladies in Norfolk could have been made known, she of all others would doubtless have been selected for the very place she now so eminently fills." Praise from such a source is no ordinary compliment; and the association congratulates itself in having made such a judicious selection. A subsequent removal from Freemason to Church Street was effected for the orphans at the commencement of the year 1856, by renting a large and commodious dwelling, which better answered the purpose of an asylum. In this they remained until January, 1857, when a permanent home was secured for them by leasing for a term of years an extensive house with large grounds, suitably adapted in every respect to the purposes of such an institution, in the northern part of the city. At the present time there are remaining in the asylum about 45 children, girls and boys, varying in ages from 4 to 16 years.

A diminution in number has occurred by returning some to relations, and giving others to applicants who desired their adoption. In the discharge of this last named duty, a task of a peculiar and delicate nature has been imposed upon the association. Yet they feel assured that every responsibility has been met with fidelity, as the following brief explanation will evince.

Whenever requests were made (and they came chiefly from other parts of the Union) for children under our charge, we required undoubted testimonials of the character of the applicants from disinterested persons. In every instance where a child has been given up, good evidence was obtained as to the moral standing of those about to become its future parents, and it may be added with pleasure, that pecuniary benefit and advancement in social position seem likely to accrue wherever a removal abroad has taken place. It may not be out of place to remark that very many applications for children have been rejected, because we thought the condition of them would not be promoted; our governing principle being the interest and welfare of the child. The association has a fund sufficient to maintain and educate those that are now under its charge, and in every way prepare them for the pursuits of life, when they shall have reached the proper age. A competent young lady, under the supervision of Mrs. White, is employed as teacher. And it is gratifying to those in whose care the misfortunes of life have placed these bereft children, to know that they are making rapid progress, and seem alive to their own interest. In addition to this, several young gentlemen (members of the Christian Association of the city) have volunteered their services to establish there a Sabbath-school. And every Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock, they meet at the asylum for the purpose of discharging their self-imposed duties. We take this occasion to tender to them our acknowledgments for this favor, and to bear testimony to the efficient manner in which they discharge their duties. Of the children it becomes our pleasing duty to [11] say, that in every respect they have met our most sanguine expectations. We think we hazard nothing in saying that a more dutiful and well-behaved set of children cannot be found in any similar establishment in the country, and in none can brighter hopes of future usefulness be anticipated. There are several, both male and female, we hope (notwithstanding their humble condition) to see rise above every barrier, and become bright and shining lights in society. The happy government under which we live inspires this hope, and we pledge ourselves that nothing on our part shall be wanting for its accomplishment.

An apology seems scarcely requisite to be given to the public for an expenditure of its contributions in the establishment and aid of an Orphan Asylum. In some instances, funds reached our hands with express directions that they should go to the benefit of the orphans. But in a large majority of cases no such intimation was made. Yet it is believed the humane in every section of our country will look favourably upon such an expenditure. The association deems, that every appropriation of funds for the relief of sufferers by the late epidemic, is its destined employment, and certainly none deserve more profound sympathy and assistance than parentless and indigent children who are left to mourn over their bereavements caused by that dreadful pestilence. Although not originally intended for any such purpose, it is hoped that an Institution upon a permanent and liberal basis, and with special design towards rearing orphans, may yet prove one of the pleasing realities to be witnessed by the association.

In addition to the hospitals and Asylum, a brief notice may next be made concerning some other minor matters of business which were performed at different periods of the epidemic by members of the association. At a time when fears of contracting disease had seized upon all our population, it was apprehended that the captains and crews of the Baltimore steamers (then our only conveyances for provisions, &c.) might be in danger if their boats touched at their regular place of landing in Norfolk. To avoid such a risk, it became necessary to charter the steamer Princess Anne, to meet the Baltimore boats at some distance in the harbor below the city, and then receive the regular supply of goods, medicines, &c, destined for this community. This arrangement was fortunately very successful, and no interruption occurred in the constant receipt of such articles as were necessary to the support of life amongst our plague-stricken population. The storehouse of the "Baltimore Steam Packet Company" was now opened, and one of our associates (W. D. Seymour) appointed as its keeper and superintendent. No failure arose in the discharge of this troublesome duty which sometimes required day and also night labor, and by its faithful performance, an inestimable blessing was secured not only to the suffering sick, but likewise to every inhabitant of the city.

[12] So far as the distressing situation of things permitted, our association endeavoured to render comfortable the position of volunteer physicians and nurses, who had come to our aid. With this view, arrangements were made with the National Hotel (kept then by B. B. Walters, Esq., and the only hotel that was kept open during the pestilence) for their accommodation; and when necessity required the attendants to lodge permanently in the hospital, boarding and meals could here be obtained without leaving the establishment. Besides the employment of every public conveyance for medical gentlemen in their practice, requisitions from private citizens continued to bo made, so that vehicles, servants, and horses performed each their share of service during the season of need. Such is a brief recital of our affairs, without any remark concerning pecuniary expenditure which was involved in them. This point now remains to be briefly explained, especially since the list of disbursements furnishes only a short and concise statement of very important items.

Without the most active measures on the part of the association, it is difficult to say what troubles might have arisen from the delayed burial of the dead during the month of September, 1855. At this period, labor (and especially such as was demanded in the cemeteries) could not be procured except at very high rates. One fact in testimony of this will fully justify the assertion. For twenty-five extra hands who were occupied one week in digging graves five hundred dollars were paid as wages. The amount for funeral expenses, undertakers' bills, sundry small orders, &c, which stands as the first item in the list of expenses may be explained by mentioning that about 2,300 persons were buried by the association, they furnishing coffins, and everything else required for interment.

Board and expenses of volunteer physicians, druggists, and nurses were assumed and defrayed by the association, in consideration of the valuable and humane assistance derived from all these worthy individuals. Their number amounted to over 150 strangers, many of whom passed six weeks in Norfolk, and the larger proportion were furnished with hotel accommodations at the rate of two dollars per day. It frequently happened that persons who came from a distance, did so at their own expense— whenever this was the case, if it came to the knowledge of the association, reparation was made. The expenses of all leaving were likewise paid by the association.

In another part of this report mention was made of the severity of the winter of 1855—56. This may be here repeated in explanation of the very large amount that was expended for fuel. The cold season commenced in November, 1855, and it was remarkably severe during the months of January, February, and March, 1856. Poor and helpless persons abounded throughout the city to an extent hitherto unknown; and these it became necessary to supply with wood for nearly six months. Finding [13] it very inconvenient to get a supply at all times from the wood market, we contracted with Messrs. Ridley & Noe to furnish us with whatever quantity we might desire, at such places, in such quantities, and at such times as we might order. They faithfully performed their part of the contract, and delivered (at the doors of the recipients,) wood throughout the winter in accordance with orders from the directors of the association. Nearly two thousand cords, according to our books, were distributed during the fall and winter, and these facts, together with the high price of fuel, will account for the large amount under this item of our disbursements. Nor will this seem so very large, when we state a fact, which we presume is not generally known, that nearly five hundred families were dependent upon us for a large portion of their means of sustenance; and for nearly all the fuel they consumed until the month of April, 1856.

It is not intended that explanations shall be given respecting a long and varied series of charges placed to the account of the Orphan Asylum. Suffice it to say that this institution has been under the care of our association since Sept. 1855, and a large number of incumbents have required support. The concern has been managed in as economical a manner as the comfort of the orphans and a due regard for their welfare would allow. As to our management, we invite the scrutiny of all who feel an interest in the matter, being well convinced that we need not fear an investigation. For a full account of receipts, disbursements, &c, we invite attention to the annexed statement; and ask that forbearance, which we are sure will be readily awarded by a generous public.

In view of all that has been reported, and as a final subject of remark, an expression of thanks from the Howard Association becomes one of its most important and pleasing duties. A lasting debt of gratitude on our part, and also of the citizens of Norfolk generally, is due to the thousands of humane individuals and societies throughout the United States, and even in Europe, who generously gave to the relief of suffering humanity during the Epidemic of 1855.

Without any intention of overlooking the smallest gifts of charity which have been received, and now rendering its grateful acknowledgments for all such, the association deem that some special mention of names will not be regarded in the light of invidious distinction.

