Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. IV.
Reprinted under direction of Charles Warren Stone,
Secretary of the Commonwealth.
Edited by John B. Linn and Wm. H. Egle, M. D.
Harrisburg: E. K. Meyers, State Printer, 1890.

File: s2v4g

Short bios: Mathias Hollenback * * Lord Butler * * George Eckert * *
William MacPherson * * John Dunlap * * Conrad Bombaugh **
Alexander Berryhill * * Simon Spaulding * * Obadiah Gore * * Jesse Fell * *
James Trimble


At a meeting of the Inhabitants of Luzerne County, held at the Court House in Wilkes-Barre, on Tuesday, the twenty-third day of September, 1794.

Mathias Hollenback,* in the Chair.

Lord Butler, † Secretary.

The following Resolutions were agreed to, viz:

1. Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting, that as citizens of a free government, where the right of universal suffrage is allowed and incorporated with our constitution, and where the voice of the majority constitutes the law of the land, it is unquestionably our duty to obey the laws.

2. Resolved, That we revere the excellent constitution of the United States, and that we were willing; by our personal service to support and carry into execution, the laws of the United States, made agreeable to that constitution.

3. Resolved, That we abhor the idea, that in a Republican government, the few should give laws to the many.

* Mathias Hollenback was a native of Virginia, born 15th of February, 1752, coining to Wyoming in 1771. Ho was appointed by Congress an ensign in the Continental line, and at the battle of Millstone he especially distinguished himself. He was present at the battle of Wyoming, but his little band was obliged to give way before the horde of savages, and he escaped by swimming the river. On the retiring of the enemy, Mr. Hollenback was among the first to return, and exerted his utmost to infuse energy and confidence in his neighbors. At an early day he was chosen to command a regiment of militia, and on the organization of Luzerne county he was appointed an associate judge, a position he filled with general satisfaction for nearly forty years. He died the 18th day of February, 1829, aged seventy-seven years.

† Lord Butler was the eldest son of Col. Zebulon Butler, a native of Lyme, New London county, Conn., removing to Wyoming in 1769. Col. Butler was thrice married, first to Ellen Lord, whose only son was born about 1756. Lord Butler was but a youth at the time of the Revolution, yet was sometime in camp with his father, who was in command of a regiment in the Connecticut line of the army. Mr. Butler was for many years one of the most active public men in Luzerne county. Beside the militia offices which he filled, until he rose to the rank of general, he held the commission of sheriff. He was a member of the Executive Council of the State, prothonotary of the county, member of the Assembly, etc. He was a faithful and able officer. He died at Wilkes-Barre.

[304] 4. Resolved, That being fully impressed with the sense of the blessings that daily flow from our government, we believe that there is no necessity of a revolution in the same.

5. Resolved, That this meeting highly reprobate the proceedings of the people in the Western counties of this State in their opposition to government. That we will at all times, when necessary, exert ourselves in support, Both of the government of the United States and of the State of Pennsylvania.

6. Resolved, That the foregoing resolutions be printed for the information of our fellow citizens.

The meeting closed with three cheers in favour of government.

LORD BUTLER, Secretary.

By the President of the United States of America.

WHEREAS, From a hope that the combinations against the constitution and laws of the United States, in certain of the Western counties of Pennsylvania, would yield to time and reflection, I thought it sufficient, in the first instance, rather to take measures for calling forth the militia than immediately to embody them, but the moment is now come when the overtures of forgiveness, with no other condition than a submission to law, have been only partially accepted, when every form of conciliation not inconsistent with the being of government has been adopted without effect; when the well-disposed in those counties are unable by their influence and example to reclaim the wicked from their fury, and are compelled to associate in their own defence; when the proffered lenity has been perversely misinterpreted into an apprehension that the citizens will march with reluctance, when the opportunity of examining the serious consequences of a treasonable opposition has been employed in propagating principles of anarchy, endeavoring through emissaries to alienate the friends of order from its support, and inviting enemies to perpetrate similar acts of insurrection—when it is manifest that violence would continue to be exercised upon every attempt to enforce the laws,—When, therefore, government is set at defiance, the contest being whether a small portion of the United States shall dictate to the whole union, and at the expence of those, who desire peace, indulge a desperate ambition:

