History of Lawrence County Pennsylvania, 1770 - 1877, by S.W. and P.A. Durant.
North Beaver Township.--William McCord, James Alsworth, Francis Nesbit, William Carson, John Coleman, Jacob Justice and Jeremiah Bannon were all out for some length of time during the Revolution, some of them for several years.
Perry Township.--Matthew Murray, Matthew Stewart, John Stewart.
Plain Grove Township.--John Gealey, James Ramsey.
Scott Township.--Colonel Bernard Hubley, William Locke.
Shenango Township.--William Tindall.
Washington Township.--Henry Gordon, 1st.
Taylor Township.--John Butcher, Joseph McMurray, "Scotch John Moore," a deserter from the British army.
Neshannock Township.--John Moore, William Richards.
Mahoning Township.-- ____ Ashton.
New Castle.--Captain Jonathan Smith.
Big Beaver Township.--Andrew Davidson, John Whan, James and Hugh Paden.
Hickory Township.--Samuel McCreary, Robert Simonton, John C. Wallace, Jacob Baker, Samuel Casteel, John Fisher. Thomas Fisher served in the Mexican war.
Little Beaver Township.--John, Philip and George Aughenbaugh, David Clark, Jr., Charles Savers, James Marshall.
North Beaver Township.--Asa Adams, William Rogers, Jas. McKibben, Edward Wright, (major), John and Thomas Williams, John Carson, Nathaniel and David White, John S., Benjamin and James Alsworth.
Perry Township.--Matthew and William Murray (at Black Rock), and John and James Murray (at Fort Meigs), John Scott, Captain Jas. Stewart, Lieutenant Caleb Pyle, Elias Van Gorder.
Plain Grove Township.--James, John and Thomas McCommon, Thomas and James McCracken, William Rodgers, James Burns, James Ramsey, (2d lieut.), James, John, Henry, William and Renwick Gealey, Wm. Renwick, James McCune.
Pulaski Township.--Andrew Marquis, Joshua Bentley, James, David and John McCready, James and Alexander Neal, John McFarlane, John Gealy, James Walker.
Scott Township.--Robert McCaslin, Robert and John McFarland, John, David, William and James Locke, Robert Wallace, Jesse Harlan.
Shenango Township.--William and Thomas Tindall, Seth Rigby, Jr., William Lutton, James Warnock, James McKee, James Manning, John Bell, Samuel Baldwin, Philip Houk, Alexander Chambers, James Jackson.
Slippery Rock Township.--Captain Wilson Kildoo, Jacob Shaffer, James Mullen, John Fisher, James Kildoo, John Frew (orderly sergeant), John Boston.
Washington Township.--Henry Jordan (the last survivor of the original "Mercer Blues"), John, Nathaniel and George Jordan, Samuel Anderson.
Wayne Township.--Abraham McCurdy, John Newton Benjamin Cunningham, Thomas Hennon, William Ward, Hugh Wilson, Moses Guy, and possibly William Wilson.
Wilmington Township.--Daniel Means, Henry Means (hauled supplies for the soldiers), William Hodge, William McCrum, Samuel Hazlep.
Taylor Township.--Samuel Sample, James McMurray, Joseph Copper (out against the Indians), John Wallace.
Neshannock Township.--Captain John Fisher, George Pearson, William Watson, Lot Watson, Isaac Donaldson, Robert Reynolds, John Moore.
Union Township.--Major Ezekiel Sankey, Captain Robert Wallace, Jas. Park.
Mahoning Township.--Joseph Brown.
New Castle.--Crawford White, Captain John Fisher, Dr. Alexander Gillfillan, Dr. Wm. H. Shaw, Dr. James A. Cossitt, Captain James Hamilton, William, Joseph and James Hurry, Alexander Boyles, John Wilkinson, Thomas Kendall, Captain James Culbertson, Richard Johnson, Captain John P. Schott (a captain in the navy). Colonel Edward O'Brien was in the Mexican war; also Alexander Jones and LaFayette Kerr.
Captain Francis Nesbit, now living at Mount Jackson, served in the Seminole war in Florida, in 1835, and captain John W. Hague, of old Enon Valley, served as junior second-lieutenant in the war with Mexico.
Thomas Green, father of Captain Oliver Hazard Perry Green, of New Castle, was a soldier in the war of 1812. The family is of Quaker stock and remotely connected with the famous Quaker General of the Revolution--Nathaniel Greene of Rhode Island. Mr. Greene was living at that time in Bellefonte, Centre county, where he was drafted and sent to Erie to guard the fleet building by Commodore Perry at that point.
When the vessels were all afloat and safely over the bar, Mr. Green volunteered with others to go on board and serve against the enemy. He was in the brig Niagara during the celebrated action of September 10, 1813, in which the British fleet was captured entire. For his services in this battle the State presented him with a silver medal in 1821. It is of coin silver of the value of nearly five dollars, and has a profile likeness of Commodore Perry on the obverse side, and on the reverse the name of Thomas Green, encircled by a wreath and the words, "In testimony of his patriotism and bravery in the naval action on Lake Erie, September 10, 1813." Perry's celebrated dispatch to General Harrison--"We have met the enemy and they are ours" is graven on the margin. This medal is in the possession of Captain O. H. P. Green, whom his father named in honor of the Commodore.
This regiment was recruited and organized at Pittsburgh, under the supervision of Brigadier-General James S. Negley, Companies F and H were recruited at New Castle, the former commanded by Captain Edward O'Brien, and the latter by Captain Daniel Leasure. Captain O'Brien was afterwards colonel of the 134th regiment, organized in 1862 for nine months' service, and Captain Leasure afterwards went out as colonel of the 100th (Roundhead) regiment. The 12th regiment left Pittsburgh on the 24th of April, 1861, and arrived the next day in Harrisburg, where it was quartered in churches and in the capitol. On the afternoon of the same day the 12th and 13th regiments were reviewed by Governor Curtin, and mustered into the United States service. The 12th left immediately afterwards for Camp Scott, near York, Pa., where it was drilled for several weeks. On the 19th of May the regiment was clothed, equipped, and furnished with camp equipage, and on the 25th was ordered to move and take possession of the Baltimore and Harrisburg railway, from the State line to the city of Baltimore. Its headquarters were Cockeysville, where two companies, I and K, were stationed. The part of the regiment performed in the service of the nation was without bloodshed or strife, but was highly useful in protecting the line of railroad. The regiment was mustered-out of the service at Harrisburg, Pa., August 5, 1861.
This regiment was recruited for the three years' service, and the regimental [p. 202] organization effected during the latter part of June, 1861. Company K was partially from Lawrence county. The regiment was mustered in at Harrisburg, July 21, 1861, for three years. Proceeding by rail to Baltimore and Washington, it met at the latter place, on the 24th of August, a New York regiment which had been engaged in the battle of Bull Run, and badly crippled. The regiment was finally assigned to the 3d brigade, and on the 10th of October moved into Virginia, and took position in line with the army. December 10, it for the first time met the enemy, and the action, in which the whole brigade was engaged, resulted in the success of the Union troops. May 9, 1862, Captain A. J. Warner, of Mercer county (Company G), was elected lieutenant-colonel, Colonel McCalmont having resigned, and Lieutenant-Colonel J. T. Kirk succeeding him. About the middle of June the regiment was ordered to the peninsula, to reinforce McClellan. It was engaged in the battle of Mechanicsville, June 26, 1862, and held its ground against several severe assaults. It was afterwards engaged in the battles of Gaines' Mill, White Oak Swamp, second fight at Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, New Hope Church, the Wilderness, and numerous skirmishes, and on the 11th of June, 1864, most of the men remaining were mustered out of service at Pittsburgh, Pa., their time having expired. Many of the regiment re-enlisted as veterans.