To the cities of New York and Philadelphia, for their very liberal and generous gifts in money, stores, physicians and nurses, upon the first call made for assistance, we now desire to render our sincere and lasting gratitude. Nor must it be forgotten that, on an early occasion, our fellow-countrymen of Boston, Salem, Newburyport, and other towns in Massachusetts, together with several of the principal cities and towns in the distant state of Maine, gave monied contributions, and their sincere sympathy to our suffering population. To the states of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut the same remark is true, and this gene- [14] rous spirit manifested on the part of our remote friends deserves on this special account particular commemoration and gratitude. New Jersey, with no intimate ties existing between her cities and Norfolk, came forward in the freest and most charitable manner when the distress of the place became known, as the very liberal amount acknowledged from her several cities and towns will show. We with pleasure accord the same meed of praise to Delaware, whose several towns of New Castle, Fort Delaware, and Smyrna, appear in the list of our benefactors. To Maryland and her chief city of Baltimore, with a variety of small towns scattered over the state, the sufferers during the late epidemic are perhaps in a more peculiar manner indebted, than to any other quarter of the nation. At a period of severest affliction and want, the regular steamer plying between Baltimore and Norfolk continued to bring large supplies of provisions for our people when money could not purchase them. This service was performed too, without the charge of the first dime not only for stores and provisions—but physicians, nurses, agents and all persons in any way connected with the Howard Association, were passed free of charge. The citizens of our own state throughout its whole extent, including almost every county and town, generously administered to our relief. To our sister cities of Richmond and Petersburg we are particularly indebted, for they proved themselves real friends, in our hour of need. Washington City and other portions of the District of Columbia contributed freely to our aid by remittances in money. And our fund was largely increased by remittances from sources near and distant over the entire extent of North Carolina; as were also our stores of provisions and clothing augmented from the same source. In addition to generous and bountiful sums from South Carolina, the association would here acknowledge the material and valuable assistance derived from that band of devoted and charitable physicians, nurses, and druggists of Charleston, who laboured with constancy upon the sick for a period of five weeks. Savannah and Augusta also deserve our sincere thanks for services of priceless worth, in sending to Norfolk skilful medical men, nurses, and pecuniary aid. To other portions of the State of Georgia are we likewise indebted for material aid. We acknowledge with grateful emotions valuable assistance of the same kind from the state of Alabama, and particularly from the city of Mobile, which sent as noble a band of philanthropists as any state or nation can boast of. Nor can we find words to express our thanks to the city of New Orleans, for the noble and generous manner in which she responded to our call for help. No sooner had our appeal gone forth, than skilful physicians and experienced nurses rushed to our aid. Being the first to volunteer assistance, they were amongst the last to leave us. Not only north and south, but to the remotest parts of the United States, one singular and noble feeling of sympathy extended itself. Florida, in her distant peninsula; Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio, sepa- [15] rated from us by space and mountains; Illinois and Missouri, still farther in the west, where the scourge of Yellow Fever has never yet penetrated,— all at our cry of distress, and in a spirit of exalted benevolence without a parallel, came to the rescue. Even to such an extraordinary degree did this universal charity arise, that a handsome donation from the citizens of Aspinwall on the American Isthmus, was received for distribution to the sufferers of this city. We deem it incumbent upon us to state that material aid was afforded by the President of the United States, and also by the Secretary of the Navy, together with other of our public officers. On some occasions remittances in money from naval officers and general crews of vessels, reached Norfolk, after having traversed one half the globe on their mission of relief to this place; and while alluding to aid which came from abroad, particular notice must be taken of our worthy and generous countryman, Mr. Peabody, who transmitted during the epidemic a large amount of money from London.

For all of the above gifts, and for all manifestations of sympathy in our behalf, the association now desire to acknowledge their debt of sincere and profound gratitude, sensible, at the same time, that no reward can be offered in return for such inestimable blessings as those bestowed upon the people of Norfolk. Whilst cherishing a warm emotion of thankfulness to our multiplied benefactors, we can only promise, that if ever it become our duty to lend assistance to the cause of suffering humanity, such an office will be performed with freer hands, and fuller hearts, from the remembrance of all that we have received ourselves.

We cannot close this report without referring to others who acted a noble part during the pestilence.

To her own immortal honor, (as well as for the honor of her sex, be it said,) that the first volunteer who offered to come to our aid as nurse, was Miss Annie M. Andrews, of Louisiana. She was at that time on a visit to her relations in Syracuse, New York; and contrary to their admonitions, and advice, left the comforts and enjoyments of their society, to take up her abode amongst the sick and dying in an hospital, and to breathe the pestilential air of an infected city. She shrank from no danger, she performed with cheerfulness and alacrity every duty assigned her; and few, very few, even amongst the sterner sex, can be found, who have undergone such fearful risks, and faced such imminent dangers. She has won for herself a name and a fame, that will be immortal. To her, in a peculiar manner, do we owe a debt of gratitude. It was no doubt her example, that induced many others to come. Her name will be handed down to posterity, side by side with that of Florence Nightingale, as examples of heroism, rarely equalled, never surpassed.

To Moore N. Falls, Esq., the humane and enterprising President of "the Baltimore Steam Packet Company" we are in a peculiar manner [16] indebted, for the many and invaluable services rendered by him. But for him, the supplies so lavishly bestowed upon us by a generous people, could not have reached us. And we here tender to him the homage of grateful hearts.

We are in like manner especially indebted to F. A. Levering, Esq., chairman, and other gentleman of the Baltimore Relief Committee, for their constant and unremitting attention to our necessities.

To the Relief Committee of Philadelphia, and particularly to their noble Chairman, Thomas Webster, Jr., all praise and thanks are due. Perhaps to him, more than to any other single individual, are we indebted for money and provisions. His name is as familiar "as household words," and will ever be cherished in grateful remembrance, not only by the members of the Howard Association, but by the citizens of Norfolk generally. Whilst naming these persons, we must not omit to mention the names of Dodomead, of Richmond, Paul, of Petersburg, Otey, of Lynchburg, Ingle, of Washington, Albright, of Lancaster, Hunt Macy & Soutter, of New York, together with the noble gentlemen who composed the several Relief Committees of Boston, Albany, Alexandria, Charleston, Columbia, Wilmington, N. C, Cincinnati, Lexington, Chicago, St. Louis, and all other cities who labored in our behalf, as being entitled to our especial thanks. In rendering this homage, we have doubtless omitted many names that ought to have been mentioned; —to all of such, we will say that we are equally grateful to them.

The summer and fall of 1855 has made an epoch in the history of Norfolk. Never perhaps in our country's history, was any place visited with such an awful pestilence, never did the list of mortality for the number of inhabitants rise to such a fearful height. A blow was given to the prosperity and advancement of our people, which will require time to efface. But it is not in this particular, that the most awful havoc was made. It was the immense sacrifice of human life, and the evils consequent thereby, that renders its recollection so painful. It is not our intention at this late day to attempt to harrow up feelings that have been soothed by time, or to picture any of the direful events that transpired during that reign of terror. Our object being simply to make honorable mention of some of the noble dead, who fell martyrs in the cause of suffering humanity.

It is generally known, that the lamented Hunter Woodis was the Mayor of the city when the plague began. We all know with what firmness and undaunted courage he met the foe. Every expedient in his power was resorted to, to arrest its progress. He laboured "in season and out of season" for the accomplishment of this end. But, alas! to no purpose. The fiat had gone forth: and nothing short of the power of "Him who ruleth" could arrest it. He did not, however, relax his energies, nor cease his efforts, until an arrow sped by the fatal archer pierced him; and he fell (if man ever did so fall) a martyr to humanity. In his death [17] the city lost an invaluable officer and citizen—society an estimable member—and his own family, one, the kindest of husbands, and most affectionate of fathers. It is useless for us to speak of William Boyd Ferguson, the first President of our association. The whole country is familiar with his name. And in him we find another remarkable instance of self-sacrifice in serving his fellow man. For six weeks were his labors incessant in the direful plague. He was early in the action, and after having borne the brunt of the battle, when the enemy was well nigh overcome, and about retiring from the conflict, when the hopes of his friends were high that he would prove victorious, a fatal shot struck him; and he too had to be taken to that cemetery, where he had but recently assisted in depositing the remains of so many of his fellow men.

The names of Roberts, Tunis, Wills, Garnett, and a host of other citizens, as well as those of the Rev. Mr. Jackson, the Rev. Mr. Dibbrell, and the Rev. Mr. Bagnall deserve honorable mention, and a more extended notice. But the space we allotted will not permit us to do so here.

The medical fraternity (both resident and volunteers) are worthy of all praise for their unremitting attention. We beg leave to refer to the proceedings of a meeting of the surviving physicians in another part of this report, where the many virtues of the dead are noticed in more befitting manner than we can do it.