[305] Now, therefore, I, George Washington, President of the United States, in obedience to that high and irresistable duty, consigned to me by the constitution "to take care that the laws be faithfully executed:" deploring that the American name should bo sullied by the outrages of citizens on their own government, commiserating such as remain obstinate from delusion, but resolved in perfect reliance on that gracious Providence which so signally displays its goodness towards this country, to reduce the refractory to a due subordination to the law, Do hereby declare and make known, that with a satisfaction, which can be equaled only by the merits of the militia summoned into service from the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, I have received intelligence of their patriotic alacrity, in obeying the call of the present, tho' painful, yet commanding necessity, that a force which according to every reasonable expectation is adequate to the exigency is already in motion to the scene of disaffection; that those who have confided, or shall confide in the protection of government, shall meet full succor under the standard and from the arms of the United States; that those who having offended against the laws have since entitled themselves to indemnity, will be treated with the most liberal good faith, if they shall not have forfeited their claim by any subsequent conduct, and that instructions are given accordingly.

And I do moreover exhort all individuals, officers and bodies of men, to contemplate with abhorence, the measures leading directly or indirectly to those crimes, which produce this resort to military coercion; to check in their respective spheres, the efforts of misguided or designing men to substitute their misrepresentation in the place of truth and their discontents in the place of stable government, and to call to mind, that as the people of the United States have been permitted under the Divine favor in the perfect freedom, after solemn deliberation and in an enlightened age, to elect their own government, so will their gratitude for this inestimable blessing be best distinguished by firm exertions to maintain the constitution and the laws.

And lastly, I again warn all persons whomsoever and wheresoever, not to abet, aid or comfort the insurgents aforesaid, as they will answer the contrary at their peril; and I do also require all officers and other citizens, according to their several duties, as far as may be in their power, to bring under the cognizance of the law all offenders in the Premises.

In testimony whereof, I have caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed to these Presents, and signed the same with my hand.

[306] Done at the City of Philadelphia, the twenty-fifth day of September, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, and of the independence of the United States of America the nineteenth.


By the President,


PHILADELPHIA, Sept'r 25, 1794.
SIR:—Your Excellence's two letters of the 20th & 22d Inst., I had the honor to receive. I found from conversation with many of the Officers of the Militia and other citizens, that it was much desired a Corps should be established in this city, from among those characters who do not come within the meaning of the Militia Law, or from others whos situations would not possibly admit of their Marching to the Westward. I also found that such a Corps had so fully taken possession of the public mind, that subscription papers were handing though the different wards (one of which I enclose to you) without any authority whatever; & as the extent of the Law had been gone to in the City, by calling on the four first Classes of the Militia, I thought it advisable yesterday to summon a Meeting of the Officers of the Division, when I made them the enclosed address, and this morning issued the explanatory orders which you will please also find enclosed. I am Informed the number of Men mentioned will be immediately enroll'd. The Oldest Lieut't Col. Commandant & two Majors will have the Command, and it will put an entire stop to all Irregular associations, which might and would otherwise have taken place. Efficient support, if necessary, can, agreeable to your orders, be given to the civil authority, the peace, happiness, & safety of the city preserved, & a reinforcement, if required, be immediately thrown into Fort Mifflin. On Saturday, or Monday, Col. Copperthwait will March with about 400 Men, & should any detachments offer from the City, they will join his Corps.

I shall continue, from time to time, to report to you the situation of things in this quarter, & doubt not I shall be able at all times, as I do now, to assure you that everything is in perfect Harmony, Peace & tranquility.

I have the honor,
to be, with due respect,
your Excellencie's obed't Serv't,

[307] P. S.—I enclose another advertisment, the meaning of which I have not yet ascertained, but shall find, in a few days, who are at the Head of the business, and what their intentions are.



PHILADELPHIA, 22d September, 1794.
We, the subscribers, voluntarily agree to provide ourselves, each with a Musket and Bayonet, which we will keep in good Repair, and that we will associate ourselves together in Defence of the Laws and Constitution of our Country, and do hereby ingage, in case either of them are infringed in an unlawful Manner, by any Person or Persons within the City of Philadelphia and its Liberties, and having Notice thereof, from any one or more of the Officers of the Militia chosen and agreed upon by us, to assist in bringing the Person or Persons so unlawfully engaged to a proper Sense of their Error; but if he or they persist in Error, then we engage and pledge ourselves to each other, to cause the Party or Parties offending to be secured, and be delivered to the civil Authority. This Association to continue in full Force until our Brethern and Fellow Citizens who are now on their March against the Insurgents, to the Westward, shall return to their respective Homes.