Battery B joined the division of Pennsylvania reserves on the 14th of August, 1861, at Tenallytown, and was assigned to the 1st brigade, General Reynolds commanding. The first death in the battery was that of James McClurg, which occurred September 29, 1861. Until October 11, it was exchanged for four ten-pound Parrotts (sic Parrots). October 14, 1862, private Frederick B. Seifert was killed, and private Alfred Phillips severely wounded, by the accidental discharge of the musket of a member of Company E, 3d reserves, while on dress parade. October 19 the battery accompanied the 1st brigade on a reconnaissance beyond Dranesville. When the battle of Dranesville commenced (December 20 1861), the brigade was ordered to General Ord's assistance, but only arrived after the enemy had been repulsed.
On the 25th of December, General McClellan, in compliance with the request of General Banks for a "good battery," directed General McCall to send Battery B. This was protested against by Generals McCall and Reynolds, and caused much dissatisfaction throughout the division. The battery was on duty at Seneca Falls and Edwards' Ferry until January 9, 1862, when, at General McCall's request, it was ordered to return to the division. After the return of the army to Alexandria, it was placed in the 1st army corps. General McDowell commanding. At the battle of Mechanicsville (June 26 and 27) the guns of Battery B did effective service, checking the advance of a rebel battery, and compelling it to retire without unlimbering, and repulsing the enemy several times with great slaughter, the gaps made in his lines by the sots from the guns of Battery B, firing by battery, being distinctly visible on one occasion. The loss to the battery, in the first day's engagement, was five wounded. The second day its loss was three killed and eight wounded, in a most desperate conflict. Among the killed were Lieutenants Danforth and Cadwalader. Its guns were captured and recaptured twice on the second day, the rebel line advancing utterly regardless of the fierce storm of canister and case-shot rained upon them. The guns had become unsafe and useless by long and rapid firing, and, on the 11th of July, four guns were received in their place. After numerous skirmished the battery again was hotly engaged at the second battle of Bull Run, August 29 and 30, 1862. In this engagement and loss was three killed and sixteen wounded. At one time the enemy was so close as to capture all the caissons.
The battery was engaged in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, doing most effective service. A solid-shot struck Captain Cooper's horse in the Antietam fight, and tore it to pieces, the captain escaping almost miraculously. At Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, the battery lost two men killed and two wounded, and but for the support of the 37th New York infantry, would have been captured. At the battle of Gettysburg, Battery B was in position, July 1, near the seminary, but was driven back through the town. On the 2d, a shot from a rebel twenty-pounder Parrott gun, immediately in front, exploded under one of the guns, killing privates Peter G. Hoagland and James H. McCleary, and wounding Corporal Joseph S. Reed and privates Jesse Temple and D. W. Taylor. On the 3d it took the place of one of the reserve artillery batteries, where it did good service. The next day it was ordered to Emmittsburg, where it was in position twenty-four hours. It then accompanied the army to the Rappahannock, where it remained on picket until the 10th of September. On the 27th of November it was early on the ground at Mine Run, and compelled a rebel battery in advance to withdraw.
Winter quarters were constructed at Paoli Mills, near Kelly's Ford, and near Culpepper Court-house. At the latter place a number of the men re-enlisted, and received the thirty days' furlough allowed veterans. About forty recruits and two more guns were here received. During the Wilderness battles the battery had plenty of work to do, and on one occasion the picket lines of the contending armies were so close that the guns could only be loaded by the men getting down to their knees, they being on the picket-line. Private George C. Garber was here severly (sic. severely) wounded by a rebel sharp-shooter. On the 18th of May, near Spottsylvania Court-house, the battery was on the left and front, and was under the hottest artillery-fire that it encountered during the war. Several shells struck the carriages. Private William Chambers received a slight wound in the head. Here the rebels were treated to a little mortar-practice by the gunners of Battery B. After the 5th corps had crossed the North Anna river, at Jericho Ford, on the 23d of May, and the rebels had attacked it, Lieutenant Miller placed the battery in position on the left bank, opposite the reserves, and completely demolished a rebel battery that was annoying them. It was afterwards ascertained that Captain Fontaigne, General Longstreet's chief of artillery, was killed by the explosion of the shells. Captain Cooper was at the time in command of a brigade of short-range guns across the river.
On the 31st of May, forty-one men, who were entitled to discharge, left for Harrisburg. They were mustered-out at Pittsburgh on the 9th of June, 1864. There were sufficient men remaining to man the guns, and on the 2d of June, Lieutenant Miller was ordered to go into position on the left of Cold Harbor. The new gunners did good execution, firing a greater number of rounds on the 2d and 3d than had been fired by the battery previously in that campaign.
The battery arrived at Wilcox Landing, on the James, on the 15th of June, and in front of Petersburg at daylight of the 17th. On the morning of the 30th of July when the fort in front of the 9th Corps was blown up, it fired a number of rounds. Captain Cooper having remained two months beyond his term of service, was mustered-out on the 8th of August at his own request, and Lieutenant Miller took command. The members of the battery whose term of service had expired, returned home, and a number of one-year recruits were added to it. November 22, 1864, Lieutenant Miller was honorably discharged, leaving Lieutenant William McClelland in commanded. February 23d, 1865, Lieutenant McClelland was commissioned captain. March 15, eighteen men, the number in excess of the maximum allowed a six-gun battery, were transferred to Battery I, a new battery then forming at Washington. During the engagements around Washington the battery behaved splendidly, and did telling service. Sergeant Isaac J. Grubb and Corporal Andrew J. Gilkey were killed in the rebel fort which had been captured, and subsequently, when one of the sections of Fort Davis was ordered to Fort Wright, Corporal John W. Summers was mortally wounded. The next day the battery was ordered to City Point. On the 3d of May it left for Washington, passing through Richmond. On the 3d day of June, in obedience to orders, Captain McClelland turned the battery in at Washington, and proceeded to Harrisburg, where it was mustered-out June 9, 1865. 334 men were connected with the battery. The number of rounds of ammunition, of all kinds, expended during the four years of service, was over 11,200.
This regiment was organized for the three-years' service in August, 1861. Company A was recruited in Lawrence County, and Company G in Lawrence and Westmoreland. D. H. Wallace, of New Castle, was lieutenant-colonel. On the 18th of November, 1861, the regiment received its colors from the hands of the Governor at Camp Cameron, Harrisburg, and the following day proceeded to Fortress Monroe. After a week's encampment at the fortress, it set sail for Hilton Head, South Carolina, arriving on the evening of the 8th of December. The regiment was here armed and equipped, and its drill and discipline commenced. It was assigned to the brigade of General Wright, and was engaged in building fortifications and in police duty till April, 1862. On the 8th of that month it was ordered to Tybee Island, at the mouth of the Savannah river, to assist in reducing Fort Pulaski. Companies A and F were left at Hilton Head. After the first day's bombardment of the fort, when a breach had been made in it, the 76th Pennsylvania and the 8th Michigan were selected to carry it by assault, but a white flag displayed at three P.M. on the 11th, rendered that movement unnecessary. The fact of the regiment having been selected for service requiring the best discipled troops, was a deserved compliment. It remained [p. 203] in Tybee Island until April 19, when it returned to Hilton Head. On the 16th of June it participated in the unfortunate attack upon Charleston, which resulted disastrously. The entire force fell back after having accomplished nothing, and left its dead and some of its wounded in the hands of the enemy.
In August, 1862, Colonel Powers and Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace resigned, and Captain Stawbridge, of company B (from Mercer county), and Captain Campbell, of Company A, were promoted to be colonel and lieutenant-colonel respectively. On the 22d of October an expedition was formed to sever the communication between Charleston and Savannah, by destroying the bridges across the Pocotaligo. In this the 76th, under Colonel Strawbridge, took a conspicuous part, and its loss in killed and wounded was seventy-five officers and men.