We here tender our thanks to the committee of physicians who were appointed by the city authorities to ascertain the cause, &c, of the epidemic, for the privilege of including their very able report in ours, and we bespeak for it an attentive perusal, satisfied that it will prove to all an interesting document.

If our calamity was unparalleled for severity, so was the sympathy unequalled in generosity. Nor was this spontaneous burst of feeling confined to any part of the country. From every part of its boundless extent, North and South, East and West, did succor come. Truly may it be said, "That every mountain sent forth its rill,—every valley its stream, until an avalanche of supplies was with us."

With these few remarks, we now submit our report to the public, and especially to those who contributed to our relief.

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New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey
District of Columbia
North Carolina
South Carolina
U. S. Navy

[Page 43 monetary donations from non-residents of City of Baltimore]

[44] List of Provisions, Medicines, Clothing and Supplies of every description sent to Norfolk during the fever, 1855.

North Danvers, Mass.—A. Putnam, 60 pairs boys' shoes.

New York.—Turner & Brothers, 24 cases ginger wine; Blow & March, 5 boxes lemons; a baker, name unknown, 5 barrels pilot bread; Samuel Milbank, 12 barrels porter, 2 barrels crackers; Knickerbocker Ice Co., 106 tons, 13 cwt. 20 lb. ice; Unknown donor, a lot of wine.

Brooklyn, N. Y.—Brooklyn Female Employment Society, 3 packages children's clothing, value $300.

Perth Amboy, N. J.—Ladies of St. Peters Church, 1 package children's clothing.

Pottstown, Pa.—Ladies of, 1 package children's clothing, 50 articles.

Norristown, Pa.—Public School, 1 package children's clothing, 50 suits.

Philadelphia.—Walnut St. Public School, 100 garments for children; Powers & Weightman, 212 bottles Huxham's tinc. bark, 5 oz. cit. iron, 1 bag corks; Thomas Webster, Jr., Chairman of Philadelphia Relief Committee, large quantities (amounting to thousands of dollars,) of ice cream, lemons, oranges, tea, coffee, cheese, butter, lard, hams, tongues, bread, toasted bread, crackers, chickens, wine, brandy, ale, guava jelly, lime juice, mineral water, mustard, clothing, blankets, shoes, mattrasses, sponges, leeches, hay, medicines, chloride of lime, Castile soap, bay rum, arom. vinegar.

Baltimore.—F. A. Levering, Chairman of Baltimore Relief Committee, the following articles, valued about $26,000: 10,150 loaves bread, 245 barrels crackers, 650 bags corn meal, 229 barrels flour, 100 bushels oats, 100 bushels corn, 100 bushels chill feed, 30 bales hay, 275 bushels potatoes, 16 tierces rice, 58 bags and barrels coffee, 35 half chests tea, 104 tierces and barrels sugar, 28 barrels molasses, 49 boxes cheese, 175 boxes herrings, 107 kegs butter, 123 kegs lard, 20 barrels pork, 52 barrels beef, 45 casks shoulders, 2 casks hams, 140 sheep, 140 doz. chickens, 40 doz eggs, 47 sacks salt, 86 boxes candles, 54 boxes soap, 2 casks ale, 1 qr. cask wine, 8 casks porter, 20 baskets wine, 10 doz. jelly, 5 boxes each, broma and cocoa, 8 boxes each, chocolate and farina, 100 lbs. tapioca, 12 kegs tamarinds, 18 boxes mustard, 6 boxes oranges, 11 boxes lemons, 300 leeches, drugs, value $400, 10 reams paper, 20 bedsteads, 250 mattrasses, 250 cots, 325 pillows, 2 buggy wagons, 1 hearse, 260 coffins; Marston & Bro., 1 package bed pans, mugs, &c.; C. D. Shryock, 1 doz. bottles pure lemon juice; Mayor Hinks, 4 packages clothing for orphans; J. D. Mason & Co., 12 barrels wine biscuits; J. Malcolm & Co., 10 bags meal; G. W. Arnold, 400 loaves bread; White & Elder, 1 chest tea; J. Parkhurst, 1 chest tea; Jos. A. Thomas, for young ladies, 1 package clothing, 70 garments, for orphans; A " Little Girl," 1 package clothing for orphans; Unknown donor, a quantity of clothing for orphans; Unknown donor, 1 barrel crackers; Unknown donor, 25 coffins; Unknown donor, 2 boxes clothing for orphans; Ladies of Christ Church, 670 pieces clothing for orphans.

Washington.—Mrs. Almy, 1 package clothing for orphans; Geo. H. Jones, for the ladies, 2 packages clothing for orphans; J. H. Riley, for the citizens, 1 box, 2 bundles clothing for orphans; Mrs. Geo. H. Jones, 1 box clothing for orphans.

Alexandria, Va.—G. P. Wise, Mayor, 10 barrels soda biscuits, 10 barrels crackers, 10 barrels pilot bread, 10 boxes candles, 10 boxes soap, 20 barrels meal, 2 m. segars, 1 qr. cask wine, 1 qr. cask brandy.

Brandon. Va.—W. B. Harrison, at sundry times, provisions, butter, &c.

Charlestown, Va.—Isaac N. Carter, for the ladies, 1 package clothing.

Clarkesville, Va.—Citizens of, 17 barrels flour.

Clarke Co., Va.—Rev. J. D. Powell, for ladies and children of his Parish, 97 articles children's clothing; Mrs. Rebecca Smith, 1 package clothing.

Charles City Co., Va.—West & Gatewood, 1 m. ft. plank.

Hampton, Va.—Jos. Segar, 1 barrel flour.

Jefferson Co., Va.—Selena and Hannah Williams, 1 box, 40 garments clothing for the orphans.

Isle of Wight Co., Va.—Thomas, Adams A Co., for the citizens, 150 bushels meal, 132 hams, 8 barrels potatoes, 9 calves, 15 lambs and sheep, 163 doz. eggs, 54 lbs. butter, 1 barrel flour, 29 ducks, 65 chickens, 27 geese, 10 barrels apples, 4 barrels [45] pea nuts, 10 bushels dried apples, 5 baskets tomatoes, a lot of fruit, vegetables &c; Mr. James Scott, 1 box clothing; Womble & Wilson, 1 box containing 30 pieces bacon.

King and Queen Co., Va.—Alex. Fleet, for the citizens, 110 bushels meal, 5 barrels flour, 13 bushels corn, 27 sheep, 9 calves, 11 pigs, 20 doz. chickens, 12 doz.

Lynchburg, Va.—Ladies of 2nd. Presbyterian Church, 1 box clothing.

Petersburg, Va.—The citizens of Petersburg, crackers, bread, bacon, rice, chickens, &c, value $540.26; A lady, 1 package clothing; Bragg & Son, 2 boxes bread, 3 barrels crackers; H. C. Hardy, for a "few ladies," 3 boxes clothing.

Norfolk, Va.—Geo. Reid, 20 bushels meal.

Prince Edward Co., Va.—Unknown, 15 chickens.

Richmond, Va.— Clover Hill Coal Company, 2205 bushels coal; John Clendenning, 1 cask porter; C. W. Harwood, 1 barrel soda crackers; J. P. Ballard, 1 horse; Thos. Dodamead, for the citizens, 5 gallons brandy, 5 gallons port wine, 1 box lemons, 2 barrels bread, 2 horses, 2 casks porter, 24 barrels crackers, coffins, 50 bushels oats, 5 bales hay, 24 bales oats.

Sussex Co., Va.—A. Aldridge, lot of flour, meal, bacon, corn, chickens.

Southampton Co., Va.—J. Putlow, for the citizens, chickens, eggs, value $40; James Mygett, 28 bushels meal, 1 barrel vinegar.

Portsmouth, Va.—Seaboard & Roanoke Railroad Co., 900 lbs. bacon.

Botetourt Co., Va.—Winston & Powers, for citizens, 3 barrels flour, 3 barrels meal; Thos. Dodamead, for unknown donor, 2 barrels flour.

Gordansville, Va.—Mrs. Dr. Beale, 1 box clothing.

Plymouth, N. C.—Jos. Ramsay, 50 bushels meal; a citizen, provisions, valued at $45.94.

Margarettsville, N. C.—Genl. W. H. Whitehead, 20 bushels meal, 75 cords wood.

Edenton. N. C.—B. W. Hathaway, 19 bags, and 14 barrels meal.

Wilmington, N. C.—Citizens of, 2 casks rice.

Warren Co., N. C.—Young Ladies of Collegiate Institute, 1 box candy, 54 garments for orphans.