Liberty! Equality! Fraternity!

In an Æra when domestic disturbances exist in these States, and foreign hostilities seem to impend with that faction, which, tyrannizing at home, has long carried slavery—misery—devastation—ruin and blood into every quarter of the globe; which wages war against Republican principles and the Rights of Man; which formerly attempted to establish British despotism and colonial subserviency in America, A number of IRISH DEMOCRATS, residents in Philadelphia, deeming it their duty to stand to their arms, have formed a new Volunteer Company. Any of their countrymen, of true Republican principles, desirous of being enrolled, are requested to attend next meeting, which will beheld in Citizen Cordner's, Zachary's Court, opposite the City Tavern, at 7 o'clock to-morrow evening.

Tuesday, 23d Sept., 1794.


PHILADELPHIA, Sept. 25, 1794.
GENTLEMEN:—The Governor being call'd on his Executive duty, which will detain him sometime from the City of Philadelphia, has directed me, in case any emergency should arise during his absence, to assist by every means in my power the Civil Authority, either by Drafts from the Division I command or by such other mode as may appear most likely, in conjunction with the Mayor, to secure the peace and order of the City. Many of the Citizens have already expresst a Strong desire that a corps of Men not included in the requisition against the Western insurgents, (or who from peculiar circumstances could not leave their occupations or are exempt from Militia duty,) should be embodied in the City and its suburbs, and as they justly conceive, it will afford great consolation to those worthy Citizens, who have left under our charge, the sacred trust of their families & property.

The Governor has also directed that the Commanding Officer at Fort Mifflin shall apply to me for such drafts from the Militia as may from time to time prove necessary to preserve the peace & neutrality of the Port. This must prove a further incentive for such a Corps being at this particular time organized, & I now propose that you immediately exert yourselves to bring forward from your respective Commands, or from such other of our fellow Citizens as may be willing to engage in this particular Service, Five hundred men properly Officered. Arms will be delivered to Commanding Officers of Companies, for such men as are not already provided, but it is expected that no others will apply for them.

It is, Gentlemen, among the first duty's of freemen to be at all times prepared to guard the Liberty and vindicate the Laws & Constitution of their Country; when call'd on to a prompt discharge of this duty, an apathy can only arise from our undervaluing the blessings we enjoy, or prising our ease more than our Security. The United States have been insulted from abroad and at Home, and as they are able, so should they be prepared to repeal every repetition thereof. In a distant part of the State, where the Burthen was light & prosperity great, rebellion has boldly reared its crest and dared to menace the Union. At the Call of our Chief Magistrate our Brethren in Arms have nobly stept forth to chastise the insurgents and avenge the Injuries of their Country. The Patriotism which they have displayed, is the surest pledge of their doing their duty. Let [309] us follow their example by preparing to preserve the rights of Neutrality, our Domestic Quiet, our Liberty and our Laws. They are, it is true, so well understood & so highly valued by the good Citizens of this part of the State, as almost to forbid the Idea of any agression among us, but freemen should nevertheless remember that the surest way of preventing such agression is to be prepared to repel it.

Under a Conviction that these truths will be felt and acknowledged, I have (during the absence of our brethren in Arms) made this call on the patriotism of my fellow Citizens, and I flatter myself it will not be made in vain.



PHILA., Sept. 25, 1794.
The Commanding officers of Corps, in the first Division, are requested to notify those men who have drawn in the 5, 6, 7, & 8th Classes, that such of them as are proper may enrol themselves in the city volunteer association, as well as such others in their respective districts, as are not included in, or under the Direction of the Militia law of the State.

Returns to be made by the Commanding officers of Battallions composing the first Brigade, of the enrolled men in their respective battallions, on Wednesday, the 1st day of October, to the Inspector of the Brigade, at which time they will also report the number of stands of arms the volunteers may require. The officers commanding Corps in the suburbs are requested to make returns in like manner to the Insp'r of the 2d Brigade on the same day, after which the whole Corps will be properly organized.