Soon after daybreak on the morning of July 10, 1863, the attack on Fort Wagner was begun, the monitors and the batteries on the northern extremity of Folly Island, keeping up a heavy fire for two hours, while the infantry column was screened by the tall grass, and awaiting developments. As the fire slackened, the brigade moved across the inlet to the attack. The movement was planned and executed with great secrecy, and the enemy was taken completely by surprise. The column moved forward without faltering, and the hostile batteries south of the fort were captured. On the morning of the 11th, the 76th and four companies of the 7th Connecticut, charged Fort Wagner in gallant style, led by General Strong in person, but were compelled to retire under a most withering fire. The loss to the regiment was 187 killed and wounded, of whom 53 were killed. On the 18th another desperate assault was made on the fort, during a terrific thunder-storm, just at dark. In this fearful assault, the 54th Massachusetts, the first colored regiment raised in a free State participated. General Strong and Colonel Shaw (of the 54th Massachusetts) fell, and the loss of the 7th was seventeen killed and wounded. On the 1st of August, Colonel Strawbridge was ordered to the command of the regiment. December 20th Colonel Campbell assumed command of the regiment. December 20th Colonel Strawbridge resigned, and Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell was promoted to colonel, Major John W. Hicks to lieutenant-colonel, and Captain William S. Diller, of Company D, to major.
In May, 1864, the 10th corps was ordered to Virginia, and upon its arrival was attached to the army of the James. Early in May the regiment lost sixty-five men killed and wounded in an engagement along the Weldon railroad, from which the brigade forced the rebels back to Drury's Bluff. After this there was fighting at intervals for several days, and the regiment was engaged in the three-days' battle around Cold Harbor, where it suffered heavy loss.
On the 23d of June the regiment proceeded to Petersburg, performing picket duty on the front line of works. Casualties occurred almost daily during the siege. Lieutenant Daniel McVay, of Company A, a gallant young officer, received a wound in the thigh, in the operations which followed the springing of the mine on the 30th of July, from which he died September 4th.
Colonel Campbell resigned on the 16th of August, and Lieutenant-Colonel John S. Littell was promoted to colonel. The regiment was afterwards hotly engaged at Chapin's Farm and Hatcher's Run, in 1864, and on the 6th of January, 1865, joined an expedition which was sent to accomplish the reduction of Fort Fisher, North Carolina. It participated, on the 15th, in the assault on the fort, which was compelled to surrender. The loss of the regiment was severe. The flag, carried by Sergeant Albert Sanders, was twice shot from the staff, and completely riddled. At the close of the action it contained more than eighty rents, made by rifle balls and fragments of shells.
Moving on to Wilmington, which fell an easy conquest to the advancing forces, the army proceeded to Raleigh, where the regiment was detached for provost-guard duty, and stationed there until July 18th, when it was mustered out. On the passage homeward one of the transports was wrecked upon the North Carolina coast, and several of the men lost. The regiment reached Harrisburg on the morning of July 23, 1865, and was there paid and finally disbanded.
The regiment was originally recruited in August, 1861, but had no men from Lawrence county until March 13, 1865, when it was joined by a new company (H) recruited in Lawrence and Beaver counties, and commanded by Captain Paul F. Rohbacker. The regiment was then in East Tennessee. On the 25th of April it returned to Nashville, and in the re-organization of forces made here, was assigned to the 1st brigade of the 1st division of the 4th corps, and Colonel Rose placed in command of the brigade, and Lieutenant-Colonel Robinson of the regiment.
The rebel forces on the west of the Mississippi river still preserved a hostile front, and the 77th, with other forces, was ordered to Texas, and arrived at Indianola, in that State, on the 27th of July. From there it marched to Green Lake, where a halt of ten days was made, and then proceeded to Camp Stanley, four miles above Victoria, on the Gaudaloupe (sic. Guadeloupe) river. Here it remained until the 1st of October, when it returned to Victoria. On the 5th of December it received orders to return home, and, breaking camp, marched to Indianola, a distance of fifty miles, where it embarked, and on the 16th of January, 1866, arrived in Philadelphia, and was finally mustered-out of service.
The 100th, or, as it was more commonly known, the Roundhead" regiment, was recruited in the southwestern counties of the State, originally settled by the Roundheads of the English Revolution and by Scotch-Irish Covenanters. Daniel Leasure, a citizen of New Castle, who had since 1832 been connected either as private or an officer with the State militia, and who, during the three months' campaign, had served as captain and adjutant in the 12th regiment, received authority from the Secretary of War, under date of August 6, 1861, to recruit a regiment of infantry from among the Covenanters and the men who had followed Cromwell, whose leading characteristics had been a devotion to the principles of liberty of person and conscience. Six companies--B, E, F, H, I and K--were recruited in Lawrence county, and on the 2d of September, 1861, the regiment, consisting of twelve companies, was ordered to Washington, where it at once proceeded, and encamped on Kalorama Heights. A formal organization was soon after effected, and the following field-officers selected and commissioned; Daniel Leasure, colonel; Captain James Armstrong, lieutenant-colonel; Captain David A. Leckey, major. Just previous to the organization, General Casey, in command of provisional brigades at Washington, issued an order transferring companies L and M to the 105th regiment. Company L was accordingly thus transferred, and Captain Dick, its commander, became major of that regiment, but upon the representation of Captain Leckey that his company had been especially recruited for the Roundhead regiment, it was allowed to remain. The regiment was brigaded on the 7th of October, 1861, with the 8th Michigan, Colonel Fenton, and the 50th Pennsylvania, Colonel Christ. As the ranking-officer Colonel Leasure was placed in command of the brigade, and was ordered to proceed with it to Annapolis, there to join the command of General T. W. Sherman, destined for the coast of South Carolina. Soon after its arrival Colonel Leasure sent a request to the Secretary of War, in behalf of the Roundheads, that the Highlanders, 79th New York, might be associated with them in the same brigade. This request was granted, and on the 12th of October General Isaac L. Stevens was assigned to its command.
On the 19th the fleet sailed from Annapolis, and rendezvoused at Fortress Monroe, whence on the 29th it set sail with sealed orders. The Roundhead regiment and five companies of the 50th Pennsylvania were embarked together on the "Ocean Queen."
On the second day out the fleet was overtaken by a violent storm, which raged with unabated fury for thirty-six hours. On the morning of the 3d of November, all the other vessels being out of sight. Colonel Leasure opened his orders and read "Sail for Port Royal Entrance," which was the first intimation to any one on board of its destination. On the 5th of November the fleet arrived off Port Royal Entrance, and the gunboats proceeded to make soundings of the channel. On the morning of the 7th the transports stood in for the entrance, and the gunboats advanced to the attack of Forts Walker and Beauregard, on the opposite points of Hilton Head and Lady's Island. The troops, meantime, were held in readiness to debark and attack by land; but at three o'clock P.M the enemy was driven from his works by the terrible broadsides of Dupont's powerful vessels, and fled to the mainland or adjacent islands. On the same evening the troops landed and took possession of the forts and islands. Strong fortifications were at once begun, for which heavy details were made on the troops of General Stevens' brigade, who soon experienced much sickness from fatigue and the process of acclimation to the delightful but malarious (sic. malarias) climate of a Southern coast.
One month later General Sherman resolved to occupy a point further inland, upon the network of islands which the capture of Port Royal Entrance, on the 7th of November, had made accessible to the Union gunboats. General Stevens was detailed with his brigade for this purpose. The pleasant town of Beaufort was taken possession of, and occupied as headquarters.
The chief military duty of the troops for the next five or six months consisted in picketing Barnwell's and Port Royal islands, on the Coosaw, across [p. 204] which, on the main land upon the "Shell Road" leading to Charleston, a rebel force was stationed, covering the approaches to the railroad connecting Charleston and Savannah.