Wake Co., N. C.—Major W. F. Collins, 1 barrel flour; Revd. G. W. Thompson, 7 sacks flour.

Perquimons Co., N. C.—M. O. Jordan, for citizens, 42 bags meal.

Graham, N. C.—P. R. Harden, for citizens, 11 barrels, and 6 bags flour.

Lewisburg, N. C.—Joel Thomas, for citizens, 22 barrels flour.

Franklin Co., N. C.—Joel Thomas, for citizens, 12 barrels flour.

Murfreesboro, N. C.—Mrs. Worthington, a lot of preserves; J. W. Harrell, for citizens, 100 bushels meal, 279 chickens, 75 hams.

Northampton, Co., N. C.—Dr. Wm. Collins, for citizens, lot of meal, box provisions, box chickens.

Charleston, S. C.—G. N. Coffin, for Hebrew Ladies, 1 box containing clothing for orphans; Wm. C. Gatewood, 1 barrel limes.

Lexington, Ky.—Lexington Mustard Company, packages of mustard.

Gosport.—U. S. Navy Yard, coffins.


At a meeting of the Medical Faculty of the City of Norfolk, held on the evening of the 9th of April, 1856, at the Hall of the Aid Fire Company, on motion of Dr. R. B. Tunstall, Dr. D. M. Wright was called to the Chair, and Dr. E. D. Granier was appointed Secretary.

The Chairman then explained the object of the meeting in the following appropriate and touching remarks, a copy of which he kindly consented to give to the Secretary for publication, at the solicitation of all present:—

I am deeply sensible of the honor conferred upon me, in being called to preside over your deliberations on an occasion of such melancholy interest.

We have assembled, gentlemen, to commemorate the noble deeds, and pay a tribute of respect to the memory of those fearless and faithful spirits, who, sacrificing themselves on the altar of duty, fell nobly battling in the cause of humanity. Generous and faithful custodians of the public health, when the shrieks and dying groans in our sister city, announced the close approach of the invisible foe; whilst with wise precaution and sagacious foresight they admonished all who could to fly, themselves stood firm and steadfast at their post.

Soon the voice of the gallant Upshur is heard, proclaiming the enemy on our shore, and the deadly conflict begun.

The insatiate Archer, as if vengeful of the efforts made by our skillful and heroic friends to arrest his fatal progress, with partial aim directed his poisoned shafts against the ranks of our profession. Swift the fatal arrow sped, and one by one in rapid succession those dauntless heroes fell.

Amongst the earliest victims of the dread Destroyer, was the venerable Sylvester. Prudent, sagacious, and eminently practical, a discerning public had justly placed him in the front ranks of his profession.

He was quickly followed by his son, Dr. Richard Sylvester, a young gentleman of amiable disposition and fine attainments. He had but recently entered upon the stern and arduous duties of his profession, but his zeal and industry, with his superior natural abilities, gave promise of much future usefulness.

Him, next follows the brave Constable, than whom none contended with the enemy more manfully, or met death with greater philosophic calmness.

The kind and gentle Halson next falls. Pure in sentiment, cultivated in taste, with a mind enriched by years of study and contemplation, he was at once an honor to the profession, and an ornament to society.

[47] The intelligence of the death of the indefatigable Higgins is next received. Stern and resolute, yet kind and sympathetic, he seemed the man for the occasion, but the rugged oak is oft the first to yield to the furious storm.

Nor the vigor of youth, nor the maturity of manhood proved a barrier to the Parthian arrows of the Destroyer, and soon the youthful Briggs is numbered with the dead. They snapped the silken cords which else had drawn him to other and far happier scenes, and he yielded his life to a stern and manly sense of duty.

A few days only elapse, and again we are called to mourn the loss of another valued member of our fraternity. The death of Dr. Richard Tunstall filled every breast with profoundest grief. The duties which he had assumed, required not only a thorough and practical knowledge of his profession, but a degree of caution and assiduity which but few possess. Faithfully he discharged those duties, till exhausted by his incessant labors, he fell an easy victim of the disease.

The ranks of the profession had now been thinned by disease and death to less than one fourth of their original number. Still the pestilence raged with unabated fury. The Angel of Death still hovers over our devoted city, other victims are demanded, and he who first proclaimed the enemy's approach, he who battled so manfully, so successfully, and for a time single-handed—he, the gifted, gallant Upshur, falls.

Scarcely had the public mind recovered from the shock which the death of one so admired, so beloved had occasioned, when again the fountains of grief are burst asunder by the overwhelming intelligence of the death of Dr. Henry Selden.

Though comparatively a young man, Dr. Henry Selden had already acquired much professional distinction. Thoroughly educated, with a mind peculiarly adapted to his profession, with all those high moral qualities which command respect and secure esteem, and with manners peculiarly bland and attractive, it were difficult to imagine that such an one could fall short of eminence. In his death science mourns the loss of one of her most gifted and promising sons.

Such, gentlemen, is the lengthened list of those whose sad fate we are called on to deplore.

The heart swells with pride at the contemplation of their heroic conduct, and the annals of our profession will be enriched by a record of their names and their deeds.

But, gentlemen, whilst we mourn the loss of those whom a personal acquaintance, and long professional intercourse had endeared to us, we are not unmindful of those noble strangers, who in the hour of need, when the cry of distress was borne on every breeze, with a generous sympathy above all praise came promptly to our relief, and sacrificed their lives in their noble efforts to alleviate the sufferings of the afflicted.

A tear to their memory. Long, long will it remain embalmed in the hearts of a grateful community.

On motion of Dr. Moore, it was resolved that a committee of seven be appointed by the Chair to draft preamble and resolutions for the consideration of the meeting. The following gentlemen were appointed by the Chair, Drs. Moore, Selden, Cowdery, Tunstall, Campbell, Holmes and Marsh, who after a short recess reported the following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously adopted :—

Whereas it has pleased Almighty God, in his wisdom, to remove from among us a number of our professional brethren, in the midst of their usefulness, and while in the active discharge of duties of the most exalted and responsible character, displaying a heroism such as in no age or [48] country has ever been surpassed, if equalled; and as it is at all times proper to commemorate noble deeds whenever and wherever seen; and as a moral courage, a humane, charitable, disinterested and self-sacrificing spirit was displayed by our lamented professional brethren in the most appalling pestilence which history records, this conduct on their part being to us a just cause of professional pride;—and whereas the labor and exertions imposed upon them was an appeal to the profession throughout the country for assistance, which was cheerfully and heroically responded to by our professional brethren from abroad, who, losing sight of themselves in the distress which surrounded us, came to us in our time of need and devoted themselves at the peril of their lives to the great work of relieving and of ministering to the sick; Therefore, be it

Resolved, That while we bow in humble submission to the will of Him in whose hands are the issues of life and death—we lament and mourn with unfeigned sorrow, the loss to us and the country of some of the brightest ornaments our profession claimed, and that we will cherish the memory of Sylvester, Higgins, Halson, Selden, Upshur, Constable, Tunstall and Briggs of our own Physicians with feelings of professional pride, as well as the memory of Gebhart, Gooch, Thompson, Craycroft, Fliess, Booth, Howe, McDowell, Kierson, Blow, Handy, Smith, Jackson, De Berche, Schell, Obermuller, Berry, Dillard, Capry, and Schissinger, those noble spirits, who came to our assistance from abroad.

Resolved, That we will wear the usual badge of mourning for the period of thirty days, as a token of respect and affection for those of our profession who have fallen in the late epidemic.

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to wait upon the committee appointed by our fellow-citizens to have a monument erected to the memory of the Physicians, Ministers, Apothecaries, Nurses and others who fell in the late epidemic, and request that the monument be erected in or near some public thoroughfare, that it may be seen by us in our every day walks and by those who visit us, and that it may serve to keep in our minds their noble deeds and thereby stimulate us to emulate them.

Resolved, That we hereby offer our sincere and heartfelt sympathies to the families of those of our own and visiting Physicians who fell martyrs in the cause of humanity, and pray that He who "tempers the wind to the shorn lamb" will comfort them in their affliction with that comfort which He alone can give.

Resolved, That the Secretary of this meeting be requested to furnish the families of those Physicians who fell in the late epidemic with a copy of these resolutions with such remarks as he may deem proper.

On motion of Dr. Tunstall the following resolution was adopted :—

Resolved, That our City Councils be and are hereby requested to vote some testimonial or token to those Physicians, Apothecaries, Nurses and others who visited us and gave us their services in the recent epidemic, and whose lives were spared as an acknowledg-ment of their valuable services and heroic conduct.

Resolved, That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to the Chairman and Secretary.

Resolved, That the thanks of this meeting be tendered to the Aid Fire Company for the use of their Hall.

Resolved, That the city papers be requested to publish the proceedings of this meeting.

D. M. WRIGHT, M. D., Chairman.
E. D. Granier, M. D., Secretary


Norfolk, Va., Sept. 14, 1855.
Mr. W. B. Ferguson, President Howard Association,
Dr. W. J. Moore, President Board of Health,
Mr. A. B. Cooke, Assistant to the Mayor of Norfolk.

Being about to depart from your afflicted city, I beg leave before going to surrender the trust you have confided to me in connection with my friend, Dr. Cornelius Beard, of New Orleans. It will be recollected that on the 27th of August last, Dr. B. and myself were invited to attend a joint meeting of your respective bodies, which was called for the purpose of taking into consideration the sanitary condition of your city, and the best means of affording relief to its plague-stricken inhabitants. It was resolved to establish a hospital in a central part of the city, for the reception of such persons of all classes as could not properly be attended to at their homes, and a committee was appointed to carry this resolution into effect as speedily as possible. Dr. B. and myself were requested to co-operate with that committee in the selection of a suitable building for a hospital, and to give directions for its organization, and to take charge of its medical management. These duties have been performed to the best of our abilities, and you now have in the heart of your city a hospital completely equipped, that will compare favorably, in respect to comfort and medical attendance, with any in the country. As Dr. Beard was compelled to leave you a short time since, it devolves upon me to lay before you a report on the medical management of that institution up to the present time.

The new Howard Infirmary was opened for the reception of patients on the 29th of August, and 15 were admitted the first day. From that time up to 14th September there have been admitted

Whites, .... 143
Colored, .... 50
Total, .........193

Discharged, .... 78

Died, White, ....66
Colored, ............ 3
Total, ...............69

78+69 =147

Remaining at this date,
White, ........31
Colored, .... 15
Total, .........46

The rate of mortality has been only 35 3/4 per cent., or about one in five [50] of the admissions, and will compare most favorably with that attained by any hospital in the world in Yellow Fever Epidemics. You will thus observe that your new infirmary, so hastily gotten up and put in operation, has produced the most gratifying result. It is proper for me to state that very soon after the infirmary was opened, there arrived in your city experienced and skillful physicians from cities where yellow fever frequently prevails, to whom wards were given as fast as they were fitted up, with unlimited control of the same. The gentlemen who first entered on duty were Dr. Reed, of Savannah, Dr. Huger, of Charleston, and Dr. Campbell, of New Orleans; but the latter having asked to be relieved, on account of pressing engagements outside, his wards were assigned to Dr. R. Miller, of Mobile. Dr. Huger has since left, and his wards have been given to Dr. Skrine, of Charleston. The only ward reserved to myself were some in the 4th story and the negro department, in the attendance upon which I have been ably assisted by my young friend, Dr. Bignon, of Augusta, Ga. It will thus appear that you are chiefly indebted to the above named gentlemen for the gratifying results of your infirmary.

I cannot omit this occasion to mention the important services that have been rendered in the internal affairs of the hospital by Dr. Charles Robertson, late of the British Navy in the West Indies, Mr. Henry Myers, of Richmond, and a number of medical students, whose names I cannot recall. Such, gentlemen, is a crude and hasty report of the noble institution which, in the day of calamity, was called into existence by your fiat.

To-morrow I return to my home in the distant south, where long since I have learned "to feel another's woe." In taking leave, I beg to assure you that amid all the scenes of sorrow and pain I have witnessed in your devoted city, I have ever found a solace in the urbanity of your resident physicians, the gratitude invariably displayed by the sufferers of the epidemic, and the pleasing companionship of all your fellow citizens with whom I have become acquainted. I have the honor to be, with high regard,

Your obedient servant,
[Signed.] E. D. FENNER, M. D.


The following letter was addressed to each of the volunteer physicians; and we take pleasure in publishing their respective replies.

Office of Howard Association,
Norfolk, May 25th, 1856.

My Dear Sir:—At a recent meeting of the members of the Howard Association, a resolution was adopted and a committee appointed, consisting of A. B, Cooke, R. W. Bowden, James G. Pollard, Geo. R. Drummond, and Solomon Cherry, to procure Gold Medals, with suitable devices, to be presented to the volunteer physicians who came to our relief during the terrible pestilence of 1855.

It is my pleasing duty as the organ of the Association, to present the accompanying Medal.

It is a slight testimonial of our esteem for the invaluable services rendered by you.

The designs are taken from the Holy Scriptures, and are appropriate to the occasion. "Faith, Hope, and Charity" on one side, and the "Good Samaritan" on the other.

This will doubtless awaken painful emotions: but will at the same time enkindle pleasing recollections. The noble bearing of the medical fraternity throughout those trying times, is worthy of the highest commendation. It extorts from a selfish and too often ungrateful world, a meed of praise. The occasion brought together congenial spirits from various parts of our country, actuated by the same noble impulses, who met as strangers; but parted friends. Being engaged in the same holy calling, attachments were formed which will be as lasting as life.

I need not remind you of the dangers you encountered. The melancholy fate of so many brave volunteers fully attests that fact. In vain will you search the pages of modern history for a parallel. Never was greater heroism displayed, or truer philanthropy manifested. With none of the "pride, pomp and circumstance of war" to stimulate and excite to deeds of noble daring, you unflinchingly met a foe, more insidious, more dangerous, more fatal, than is recorded of the most sanguinary battle field.

It is not my intention to flatter, and I but give expression to sentiments which are universal, when I say, you and your noble compeers have conferred honor on your profession, and won for yourselves imperishable renown.

I hope this Medal will be received with as much pleasure as it is given.

Allow me in behalf of those I represent, as well as for myself, to express our best wishes for your health, happiness and prosperity.

I have the honor to be, with much respect and esteem,

Your obedient servant,

[52] New Orleans, July 7th, 1856. Solomon Cherry, Esq.
Dear Sir:—I have received from you as corresponding secretary of the Howard Association of Norfolk your letter of May 25th, with the accompanying gold medal, presented to me as one of the volunteer physicians in the epidemic of 1855. I thank you personally for the tone of your sentiments, and am proud of the opportunity that enabled me to serve you as one of a profession devoted to the study and relief of human maladies under all hazards and sacrifices. I honor you for this enduring testimonial, and am happy to express my unqualified approbation of the spirit and mode in which it has been conceived and executed.
With respect and esteem, yours, WARREN STONE.

New Orleans, June 14, 1856.
Mr Dear Sir:—I have to acknowledge receipt of your kind favors of the 28th and 25th ultimo, the former accompanied by five Gold Medals, presented by the Howard Association of Norfolk, to Drs. Thos. Peniston, W. Stone, McFarlane, C. Beard, and myself, as tokens of gratitude on the part of that Association for services rendered by us to the citizens of Norfolk, during the terrible pestilence which recently swept over that, devoted city. I shall ever preserve this medal as a memento of harrowing scenes of distress, and of the chivalric bearing of the profession to which I have the honor to belong, when contending with "the pestilence that walketh in darkness and destroyeth at noonday."

If I should ever visit Norfolk again, I hope I shall have the pleasure of seeing a suitable monument erected to your own medical heroes who so nobly fell in that dreadful conflict with the unseen enemy.

Your honorable and benevolent Association may rest assured that on my part, this medal is "received with as much pleasure as it is given" by you.

Thanking you for the kind and flattering expressions with which you have conveyed this testimonial of gratitude, and hoping that your city may never again be visited by such a pestilence as that of 1855, I have the honor to subscribe myself,
Your friend, &c, E. D. FENNER.
To Solomon Cherry, Cor. Sec. of Howard Association of Norfolk, Va.

New Orleans, July 9th, 1856.
Mr. Solomon Cherry, Cor. Sec. of Howard Association of Norfolk, Va.
My Dear Sir:—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 25th of May ult., and the accompanying gold medal. Receive my thanks for these marks of the consideration of the distinguished society which you represent, and believe me they are accepted in the same spirit in which they are given.
I remain, dear sir, with much respect,
Your obedient servant,

New Orleans, June 22d, 1856.
Messrs. A. B. Cooke, R. W. Bowden, James G. Pollard, George R. Drummond, and Solomon Cherry, Committee.
Gentlemen:—The beautiful medal, together with the very flattering appreciation of my feeble services in behalf of the sick during the prevalence of the fever in your city last summer, has been duly received.