The town of Beaufort, with Port Royal and all the adjacent islands, had been deserted by the white population since the battle of November 7th. To repress the boldness of the enemy in his hostile demonstrations at Port Royal ferry, on the morning of the 1st of January, 1862, General Stevens, with a force of infantry and artillery acting in conjunction with two gunboats crossed the Coosaw, drove the enemy from his unfinished earth-works, and returned on the following day to the ferry without loss. During the occupancy of Beaufort and while at Hilton Head, many of the men sickened and some died, among them Lieutenant James L. Banks, of Company F.
General Hunter, who had now relieved General Sherman in command of the department, undertook the reduction of Charleston. On the 1st of June, General Stevens, with the "Roundheads," Highlanders and the 8th Michigan, proceeded through Stono Inlet to James Island, effecting a landing near Legareville. Five companies of the "Roundheads," A, F, D, I, H, were on the advance vessel with General Stevens, the six remaining companies, under Colonel Leasure, following immediately after. Companies D and H seized the village, while the remaining forces moved up the island. The enemy was driven from his works and all his shore-batteries captured. Two heavy guns were subsequently taken in the interior of the island by companies A, F and I, and brought in. The regiment lost in this engagement about twenty killed and wounded. Captain Cline, of Company F, and fifteen men were captured while skirmishing without proper supports. Until the 15th of June, the regiment was engaged in erecting forts and performing guard duty, and was almost constantly under fire from the enemy's forts, lying in the meanwhile under shelter-tents in a low marsh, barely above tide water, and in constant expectation of being attacked.
At evening on the 15th of June, the troops upon the island were ordered to be in readiness early the following morning to attack the enemy's works at the Tower Fort, near Seccessionville, a strong earthwork held by the rebel Colonel Lamar with a strong force, and commanding the approaches to Charleston by the James island causeway. General Stevens was to attack, and General Wright to support on the left, and if need be, assault the work on the north. Colonel Leasure was placed in command of a brigade composed of his own, the 79th and 46th New York regiments. At two o'clock on the morning of the 16th, the troops moved out for the attack. An unaccountable delay occurred, and the attacking party was not formed until broad daylight. Colonel Fenton's brigade, which led the assaulting column, was swept and broken by a destructive fire, and Colonel Leasure's, which supported it, was soon in the forefront. After a severe contest, lasting nearly an hour, during which a number of both the Highlanders and "Roundhead" regiments forced their way into the fort, Colonel Benham, in chief command, ordered a retreat. The narrow neck of ground over which the troops must advance was barely sufficient to deploy one regiment, and this was swept by the guns of the fort and from the rifle-pits and defences (sic. defenses) in the rear. Of the 421 officers and men who went into the fight, one officer--Lieutenant Samuel J. Morrow--and eight enlisted men were killed, two officers and thirty men wounded, and six missing.
Gen. Stevens, in his official report, says: "Colonel Fenton, in command of the first brigade, used every exertion to throw the 8th Michigan as far to the right as possible, and to bring on in support the 7th Connecticut and the 28th Massachusetts, but the terrible fire of grape and musketry from the enemy's works cut the former regiments in town, the right going to the right and the left to the left, whither, finally, the whole of the 28th Massachusetts took its position, and where they were joined, with scarcely an interval of time, by the 100th Pennsylvania and the 46th New York; of Leasure's brigade. These regiments had been brought up with great promptness and energy by Colonel Leasure, and the right of the 100th had pushed up to and joined the 79th in the charge. It was during this brief period of less than one-half-hour--from five to half-past five o'clock--that the greater portion of the casualties occurred. * * * I must express my profound sense of the intrepid bearing and soldierly conduct of my brigade-commanders, Colonels Leasure and Fenton, who did everything that commanders could do to lead their respective brigades to the attack; and it is mainly due to their exertions that their lines of battle were maintained throughout the action."
Lieutenant Jefferson Justice, serving upon the staff of General Stevens, and Lieutenant S. G. Leasure, assistant adjutant-general to the brigade, were commended for their gallantry. After the battle, the hospitals, crowded with the wounded, stood in urgent need of immediate surgical aid. Colonel Leasure, whose profession was that of medicine and surgery, at once volunteered and rendered most valuable assistance to the young surgeons in charge.
Operations against Charleston were suspended, and on the 4th of July the brigade returned to Hilton Head, where were lying among the accumulated mails the commissions for the officers from Governor Curtin, and an order declaring the "Roundhead" regiment the 100th of the line. Here there was a change in regimental officers, Lieutenant-Colonel Armstrong being obliged to resign on account of feeble health, and Major Leckey succeeding him. Captain Matthew M. Dawson, of Company B, was promoted to major.
On the 13th of July the brigade returned to Beaufort, and was soon ordered to Virginia, whither it proceeded on the ocean steamer Merrimac, then on her trial trip. It went into camp at Newport News, where it was visited by a messenger from Governor Curtin, bearing the State colors, which were presented to the 100th regiment by General Stevens, and were received in a patriotic speech by Colonel Leasure.
The campaign in Virginia afforded the regiment plenty of active work, and it kept busy almost constantly until the second battle of Bull Run, which occurred August 29 and 30, 1862. In the forenoon of the 29th, Colonel Leasure's brigade was deployed in line of battle for support of Lieutenant Benjamin's battery of twenty-pounder Parrotts, which had relieved Captain Dilger's battery in the support of Siegel, who had borne the brunt of the battle since early-morn and been nearly outflanked. The new battery came up just as the enemy was preparing a new attack against his center. Kearney's and Stevens' divisions came to his aid about the same time.
The enemy was checked, and companies A, F, D, I and M of the 100th were sent forward as skirmishers, taking possession of the valley a quarter of a mile in advance, and kept up a galling fire, Benjamin's guns in the meantime throwing shot and shell over their heads. The enemy seemed determined to carry that position, and at one time five batteries were concentrating their fire upon it. But Benjamin steadily held his ground until his ammunition began to fail him. In taking position, one of his caissons, well filled, had been accidently (sic. accidentally) overturned and abandoned at a point about two hundred yards to the left and front of his present position, much exposed to the enemy's fire. Company G, Captain S. H. Brown, was ordered to bring it up. With intrepid daring it was led under the enemy's fire, and brought the heavily laden caisson, now sorely needed safely off. Benjamin now increased his fire, and soon silenced a number of the enemy's guns. But one of his own had been struck by a solid-shot and rendered useless, and another by the premature explosion of a shell, had been disabled, and still another had lost nearly all its men. But until his ammunition was all spent the remaining guns were kept in play. They were then withdrawn, and soon after the only remaining division of Siegel fell back; Stevens was then ordered to retire. In the face of a terrible fire, now redoubled, it was with difficulty that the skirmishers could be withdrawn, but it was successfully accomplished under the direction of Lieutenant Gilleland. The enemy, now no longer deterred by the battery's fire, moved heavy masses of infantry obliquely in front if its late position, across the Warrenton turnpike, and gained a most important position in a piece of wood, where the heaviest fighting occurred in the after-part of the day, in which, with other troops, the 100th suffered fearful loss. Leasure's brigade had not retired a quarter of a mile, when it was ordered to support of Roemer's battery, on the north side of the turnpike, in an orchard somewhat to the rear of the former position. It was now nearly night and the troops had suffered severely. They had scarcely reached their position when an order came from Reno directing Stevens to support Kearney, who was enveloped in the woods to the right, on the line of the abandoned tract of the railroad. Stevens had but this small brigade, the rest of his division having been ordered from him early in the day; but no time was to be lost, and moving off by the right flank at double-quick, Colonel Leasure put his command in position for a charge. At that instant General Kearney came dashing up and demanded of Stevens where his troops were. Stevens pointed to the barely five hundred that stood about him. In his abrupt way he asked if they would fight. "Yes," said Stevens, with an oath, "these are my Roundheads!" Dropping his bridle-rein, with an impetuous gesture with his only arm in the direction of the enemy, Kearney said to Colonel Leasure, "Sweep everything before you!" Companies A and B of the 100th were thrown forward as skirmishers and the line was quickly put in motion towards the low wooded ground, where the enemy lay concealed. As they advanced, artillery and infantry opened upon them, which told fearfully on their already shattered ranks. As the line approached, a well-directed fire was poured upon the enemy, before which he recoiled. At this juncture an aid from General Kearney came up, and informed Colonel Leasure that the enemy was occu-[p. 205] pying a cut in the old Gap road a short distance to the front, and to the left of the position he then held. Obliquing to the left the line charged, and as the enemy scrambled up the opposite bank of the cut it poured in a destructive fire and seized the abandoned position. Soon the enemy opened a heavy fire. General Stevens' horse and that of his orderly were both killed. Seeing that it was useless to attempt to hold the position against the overwhelming force that was bearing down upon him. General Stevens ordered Colonel Leasure to fall back before the way was completely cut off. The order was accordingly given, and as he was moving, the Colonel had his horse shot under him, and himself received a painful wound. Of the 450 men who had joined in this last charge, but 198 came back unhurt. Captains William F. Templeton, Simeon H. Brown, James S. VanGorder, and Lieutenants Philo P. Rayen and E. J. R. Spencer were killed or mortally wounded, and Lieutenants John P. Blair and Thomas H. Curt severely wounded.