[53] Such testimonials of esteem from the noble Association whose indefatigable exertions accomplished so much good on that trying occasion, and without which the best directed medical attendance could have been but of little avail, cannot but be highly agreeable to those who are the recipients.

While returning you, in the name of my profession, my unfeigned thanks for the same, allow me, through you, to acknowledge my indebtedness personally to the citizens of Norfolk, for the many marks of attention and regard shown me, both during and since my short residence among them. Hoping that you may never again suffer a like affliction, I remain, gentlemen, with many kind wishes for your prosperity and happiness individually, Very sincerely your friend, and obedient servant,

New Orleans, June 26th, 1856.
Dear Sir:—On my return home yesterday, after an absence of several weeks from the city, I received your kind letter, dated 25th of May, informing me, in behalf of the Howard Association of Norfolk, of the adoption of a resolution by them to present gold medals to the volunteer physicians who visited your city during the epidemic of 1855; at the same time, I received, through Adams' Express, the medal awarded to me by the Association. I accept, with feelings of gratification, this complimentary token of appreciation of my services.

When I learned that yellow fever had become epidemic in Norfolk, and that the number of cases was so great as to render it impossible for the resident physicians there to attend to all, I felt that philanthropy demanded assistance from the medical profession abroad; and to the profession in southern cities, where this terrible disease so often prevails; where physicians have opportunities, not elsewhere afforded, of becoming familiar with its character and the best manner of treating it, and where, by acclimation they acquire immunity from the disease, and can, therefore, with greater confidence, meet and combat this dread enemy of man—to these physicians it seemed to me, that this demand was most imperatively addressed.

I felt, therefore, that as I had seen much of yellow fever, had once had an attack of the disease, and being on a short sojourn in the neighboring city of Baltimore, I would be recreant to the highest and holiest duty of a physician, a Christian and philanthropist, if I refused to obey this demand, to visit your afflicted city and contribute my efforts, however feeble, to the relief of sufferers from the pestilence.

I went, actuated only by charity, I expected and desired no other reward but the pleasing consciousness of having discharged my duty, and there are, I doubt not, persons now in Norfolk and also at Point Washington who know that I refused pecuniary compensation when generously offered by individuals whom I attended.

Be pleased, dear sir, to present to the Howard Association my best wishes for success in their noble cause, and accept for yourself the assurance of my sincere regard.
To Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec, Howard Association, Norfolk, Va.

New Orleans, June 28th, 1856.
Respected Sir:—I have received through your kind intervention a beautiful and valuable gold medal, adorned with chaste and descriptive devices, from the Howard Association of Norfolk, Virginia.

[54] Viewing this precious and interesting memento as an acknowledgment of services rendered during the melancholy visitation which desolated your refined and hospitable city, I feel sensibly how little I merit such a distinguished mark of approbation.

I arrived in Norfolk at a late period of the epidemic, and found the field occupied by the generous and devoted spirits who had hurried thither from almost every quarter of the United States; and comparing my imperfect desire to be useful with the constant, untiring, laborious, devoted and successful exertions of Drs. Ravenel, Huger, and others, of Charleston, Drs. Reed, Dunn, and Donaldson, of Savannah, Dr. Miller, of Mobile, and the host of medical philanthropists and kindred spirits in every department from other States and cities, my feeble and imperfect services shrink into insignificance; and the only consolation left me is the reflection that our objects and motives were the same, "to stay, so far as human means were adequate, the ravages of the disease, to bind up the broken hearted, and comfort those that mourned."

It would seem that from the most dire calamities which can afflict our species, some gleam of consolation can still be extracted.

The epidemics of recent years have developed a new and holy principle in the human heart—one, I am proud to say, peculiar to our own age and country.

In all former ages, and in every other country where a desolating epidemic prevailed, "Save himself who can," has been the cry, and all who could have made their escape; but it has been reserved for our age and country, on the announcement of a deadly pestilence in a distant city, to see hundreds hurrying to the seat of desolation, to encourage and inspire the despondent, and alleviate the sufferings of the afflicted.

With such examples of disinterested benevolence before us, may we not be permitted to feel a glow of honest pride in our country, which has initiated such a divine system; and with such exhibitions of individual devotion and benevolence, may we not be indulged in feelings of admiration of our race? True it is, these examples of devotion and benevolence have so far been principally confined to the southern portions of our country, but how long will it be before the destroying angel shall flap his sable wings over the north?

The extraordinary movements of yellow fever, for the last few years, have awakened a feeling of the most profound solicitude on this subject. In former years yellow fever prevailed as far north as Canada; and New York and Philadelphia were not unfrequently the victims of its deadly ravages; but for the last thirty or forty years it has gradually receded from the scenes of its former visitations, and has steadily approached the tropical latitudes, until a few years since, when Rio Janeiro was overwhelmed and almost depopulated by its new and tremendous ravages.

Mankind then, while sympathising with her afflicted inhabitants, flattered themselves that it had at length found a congenial and intertropical home, and that it had left our northern regions forever. But alas for the imperfection of human calculation! from that very period the fearful disease began to regurgitate, and is now as steadily and implacably travelling northward as it formerly did in an opposite direction.

Will not the day soon arrive when the puissant and overbearing north will call on the maligned and injured south for succor?

Boston, New York and Philadelphia are mighty cities, and their prosperity has inflated them with pride and arrogance; but should the divine edict go forth, should the pestilence which walketh in darkness overtake them, will physicians conversant with the disease, and nurses thoroughly instructed as to the proper management of the dire malady, take their [55] lives in their hands and hasten from the south to the relief of those who have been so long toiling for the overthrow of our institutions, and predicting our ruin? or will the boasted power of these mighty metropolises be annihilated, and their astounded inhabitants be scattered as with the besom of destruction?

These are questions which time alone can answer, but they may contribute in their sphere to demonstrate the propriety of cultivating peace, good-will and union between the various portions of our country.

In relation to your own inestimable services in Norfolk, gentlemen, permit me to remark, that language fails me to express my admiration of the heroic devotion which stimulated you to seek out and relieve the stricken sons and daughters of affliction, at the imminent peril of your own lives: nor does it detract from the merit of your noble deeds, that they were performed in behalf of your friends, neighbors, and fellow-citizens; for of all the unnatural acts which blacken the melancholy records of pestilence, none stands so conspicuously pre-eminent as the inhuman system of non intercourse between the sick and well (the deadly fruit of the Upas tree of contagion). But you, gentlemen, casting behind at the same time the traditionary speculations of bigoted old fogyism—contagion—as well as the fear of death, and animated only by the holy inspirations of philanthropy, dedicated yourselves day and night to the mitigation of human misery and the preservation of human life.

Yellow fever is formidable in an exactly reverse ratio to its frequency, and while those delegations who went to Norfolk from quarters periodically visited by yellow fever, are entitled to all honor for their humanity and benevolence in leaving their homes to contribute to the welfare of your citizens, yet they did so in comparative security, not being liable to the disease. But you, gentlemen of the Howard Association of Norfolk, rendered your aid at the imminent peril of your lives, for you were all liable at any moment to be swept away by the dread pestilence which you were combating. May your glorious deeds be appreciated and rewarded!

Indeed, you may be said to have already received that portion of your reward which is said to be inseparable from virtuous actions, for exclusive of the meed of universal approbation, and the fiat, "Well done good and faithful public servants," you have by your very heroism, rendered yourselves secure from danger hereafter, for as genuine yellow fever never assails the same individual again, should you ever be again called upon to minister to the sick and suffering under similar circumstances, you can do so with a feeling of perfect impunity.

For the voluntary testimonial which you have so kindly bestowed upon me, I regard it, and shall preserve it, less as an indication of my demerits than of your generosity—as a pleasing but melancholy memento of the circumstances which brought me into contact with a band of pure philanthropists—and as a stimulus to the future performance of the duties of humanity.

With feelings of the most sincere regard, I remain, sir,
Yours, respectfully,
To Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. of the Norfolk Howard Association.

Savannah, June 19th, 1856.
Solomon Cherry, Esq.
Dear Sir :—The medals forwarded by you from the Howard Association of Norfolk have been received. We feel gratified with this testimonial, for it is pleasing to know that our efforts to aid fellow-beings in distress have been appreciated. Be assured that the medals will be cherished by [56] us as mementoes of our connection with you, in contending with the dreadful pestilence that ravaged your fair city last summer. Trusting that your city will be spared from such terrible dispensations of the divine will,
We remain yours truly,

Savannah, Ga., June 13th, 1856.
Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. Howard Association, Norfolk, Va.
My Dear Sir:—Your favor of the 25th May, accompanying medal from the Howard Association of Norfolk, for my son, Dr. James E. Godfrey, was received a few days since. My son being absent in Europe for the purpose of prosecuting the study of his profession, I take this occasion to acknowledge the receipt of the medal and your kind favor, and in his behalf return my sincere thanks to the Association of which you are the Corresponding Secretary, for this mark of respect for him, and appreciation of his services to the afflicted citizens of Norfolk during the prevalence of the unprecedented scourge visited upon them during the last summer.

He yielded to the promptings of a generous nature in offering his services to the citizens of Norfolk at that time; and having passed through a similar visitation at his own home the season previous, was prepared to sympathise with your people under like circumstances. Be assured, my dear sir, the consciousness of having ministered to his suffering countrymen, and the hope that his efforts in their behalf were not altogether fruitless, was ample reward for the risk he ran and the labor he underwent.

This beautiful, tasteful, and altogether appropriate memento of the Association to him, will always be regarded and cherished with the warmest gratitude of his heart. Be kind enough to assure your noble Association of his sincere appreciation of this act of their kindness to him, and accept for yourself his warmest thanks personally for the kind manner in which it has been delivered.

Hoping your people may ever be spared such another calamity, and that they may enjoy uninterrupted health and happiness,
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Augusta, Ga. June 4th, 1856.
Mr. Solomon Cherry, Cor. Sec. Howard Association, Norfolk, Va.
Mr Dear Sir:—It affords me much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your kind favor of the 25th May, accompanied by a beautiful gold medal, presented through you by the Howard Association of Norfolk, Va. I return you, sir, and through you the Howard Association, my sincere and heartfelt thanks, for the very kind and flattering manner in which you have been pleased to notice my feeble services during my stay in Norfolk, and now, sir, allow me to express my best wishes for the health and prosperity of your beautiful city; may many years elapse ere it is again visited by so terrible a pestilence as that of 1855.

I have the honor to be, with much respect and esteem,
Your obedient servant,

[57] Charleston, June 5th, 1856.
My Dear Sir:—I received yesterday the medal presented to me by the Howard Association of Norfolk, and the very handsome letter, in which you communicate to me the act of the Association.

This recognition of the services which we were enabled to render to the sufferers of your city is, of course, most gratifying to the feelings of all who receive it. For myself, I have to tender my most respectful thanks to the Howard Association for this testimonial of esteem, and to yourself, sir, for the very flattering terms in which you have expressed their sentiments.
I am, sir, very respectfully,
Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec, Howard Association.

Charleston, S. C, June 3rd, 1856.
My Dear Sir:—I have the honor to acknowledge your letter of the 25th May, and to express to you the very deep impression made on my mind by the "action" of the Howard Association. That beautiful medal, presented in your behalf, by our Mr. Ravenel, should be my incentive and my reward in other trials. And let me ask you to be assured, that it is received, as it is offered, in a spirit of fraternal sympathy, with recollections which time will not obliterate; that it will be cherished as a precious gift, warm from the hearts of those, with whom it was our privilege to suffer! and as a touching and approving "testimonial," from men bravely and piously associated together, for the highest purposes that "humanity" can dictate.

My poor services have been estimated far beyond their value, but I am quite certain that my colleagues would again beckon me to your side in any future trouble, and that we would endeavour to deserve the commendation you have so generously bestowed.
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant,
W. H. HUGER, M. D.
To Solomon Cherry, Esq., Howard Association, Norfolk.

Charleston, June 14th.
Dear Sir:—I much regret that absence and ill health has prevented me from an earlier acknowledgment of your favor of the 25th ult, received through the hands of Mr. Ravenel of this city, to whom it was entrusted for delivery.

You will be kind enough to tender my acknowledgments to the gentlemen whom you represent, for the handsome testimonial accompanying the above, and will receive my thanks for the very flattering manner in which you have been pleased to refer to the circumstances eliciting them.

A simple act of duty prompted by their necessities, and the call which reached us from a suffering and afflicted neighbor, renders superfluous any other construction, than that implied by a natural response, and is amply compensated by the pleasure arising from the discharge of a common obligation, as morally imperative as I would believe it to be both generally acknowledged and conceded.

While regretting its necessity, I am happy in the opportunity which presented of serving you, and sincerely hope, that from the hearts of your afflicted people the veil of sorrow may soon be lifted up, and the past sad and eventful epoch in the history of your city remain a solitary exception to that of its future health and prosperity.

I cordially reciprocrate with you and each member of the Association in the kindly sentiments expressed, and in the hope of renewing under [58] more favourable auspices an acquaintance, however sad, not unmingled by agreeable associations, beg leave to subscribe myself with much respect and esteem,
Yours truly,
To Solomon Cheury, Esq., Cor. Sec. of the Howard Association, Norfolk. Va.

Baltimore, June 23rd, 1856.
To Solomon Cherry, Esq., Sec. of Howard Association, Norfolk, Va.
My Dear Sir:—Absence from home, on a tour to the west, prevented me acknowledging at an earlier date, the receipt of the very chaste and beautiful testimonial, which your Association has kindly thought fit to award me in consideration of my humble services during the fatal epidemic of the past year. The gift itself, as well as the complimentary letter accompanying it, has impressed me most sensibly, and I would respectfully beg of you to present my grateful thanks to the members of the Association for this gracious manifestation of their remembrance and esteem.

Cherishing a lively recollection of your own politeness on this as well as on former occasions, I remain, my dear sir,
Most respectfully and truly yours,

Philadelphia, 3rd June, 1856.
To Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. of the Howard Association, Norfolk Va.
My Dear Sir:—I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 25th ultimo, on behalf of the "Howard Association," together with the accompanying "gold medal'' to which it refers.

For the partial and flattering terms in which you are pleased to speak of my professional sojourn during the visitation of the epidemic last summer, I offer my warm thanks; and I accept with pleasure the beautiful and appropriate testimonial by which you desire to commemorate it.

It needed no enlarged philanthropy to respond with alacrity to that condition of severe and prolonged suffering, which characterized Norfolk and its vicinity in the summer of 1855. It might have been answered by the principle of universal charity, from any people, and from any quarter. To us it came with the irresistible appeal of common country, of common kindred, and of neighborhood.

But these were not the only motives impelling to afford such succor as the emergency required. Rightly considered, the profession of medicine calls upon all who adopt it, to relinquish, in a certain degree, the ordinary claims of individual advantages; and there exists upon its disciples the obligation of being ever ready to minister to the wants of sickness and of infirmity.

To the honorable warmth, then, of your gratitude, rather than to the merit of the physician, must be ascribed the spirit and the language of your letter.

Be assured that both it, and the elegant token which it illustrates, must be ever dear to the heart and to the memory of, Very respectfully, and sincerely yours, &c,

New York, May 31, 1856.
S. Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. of Howard Association of Norfolk, Va.
My Dear Sir:—I have before me your kind letter which I have read [59] over and over again. The emotions it has awakened in my breast are so great that it deprives me of the power of finding adequate expression as a suitable answer to your epistle.

I acknowledge the receipt of the gold medal, the Association has been kind to send me, and I beg of you to assure them, that I look upon it as the most sacred gift and badge of honor they could bestow on us, and that I feel prouder of this distinction, than of all the glittering crosses of honor monarchical Europe could have heaped on us.

Please to receive my sincere and heartfelt thanks, and my everlasting good wishes for the future welfare of the city of Norfolk and your noble institution, the Howard Association. I have the honor to be,
Your respectful servant,

Richmond, June 4th, 1856.
Messrs. Solomon Cherry, and others of the Howard Association of Norfolk, Va.
Your very elegant and highly complimentary letter of the 25th, announcing that you had sent to me a medal, was received, together with the medal. It is truly beautiful and gotten up with taste, elegance, and skill, commensurate with the magnanimity of your Association. Merely to say that it was received with pleasure, would be giving but a feeble expression to the intense gratification it conferred, and doing as much injustice to my own feelings as to the object for which it was bestowed. Its value can only be measured by the knowledge of its being merited, and that the public have thus decided gives me infinite pleasure. It does indeed awaken emotions of a painful nature, but the consciousness of duty performed and sufferings alleviated is mingled with those, until the pain is closely allied to pleasure.

I think with sadness of my noble compeers. They are fallen;—the angel of death in his ruthless flight flapped his dark wings over their devoted heads, and with his icy fingers feeling among the heart-strings, snapped the vital chord even while it was vibrating with the deepest love and most entire self-sacrifice. They are fallen, but they receive a far higher merit of honor than is in the power of man to bestow.