The next day the fight was renewed, but the Union army was finally forced to retire before the overwhelming numbers of the enemy, and at night fell back to Centerville (sic. Centreville). At Chantilly, near Fairfax Court-house, on September 1, another hotly contested battle was fought, resulting in the success of the Union arms. Generals Kearney and Stevens were both killed, the former riding by mistake into the enemy's lines and the latter killed while superintending his line in person, on foot. Captain Cornelius, in command of the 100th, was severly (sic. severely) wounded, and was, on account of it, finally discharged. Capt. R. J. Ross and Lieutenant Samuel R. Grace were wounded. The loss was two killed and thirty-four wounded. In the battle of South Mountain, September 14, the regiment participated, and in the charge up the mountain lost eight killed and twenty-eight wounded. In the battle of Antietam, September 17, having lost nearly all its line officers, it was not actively engaged. After advancing as skirmishers until the battle was opened, it was relieved and held in reserve during the rest of the day. Its loss was one killed and four wounded.
In October, Colonel Leasure, who had returned from the hospital, was sent to Washington by General Burnside to bring up the absentees and convalescents of the 9th corps, assembled in camp near the city. About four thousand were thus added to its strength, tow hundred of whom belonged to the 100th regiment. In November, soon after the return of the army to Virginia, General W. W. Burns was assigned to the command of the division, and Colonel Leasure, who had temporarily held command, returned to his brigade.
During the progress of the battle at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, the division lay in reserve. At dusk on the 15th the 100th regiment was deployed as skirmishers to cover the retreat of General Sumner's forces. Near the close of the year (1862) Lieutenant-Colonel Leckey resigned, and was succeded (sic. succeeded) by Major Dawson. Captain James H. Cline was subsequently promoted to major.
Early in June, 1863, the 9th corps was ordered to the support of Grant, at Vicksburg, Mississippi. While there it was engaged in not active service, and was placed to guard the fords of the Big Black river, where it remained until the surrender of Pemberton, on the memorable 4th of July, 1863. It was with Sherman on the expedition against Jackson, after the surrender of Vicksburg.
The hot weather, the fatigue and anxiety experienced, and the abominable water of the Yazoo and Big Black rivers, had told fearfully upon the health and spirits of the men, and after the Jackson expedition returned they were sent to east Tennessee, moving by boat to Cairo, thence by rail to Cincinnati, and thence to Camp Nelson, in Kentucky. While here, many of the men were attacked by a fever of a malarious, congestive type, of which many died, among them Commissary-Sergeant James Henderson. When the division, on the 25th of September, started for east Tennessee, one-fourth of the men in the regiment were left in the hospital, and many of those who moved with the column were greatly enfeebled by disease.
The regiment took part in the operations around Knoxville, and on the 1st of January, 1864, while subsisting on less than two ears of corn per day to each man, the entire regiment, with the exception of twenty-seven, re-enlisted, to the number of three hundred and sixty-six, for a second term of three years, and immediately started for home, on a veteran furlough. At Cincinnati the regiment was paid, and on the 8th of February reached Pittsburgh, where the men were dismissed to return to their homes. On the 8th of March the veterans rendezvoused at Camp Copeland, near Pittsburgh, and with them a sufficient number of recruits, who had been gathered during the brief furlough, to raise the combined strength of the regiment to nine hundred and seventy-seven men. A few days later it proceeded to Annapolis, Maryland, the rendezvous of the 9th corps, where it was brigaded with the 21st Massachusetts and the 3d Maryland, forming the 2d brigade of the 1st division, and Colonel Leasure placed in command.
Its first engagement thereafter was at the Wilderness, where its losses were fortunately light. At Spottsylvania Court House, May 12, North Anna river, May 28, and Cold Harbor, June 2, the regiment participated, and in the latter engagement Lieutenant David J. Gillfillan was killed. In the series of battles in front of Petersburg, previous to the siege, Captain Leander C. Morrow was killed, and Lieutenant-Colonel Matthew M. Dawson mortally wounded. The mine which was sprung July 30 was within the lines of the 9th corps, and in the movements which were immediately inaugurated the regiment participated, in which Captain Walter C. Oliver and Lieutenants Richard P. Craven and Samuel G. Leasure were killed, and Major Thomas J. Hamilton, in command of the regiment, was mortally wounded and taken prisoner.
On the 19th and 21st of August the 100th was again engaged, along the line of the Weldon railroad. In the fight near Poplar Spring church, September 30, the loss was small. In the movements upon Hatcher's run, on the 27th of October, it was again engaged. During the Winter the regiment remained in quarters with the corps. It participated in the fight at Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865, and in the engagement Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph H. Pentecost was killed. The final assault upon the city of Petersburg, April 2, 1865, closed the long list of engagements in which the regiment had participated during its four years of service. It soon after returned to City Point, and thence to Washington, where it was mustered out of service, July 24, 1865.
Company D, of this regiment, was principally from Lawrence county. The regiment participated in the battles of Williamsburg, Va., Fair Oaks, (in which the engagement it suffered terribly, ever third man in the regiment being either killed or wounded), White Oak Swamp, Kinston, N. C.; numerous sorties around Newbern and Plymouth--at which place the entire regiment was captured, with the exception of a few absent or furlough or detached service. Among the officers captured were Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Taylor, Adjutant J. H. Longenecker, Quartermaster Thos. King, Ass't-Surgeon Wm. Macpherson, Captains Bowers, Compher, Sheafer, Clark, Freeman, Mullin, Benner and Dawson, and Lieutenants Davidson, Kirk, Morrow, Hippard, Conley, Merrick, Cubbison, Beegle and Helm. From Plymouth the prisoners, under strong guard, were marched to Tarboro, and thence taken by rail to Andersonville, Georgia. The enlisted men were here incarcerated, and the officers sent to Macon, where they were soon after joined by the Union officers from Libby and other prisons throughout the rebel dominions. They were subsequently moved successively to Savannah, Charleston, and Charlotte, and were finally exchanged at Wilmington, in March, 1865. Most of the officers of the 101st escaped at various times, some being recaptured, and others finally reaching the Union lines. Captains Bowers and Dawson, and Lieutenants Conley, Helm and Davidson succeeded in earning their freedom; but Captains Benner and Freeman, and Lieutenants Beegle and Hippard, and Adjutant Longenecker, less fortunate, were apprehended and returned to captivity. The enlisted men were kept at Andersonville till the latter part of the Summer, when a part of them were taken to Millin and a few to Savannah, where some were exchanged. With the exception of a few retained at Andersonville, who were afterwards sent north, via the Mississippi river, nearly all met at Florence, and were exchanged in the Spring of 1865, at Wilmington, N. C., and sent to Annapolis, via the ocean and Fortress Monroe. All who were left were exchanged in March, 1865, but before the time of release came, over half had died. The regiment was mustered-out of the service at Newbern, N. C., on the 25th of June, 1865.