Please, gentlemen, accept my thanks and allow me the honor to subscribe myself, with great respect, Your most obedient servant,

Norfolk, May 28th, 1856.
Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. of the Howard Association of Norfolk.
My Dear Sir:—I have just received the Medal which is presented to me by the Howard Association of Norfolk, as a remembrance for my services during the epidemic of 1855. Please tender to your worthy society my sincere thanks for their elegant and appropriate present, mentioning also that their gift will be cherished by me not less for its own value than for a multitude of friendly associations growing out of the troubles of last summer. To yourself, I can only repeat my profound sense of obligation for all the distinguished expressions conveyed in your letter, yet I lament to think that my efforts in behalf of this suffering community little deserve that high praise which you have been pleased to bestow upon them. My earnest hope for the future is, that Norfolk may be spared from pestilence, that your valuable and philanthropic society may enjoy increased prosperity, and that your excellent [60] name will be preserved hereafter as a conspicuous benefactor of this city and people during its seasonof severest trial.

Norfolk, Va., May 28th, 1856.
Esteemed Gentlemen of the Howard Association of Norfolk:
I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your chaste and beautiful medal, in remembrance of my services to the community of Norfolk, during the late unprecedented epidemic. This memorial with its accompanying friendly and complimentary letter, will ever be cherished by me, as an emblem of your intellectual, benevolent, and philanthropic Association.

Gentlemen, the occasion forcibly revives agreeable, though melancholy, recollections of those who labored with us in our fearful duty, and who fell in the performance of that duty; agreeable from the recollections of their many virtues and from the noble cause in which they fell, melancholy from the reflection that any exigency should arise which should require such a noble sacrifice. Your obedient servant,

Norfolk, Va., May 28th, 1856.
Solomon Cherry, Esq.,
Dear Sir:—The gold medal, which your noble Association has seen fit to award me for services rendered to your community during the epidemic of 1855, has been duly received; likewise your kind favor in reference to same. Allow me to express, through you, to your society, (which you represent,) my sincere thanks for their handsome present; as well as their appreciation of my feeble efforts on that fearful occasion.

For yourself, Sir, be pleased to accept my acknowledgment, for the courteous manner in which you have made the presentation, and fulfilled the duty, intrusted to your care. In conclusion, let me wish your Association "God speed" in its mission of mercy; and its members, individually and collectively, that health and happiness which they so richly merit. Most respectfully, I remain your obedient servant,
To Solomon Cherry, Cor. Sec. of Howard Association of Norfolk.

Norfolk, May 29th, 1856.
Mr. Solomon Cherry, Cor. Sec. of Howard Association.
Sir:—With feelings of no ordinary (yet melancholy) pleasure, I acknowledge the receiptof the very beautiful medal, with the accompanying letter, which your noble Association have so kindly presented.

Believe me, both will be ever cherished. With sincere respect and heart-felt wishes for the happiness of each member of the Howard Association of the city of Norfolk, I remain yours,

To the Members of the Howard Association of Norfolk.
Gentlemen:—In acknowledging the receiptof the gold medal presented by you to me as one of the volunteer physicians who came to your relief during the terrible pestilence of 1855, allow me to express to you my sincere and grateful thanks for this testimony of your appreciation of my services during that time of sickness and death.

The medical fraternity are necessarily exposed to constant dangers and [61] trials, which they ever cheerfully encounter; but there are times, like that in which we were co-laborers with you, when every beat of the heart is made in sympathy with the extraordinary afflictions of our fellow-citizens, and our professional concern for the sick and dying is awfully intensified by the suddenness and violence of their attacks, appealing with dreadful anguish to every emotion that can stir the heart in behalf of suffering humanity, and exciting to almost super-human efforts to stay the hand of the destroyer, and to smooth the passage of the dying through "the valley of the shadow of death."

At such times every personal consideration must give way to philanthropy, and self be merged into the unity of humanity; but it is consoling to feel that such services to the brotherhood of man carry with them a reward, richer and dearer than the "gold of Ophir;" and in reviewing my past labors in your city during the pestilence, I shall ever have the satisfaction of feeling that they were not altogether in vain.

Although the medal will call up many painful associations connected with my professional duties in Norfolk, I shall ever treasure it as a precious testimonial of the grateful feelings which prompted its bestowal, and as an incentive to higher exertions and greater sacrifices for the good of my afflicted fellow-men.

Again thanking you for this elegant gift, and for the flattering manner in which it was presented, and expressing the hope that your beautiful city may never again be visited by the pestilence which was the occasion of my visit here, and also my wishes for your prosperity and happiness.
I have the honor to be your obedient servant,

By a resolution of the Association, gold medals were presented to Professor W. Porcher Miles, of Charleston, Judge W. Milo Olin, of Augusta, Georgia, Messrs. William Ballantine and Albert H. Jennett, of Mobile; and also to Miss Annie M. Andrews, of Louisiana; for their philanthropic and invaluable services. Letters of presentation were addressed to them, and we here give their responses so far as have been received.

Mayor's Office, Charleston, June 5, 1856.
Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. of Howard Association of Norfolk, Va.
Dear Sir:—I have had the honor of receiving your communication of the 30th ultimo, informing me of the presentation to me of a gold medal, by the Howard Association of Norfolk, for services rendered the people of Norfolk during the pestilence of 1855. I had received the medal the day before, through the hands of Daniel Ravenel, Esq, the President of the Howard Association of Charleston, to whose care it had been sent.

Allow me through you, to express to the Norfolk Association my sense of the honor they have conferred upon me, by their beautiful testimonial, and to assure them of my deep appreciation of the feeling which has actuated them.

It was a matter of obvious duty on the part of the citizens of Charleston to go to the assistance of the suffering sick in Norfolk. I trust that South Carolina will ever be ready in the hour of trial—of whatever nature that trial may be—to take her place by the side of Virginia—to share her dangers and alleviate her calamities.

With renewed expressions of my high sense of the honor conferred upon me by your Association, and my best acknowledgments for the [62] very kind and flattering manner in which you have communicated to me their action. I remain, dear sir, with respect and esteem,
Your obedient servant,

Mobile, 22nd June, 1851.
To Solomon Cherry, Esq., Cor. Sec. of Howard Association of Norfolk.
Dear Sir: It is with much pleasure that I acknowledge the receipt of your favor of the 29th ultimo, and accompanying beautiful tokens of your esteem.

Permit me not only for myself, but for the society, (the Can't-Get-Away Club,) whom I assisted in representing, to return thanks for the kind and beautiful remembrance of the small aid we were enabled to bring to the afflicted of your city, the past summer.

And may it be long, if ever, sir, your beautiful city be again the scene of pestilence and woe, like the past. With much respect,
I have the honor to remain, your obedient servant,

Mobile, Aug. 7th, 1856.
To the President, and Members, of the Howard Association, Norfolk.
Gentlemen:—In the name of the Can't-Get-Away Club of this city, and for myself, I return you our thanks for the very handsome medals you have awarded to Mr. Ballantine, to Dr. Miller, and to myself.

We accept the medals as the expression of your appreciation of what we endeavored to do: that we were not able to do more, was our misfortune, gentlemen, as it was your loss.

Nevertheless, "nihil sine voluntate," we had been able to do nothing had there not been a will to back us in the persons of our worthy President, Mr. Jno. Hurtel, and his most efficient, and when the call is from charity, (1 Cor. xiii. 3, 8, 13,) most indefatigable Secretary, Mr. Jas. M. Park.

Again, gentlemen, accept the very proud thanks, proud on account of your approbation, though not for their own merits, of those I have the honor to represent, and of,
Your obedient servant,

National Hotel, Norfolk, Va., April 18th, 1857.
A. B. Cooke, Esq., President of the Howard Association.
Sir:—Permit me to tender you, and through you to the Howard Association, my grateful acknowledgments and appreciation of the token of favour which you have been pleased this day to bestow upon me.

I shall ever hold it a cherished memorial, a bond of union betwixt you and me, significant of that time when, through Providence, I was permitted to cast my mite of sympathy and aid into the rich treasure of kindly care and concern so lavishly poured out for Norfolk in her time of need.

The beautiful trinity, "Faith, Hope, and Charity," and the "Good Samaritan," (your own appropriately chosen devices,) be it mine to emulate; and be assured that with these before me, I shall never be forgetful of the "Association" by which these emblems have been transmitted to me.

With earnest wishes for yourself and those whom you represent, as for your city generally,
I am yours truly,