This regiment was recruited in December, 1861, and contained one company (D) from Lawrence county, commanded by Captain John Young, Jr., since chief of the New Castle fire department, and deceased in the Winter of 1876-7. The regiment was with the troops operating around Harper's Ferry, under General Banks. It participated in the battle of Cedar Mountain, August 9, 1862, and was on hand at Antietam, though not actively engaged, and being held for duty with the trains. After being marched to various places and encountering the enemy in a few skirmishes, it finally took part in the battle of Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, where it suffered severely. At Gettysburg, July 1st, 2d and 3d, it was again engaged with considerable loss. Afterwards it was sent with the 11th and 12th corps, under General Hooker, to the relief of Rosencrans' army at Chattanooga, Tenn. After this it was with Sherman's army through the Atlanta campaign, took [p. 206] part in the engagements around Ressaca, Dallas, Lost and Kenesaw mountains, and moved with the victorious Union army on the memorable "march to the sea," and on the 21st December entered Savannah. On the 21st of March, 1865, the army reached Goldsboro, N. C., after having defeated the rebel forces at Averysboro and Bentonville. Near the close of March the regiment was consolidated with the 11th, the supernumerary officers being mustered-out. On the 26th of March, Johnson surrendered to Sherman, who marched his forces rapidly to the neighborhood of Washington, where, on the 19th of July, with the 11th, the command was finally mustered-out of service.
This regiment was recruited in compliance with a call for troops to serve for nine months, issued by Governor Curtin, in July, 1862. Companies A, B, D and H were from Lawrence county; C, F, G and K from Butler; E from Beaver, and I from Beaver and Lawrence. They rendezvoused at Camp Curtin, where they were mustered-in, armed and equipped for duty.
It was ordered away before its organization was fully completed, and departed for Washington on the 20th of August, under command of Captain James McCune. On the day following its arrival, it was sent to Arlington Heights, where it was attached to a provisional corps commanded by General Casey. While here the regimental organization was completed, with the following field officers, their commissions bearing date the 20th of August; Matthew S. Quay, of Beaver county, colonel; Edward O'Brien, of Lawrence county, lieutenant-colonel; John M. Thompson, of Butler county, major.
With the exception of a small number who had served in the Mexican war, and in the three months' service, officers and men were without military experience. While at Arlington Heights, the regiment was engaged in drill and fatigue duty, and was brigaded with the 91st, 126th and 129th Pennsylvania regiments, the brigade commanded by General E. B. Tyler. On the 30th the regiment marched towards Bull Run battle-ground, but did not arrive in time to participate in the fight, and upon its return was put into the defences (sic. defenses).
On the 13th of September the command moved to Washington, and started on the following day towards South Mountain, Maryland, where the enemy had made his appearance. At Monocacy the command halted, and remained until the evening of the 17th, when it was put upon the march, and on the morning of the 18th arrived on the battle-field of Antietam. The fight was substantially ended, but anticipating a renewal, the men were kept standing at their arms the whole day.
The regiment lay in camp near the battle-field engaged in drill until the 30th of October. While here Colonel Quay was stricken down with typhoid fever, and the command devolved on Colonel O'Brien. In November the regiment moved by easy marches to Fredericksburg, and went into camp on the 22d of the month. Early in December, Colonel Quay returned to duty, but so much reduced that he soon after resigned, and Lieutenant-Colonel O'Brien was promoted to colonel, Major Thompson, lieutenant-colonel, and Captain Wm. H. Shaw, major.
In the formation of the brigade for storming the heights, in the last grand struggle of the battle of Fredericksburg, the 134th had the post of honor, the right of the first line. "As soon as the formation was complete," says General Tyler, in his official report, "the order to sound the charge was given, the caution having been previously communicated to the men not to fire a gun until orders were received from me. The brigade moved forward in as good order as the muddy condition of the ground on my left would admit, until we came upon a body of officers and men lying flat upon the ground, in front of the brick-house, and along the slight elevation on its right and left. Upon our approach these officers commanded halt!' flourished their swords as they lay, while a number of their men endeavored to intimidate our troops, crying out that they would be slaughtered, and the like. An effort was made to get them out of the way, but failed, and we marched over them, and when we were within a very short distance of the enemy's line, a fire was opened on our rear, which wounded a few of our most valuable officers, and, I regret to say, killed some of our men. Instantly the cry ran along our line that we were being fired into from the rear. The command halted, receiving at the same time a terrible fire from the enemy. Orders for a moment were forgotten, and a fire from our whole line was immediately returned. Another cry passed along the line that we wee being fired upon from the rear, when our men, after giving the enemy several volleys, fell back."
In speaking of the conduct of Colonel O'Brien in this charge, General Humphreys, who commanded the division, said: "Under my eye he rode in front of his regiment, and literally led it in the last charge upon the stone wall, at Fredericksburg, just before dark, on December 13."
In the brief space in which the regiment was in the conflict, it lost 14 killed, 106 wounded, and 19 missing, many of the latter known to be wounded. Lieutenant Hugh Barnes and Zarah C. Quillen were killed, and Adjutant Alfred G. Reed mortally wounded. Captains Lyon, Breckenridge, Hague and McCreary, and Lieutenants St. Clair, White, Brown and Millinger were wounded. Major Thompson was wounded, and had his horse shot under him. Colonel Quay, though in a feeble state of health--unwilling that the regiment should go into battle without him--volunteered as an aid on the staff of General Tyler, and served throughout the battle. General Tyler bears this testimony to his services in his official report: "Colonel M. S. Quay, late of the 134th, was upon my staff as volunteer aid-de-camp, and to him I am greatly indebted. Notwithstanding his enfeebled health, he was in the saddle early and late, ever prompt and efficient, and especially so during the engagement."
During the 14th the regiment lay in the streets of Frdericksburg, with considerable skirmishing and artillery firing, but no general movement. At midnight of the 15th it re-crossed the river.
General Burnside projected a new campaign in January, but the fearful state of the roads rendered a movement impracticable. General Hooker soon after superceded General Burnside in the chief command, and on the 27th of April opened the Spring campaign of 1863 by a movement against General Lee, which ended with defeat of the army at Chacellorsville, on the 1st, 2d and 3d of May.
On the morning of the 3d, the brigade was led to the manaced (sic. menaced) part of the field, on the left, and was moved by the left blank to a piece of woods on the Ely's Ford road. As the column approached the enemy it was deployed in line of battle, the 91st on the extreme right, with no protection in flank, the preserved lines it pressed forward through the woods, driving the enemy's skirmishers and soon reaching his line of battle. A heavy fire was at once opened, and for an hour and three-quarters the battle raged with unabated fury. At length the ammunition began to fail, and finding it impossible to obtain more, Colonel O'Brien ordered his men to slacken fire, while the dead and wounded were searched and a meager supply obtained. The enemy now began to press in front, and to feel for and move in upon the unsupported flank.
Bayonets were fixed and preparations made for a charge; but seeing the force in overpowering numbers, bearing down upon flank and rear, the order was given to retire to support of the batteries, in the open ground, where a few rounds of grape and canister brought the defiant rebels, swarming at the edge of the woods, to a halt, and sent them back to their cover in rout and confusion. "The 134th, Colonel O'Brien, " says General Tyler, in his official report, "was second in line, and no set of men could have behaved better. The officers, one and all, following the example of their colonel, who was constantly on the alert, were very active, and not a man shirked his duty." The loss in the engagement was forty-eight in killed, wounded and missing. Captain John Brant was among the killed. After the battle, the regiment returned to its former camp, and in a few days thereafter, its term of service having expired, was ordered to Harrisburg, where, on the 26th of May, it was mustered-out.
Captain R. W. Stewart raised a part of a company of Cavalry in New Castle and vicinity, and went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he united with the Ohio Cavalry. The Captain's son was first-lieutenant of the company, and George J. Cunningham and others from New Castle were also members. We can find no roster of the company, and are unable to give full membership.
There were quite a number of men from this regiment from Lawrence county, but we can not find any full organization of the company. Company "B" had several men from Shenango township, and there were probably some from other townships, and possibly a few from New Castle in the regiment.
The regiment was organized at Pittsburgh, with the following officers: Colonel, James N. Schoonmaker; Lieutenant-Colonel, William Blakeley; Majors, Thomas Gibson, Shadrack Foley and John M. Dailey.
It was equipped at Hagerstown, Maryland, and was stationed about Charlestown, West Virginia, where it did picket-duty for some time in the Fall and Winter of 1862-63.
It was attached to General Averill's command, and did duty in Western Virginia for several months in 1863. About the time the great battle of [p. 207] Gettysburg it was transferred to Maryland, and soon after re-crossed to Virginia in pursuit of Lee's flying columns. It was actively engaged with Averill's command in the vicinity of the Potomac (on both sides), at Falling Waters and about Winchester, until August. It was engaged heavily with the enemy about White Sulpher Springs, and lost heavily. During the month of August the command marched over six hundred miles.
The regiment was with General Averill in his movements in Western and Southern Virginia during the Winter of 1863-64, fighting at Droop mountain and destroying the Virginia and Tennessee railway and immense supplies for the rebel army, estimated at from three to five million dollars value.
The enemy gathered in great force and made desperate efforts to cut off Averell's command, but by the use of the utmost vigilance and celerity he escaped, in one place swimming his command and dragging his artillery with ropes across Craig's creek seven times in twenty-four hours.
The creek was deep and the strong current filled with floating ice. At Jackson river the 14th had a narrow escape from capture, but, by burning their train and fording the stream, they got off safely. They swam the Greenbrier river heavily swollen, crossed the mountains by a bridle-path, and finally reached Beverly on the 25th of November, where it was supplied, and thence went to Martinsburg for Winter-quarters.
The total loss during the entire raid in the 14th regiment was about fifty killed, wounded and missing.
In recognition of its services the War Department ordered a complete suit of clothing for every man as a gift from the government.
In his report Gen. Averell says: "My command has marched, climbed, slidden and swam three hundred and forty-five miles since the 8th inst." During the month of May the 14th was with Averell's command in their raid through West Virginia, and saw hard service, losing many killed and wounded at Core Gap and other places.
At Union the two commands of Averell and Crook were united, and on the 3d of June were ordered to Staunton to join General Hunter, who was moving against the James River canal and Lynchburg.
When the command left Martinsburg, in April, 1864, a detachment was left at that point under Captain A. F. Duncan. This detachment was attached to General Stahl's command of General Siegel's army, and at New Market and Cedar creek did excellent service and suffered heavy loss. It rejoined the regiment at Staunton after an absence of two months.
The regiment participated in General Hunter's operations on the James river, and was with him when Early, with an entire corps from Lee's army, compelled him to retreat toward the Ohio river. The march was a very severe one, some of the men dying from hunger. From Parkersburg it returned by rail to Martinsburg.
In the meantime General Early had advanced down the Shenandoah valley, and, crossing into Maryland, was thundering at the gates of the national capital.
On the 20th of July, Averell attacked the enemy at Winchester, and routed him, inflicting a loss of about five hundred men and two guns.
On the 24th, Early's entire command attacked the commands of Crook and Averell, and defeated them with severe loss. The commands fell back towards the Potomac, contesting every inch of the ground, and finally withdrew to Hagerstown, Maryland.
The enemy followed up and crossed the Potomac, and a raiding party under McCausland burned the town of Chambersburg, Pa. Averell followed McCausland from Chambersburg and overtook him at Moorfield, on the Potomac, where he completely defeated the combined commands of McCausland, Johnson, Gillmore and McNeill with heavy loss. The 14th in this affair lost ten killed and twenty-five wounded.
The 14th was afterwards in all the operations under General Sheridan, which resulted in the destruction of General Early's army.
On the 12th of November, the division of General Powell, to which the 14th was attached, attacked the rebel General McCausland, and drove him from Front Royal with the loss of all his guns and supply trains. The 14th lost fifteen killed and wounded.
During the Winter of 1864-5, the regiment was engaged in two expeditions, one to Millwood, in December, and another to Ashby's Gap, in February, the latter of which resulted disastrously.
On the 18th of April, 1865, the command was present at the surrender of General Moseby (sic. Mosby), and on the 29th ordered to Washington, where it participated in the grand review in May. In June it was ordered to Kansas, and Company A escorted General Dodge as far as the Gunpowder river on a tour of inspection. On the 24th of August, the companies at Fort Leavenworth were mustered-out of the service, and returned in a body to Pittsburgh, where they were disbanded. Company A was mustered-out November 2, soon after its return home.
Company E of this regiment, which was raised for one hundred days service was from Lawrence county, in and around New Castle. Its officers were Captain John C. Euwer; First Lieutenant, Thomas G. Christy; Second Lieutenant, James A. Ray. The regiment was organized at Pittsburgh on the 19th of Jul, and immediately proceeded to Baltimore, Md., where it went into camp with Colonel Nagle's brigade, and was thoroughly drilled.
On the 10th of August, Company B was ordered to Wilmington, Delaware for provost duty. The remaining companies were stationed at the bridges on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore railroad, with headquarters at Havre-de-Grace.
About three weeks after this arrangement, Colonel Clark took companies A, F, D and I, and proceeded to Wilmington, where he assumed the command of the post and district. Here they performed the duties required of them until the expiration of their term of service, when the regiment was mustered out. Before the quitting of the field, Captain McMunn, of Company A, recruited quite a number of men for the war, which were distributed according to their preferences among regiments at the front.
Lawrence county was represented in this regiment by squads and individuals, though we cannot learn that there were any full company organizations from the county. It was recruited in August, 1864, and rendezvoused at Camp Reynolds, near Pittsburgh, where it was organized on the 10th of September, soon after which it was ordered to Washington, and, upon its arrival, assigned to duty in the fortifications north of the capitol. On the 28th it was sent out to cover the construction-trains engaged in opening the Manassas Gap railroad, and was posted by battalion along the line, the government purposing to make this the line of supply for Sheridan's army, then in the Shenandoah valley. The first battalion, under command of Major Morton, which was in the rear of the other tow, while at Salem was suddenly attacked at noon on the 8th day of October, by a superior force of Mosby's command, consisting of cavalry and artillery. The battalion was formed in line of battle, and gradually retired to Rectortown, where the other battalions, under Lieutenant-Colonel Browne, were stationed. Mosby followed closely, and succeeded in cutting off Lieutenants Hay and Miltenberger, with twenty men of the skirmish line. By sharp, maneuvering, Mosby was foiled in all his attempts, and the regiment returned with the trains to Rectortown.
After the battle of Cedar Creek, the regiment returned to the forts north of Washington. It was soon after ordered back to Virginia, and was posted for the Winter follows" The 1st battalion, under Major Baer, at Prospect Hill; the 2d, under Major Irwin, at Vienna, where were established the headquarters of the regiment; and the 3d battalion, under Captain Kent, and subsequently Major Hope, at Fairfax Court House.
The regiment was engaged during the Winter in building stockades and block-houses, and in drill and picket duty. Expeditions were sent out in the Spring of 1865, to the Bull Run battle-ground, to inter the dead of the second battle who had lain there, since August of 1863, unburied. Nearly two thousand remains were buried, and monuments erected over them. In June the regiment was ordered to Pittsburgh, where it was mustered-out on the 20th.
The number of men recruited for the 5th artillery (204th of the line) was largely in excess of the standard single regiment, and it was determined to organize a 6th regiment. A portion of this regiment was from Lawrence county, but no full company. The regiment was organized at Camp Reynolds, Pittsburgh, September 15, 1864, with the following field officers: Charles Barnes, colonel; Joseph B. Copeland, lieutenant-colonel; Robert H. Long, Joseph R. Kemp and Frank H. White, majors. Two days after the organization it moved to Washington, D. C., and, upon its arrival, was assigned to the 212th regiment (6th artillery), in the 2d brigade, of De Russy's division, which was garrisoning the defenses of the capital.
On the 29th the regiment was detached from the division and ordered to duty in guarding the Orange and Alexandria railway between Alexandria and Manassas, the several companies being stationed at intervals along the line, with headquarters at Fairfax Court-house. This duty required the most constant vigilance, and it was ably performed under the direction of Colonel Barnes, who had seen much service. About the middle of Novem- [p. 208] ber this line of railway was abandoned, and the regiment was ordered back to the defenses of Washington, being posted at forts Marcy, Ward, Craig, Reno, Albany, Lyon and others. Previous to this time it had been armed and drilled as infantry. It was now instructed in heavy-artillery service. Captain Gustavus L. Brown, who had served as an officer in the 2d artillery regiment, was appointed drill-master, and, under the strict discipline enforced by its colonel, it soon became proficient likewise in this arm of the service.
During the Winter of 1864-65 it remained on duty in the forts covering the capital.
On the 13th of June, 1865, it was mustered out of the service at Fort Ethan Allen, and, returning to Camp Reynolds, was, on the 17th, finally disbanded. Subsequently Colonel Barnes, "for meritorious conduct during the entire war," was brevetted brigadier-general.
This company was organized in East New Castle, then Pollock township. A. L. Hazen was captain. At the time General Lee with his army crossed the Potomac into Maryland, and was threatening Pennsylvania, the company unanimously offered its services to Governor Curtin in defence (sic. defense) of the State. On the 14th day of September, 1862, its services were accepted by the Governor, and on the 15th it was on its way to Harrisburg, where it arrived on the morning of the 16th. On the same day the 14th regiment was organized, and R. B. McComb, a private in the ranks of the "Pollock Guards," was chosen colonel, and Forbes Holton, of the same company, was made adjutant. In lettering the companies, the "Pollock Guards" were given the post of honor, Company A, on the right. Captain George C. Vincent's company became Company C, and carried the colors of the regiment. Immediately upon its organization the regiment was ordered to Chambersburg. The battle of Antietam was then progressing, and every man in the regiment believed he was pushed forward in order to engage in the terrible conflict. The regiment reached Chambersburg about one o'clock in the morning of the 17th. The train stopped on the main track, and Colonel McComb went forward to report at headquarters. In going along the track, he passed the 15th regiment, which seemed to be in great confusion over the question whether it should cross the State line. Upon the Colonel's arrival at headquarters, the officer in command inquired of him whether his men would cross the line into Maryland.
The Colonel, having just witnessed the feeling which the discussion of the same question had occasioned in the 15th regiment, and his own men being asleep on the cars, instantly replied: "Clear the track, and let the train move on!" The regiment arrived at Hagerstown, Maryland, about sunrise on the morning of the 17th, and the men were not a little surprised to find themselves already across the line. The regiment was immediately formed with Captain Hazen's company on the right. To show the spirit of the men of this company it is proper to mention the fact that when they found themselves across the line they made the town echo with cheers, and unanimously announced themselves ready to take up the line of march to Boonesboro. The regiment left Hagerstown about ten o'clock in the forenoon, and moved out about four miles on the Sharpsburg road where it encamped and remained until the next day, when it was ordered out on the Williamsburg road. On Sunday it was ordered back to Greencastle. Every man in Company A, throughout this short campaign, manifested all the qualities of the soldier. The rations were very scanty and of the meanest quality, and the men were without tents or blankets, yet they faced every danger and endured every hardship without complaint.
The regiment remained in camp for several days, when it returned to Harrisburg, and the men were discharged. The day after the battle of Antietam, the regiment was encamped within two miles of Lee's lines, and considerably in advance of any other one of the "emergency" regiments furnished by Pennsylvania. In the ranks of Company A were many of the substantial men of New Castle, such as J. McMichael, J. K. Pearson, Forbes Holton, James A. Ray, George S. McCandless, Oliver Hazen, Joseph T. Du Shane, Levi Ward and others.
At the time Lee, with the Confederate army, crossed the Potomac, in June, 1863, and marched into Pennsylvania, Governor Curtin called out all the volunteer militia of the State. Among the thousands that volunteered in that emergency were three companies from Lawrence county: one under Captain Joseph Moorhead, the Wilmington company under Captain G. C. Vincent, one of the professors in Westminster College, and one under Captain T. G. Christy.
The services of these three companies were accepted on the 29th of June, 1863, and transportation was procured the next day. On the 1st of July these companies went to Pittsburgh, and took up their quarters in Camp Howe. The first night the men slept in the woods, just beyond Oakland. On the 4th of July the 55th regiment, Pennsylvania volunteer militia, was organized by the selection of R. B. McComb, who was a private in Captain Christy's company, as colonel; Samuel Graham, of Mercer, lieutenant-colonel, and Dr. N. R. Hayes as major. Thos. McBride, of Company A (Captain Moorhead), was appointed adjutant, and J. Alvin Euwer, sergeant-major.
Immediately after the organization of the regiment, it was removed to Wilson's woods, near Homewood station, on the Pennsylvania railroad. On the 8th of July, General Howe received a dispatch from the Secretary of War, asking for volunteers to go to Western Virginia and take the place of troops ordered to join General Meade. The 55th regiment was the first to volunteer, and immediately received orders to proceed to Parkersburg, West Virginia, and report to General Kelly. With the least possible delay, the men were uniformed, armed and equipped for active service. On the 11th of July the regiment started, and on the morning of the 13th arrived at Parkersburg, when Colonel McComb took command of the post. At that time Parkersburg was the most important point in West Virginia, being a place where the supplies for the army were collected and distributed.
Immediately after the arrival of the regiment at Parkersburg, Colonel McComb received a dispatch from General Burnside, notifying him of the approach of Morgan with three thousand raiders. Colonel McComb immediately had all steamboats and other craft removed from the Ohio side of the river, and took ever precaution to prevent Morgan from crossing the river at or near Parkersburg. He sent Captain Moorhead, with Company A, down the river to reconnoiter, etc., which duty was so well performed that Captain Moorhead was complimented very highly by Colonel Wallace upon reading the report sent to the post commander.
On the night of the 18th of July, Colonel Wallace, with four guns, arrived from General Kelly´s headquarters. Colonel McComb was at the same time joined by four hundred discharged prisoners, under Major Showalter. On the 19th Colonel Wallace moved down the river with the whole force, with a view of intercepting Morgan and preventing his crossing the river. On the next day Morgan attempted to cross at Point Pleasant, but was driven back by the "Connesteag" gunboat. Finding it impossible to make his escape, Morgan proposed capitulation; but while Basil Duke was arranging for a surrender, Morgan escaped up the Muskingum with four hundred men. Basil Duke, with about fourteen hundred men, surrendered.
The 55th regiment remained in camp at Parkersburg until the expiration of their term of service.
From the 1770 - 1877 History of Lawrence County by S. W. and P. A. DURANT.
Explanation and Caution | Abbreviations | Lawrence Co. Maps | 1877 Portraits
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Updated: 16 Feb 2001, 10:53