It must be understood, that in order to compleat the requisition for the Western expedition, the four first classes are not to be interfered with, nor are such as voluntarily enrol themselves, belonging to the four last classes, to be exempt from other duty should a further requisition take place.



The commander of the Jersey militia detachment feels himself bound to acknowledge the politeness of the citizens of Harrisburgh to his corps, and requests that their gratitude and his own, joined with the highest respect, may be signified in any proper manner.

RICHARD HOWELL, Com'd't Jersey Detachment.


LANCASTER 26th Sept'r, 1794.
DEAR SIR:—The Governor directs me to acknowledge the receipt of the various papers sent from Fayette county by Captain Lang. As the bearer of them mentioned that copies had been sent to the President, it is thought unnecessary to forward them by express; but they will be officially communicated. With the President, the whole business rests.

As my private opinion, permit me to state, that I believe the exertions of Government will be unremitted. The indignation of the Citizens against the late outrages, is equal to the provocation, and I have no doubt the punishment of the real delinquents will be exemplary.

I am,
Y'rs, &c,
A. J. DALLAS, Secretary.



FRIDAY, September 26th, 1794.
FELLOW CITIZENS:—I thank you sincerely for your compliance with the invitation to meet me at this time. On any other occasion, indeed, it would have been the greatest gratification that I could enjoy, thus personally to express the grateful sense which [311] I entertain of the repeated proofs of esteem and confidence that I have received from my fellow citizens throughout the State. But the immediate object of my present visit is of so serious and so painful a nature, that I must forbear the indulgence of my private feelings, in order to direct your whole attention to the support of our Government, which is hostiley resisted by an armed combination in the Western Counties.

The subject is so interesting, and the sources of information are so numerous, that you are doubtless apprised of the disgraceful events which have recently occurred in that quarter. It would be superfluous, therefore, to add anything to the existing information, but a solemn assurance, that on the part of the general Government, as well as on the part of the State, every reasonable effort has been made to bring the deluded Insurgents to a sense of their duty which they owe to their Country, without making the last awful appeal to arms. All consiliatory measures have, however, in effect, proved abortive; for although a considerable number of the citizens were originally well disposed, though many were intimidated, and though a portion of them has acquiesced in the terms of Pardon, a lawless multitude still continues in arms, ravaging the country, rejecting every amicable proposition, and bidding open defiance to all the powers of government. The Commissioners have returned from their pacific mission, with unfavorable impressions of the result: and in the last resort, the President has determined to employ the Militia of this and, if necessary, every State in the Union, to enforce obedience to the laws.

The insurgents vainly presuming upon their own prowess, or upon the insolent hope that a competent force could not be sent against them, have hitherto indulged the spirit of outrage, without remorse or restraint.

Their emissaries, likewise, have endeavoured to relax, or defeat every public exertion, by reciting tales of injuries and oppressions, which have never been suffered; or propagating fabricated statements of Taxes, which have never been imposed. Since they indeed have received accounts of the general resentment and Military preparation, that their conduct has produced, another mode seems to be adopted, the language of submission and peace is held out to delude us, probably, till the season of exertion has passed away, and a new opportunity shall be given to fortify the standard of anarchy.

But, my fellow Citizens, you have not been intimidated by their violence, nor will you be betrayed by their arts. The President's declaration, that he is not satisfied with the nature and extent of the submission to government, is the only thing that can now dispense with our exertions, which are directed [312] against the seditious, the turbulent, and the treacherous insurgent, not against the meritorious or peaceful Citizen. Men of the latter description will be safe wherever they reside or whatever course shall be pursued, but their safety is not incompatible with those vigorous measures which the reputation and existence of our government require. To convey this sentiment forcibly to your minds and to entreat every possible aid on your part, to avert the impending evil, are the essential objects of this visit. I am confident indeed, you will concur with me in thinking, that every good citizen is bound at this crisis, to lend an active assistance to the measures of government, but that the Militia officers in particular cannot, upon any pretext, dispense with the obligation I have heard.

Gentlemen, that with respect to the policy of those acts of Congress against which the rage of the Insurgents is ostensibly directed, as well as with respect to many other objects of Legislation, a diversity of opinion exists among our fellow Citizens.

But I think no diversity of opinion can exist in an enlightened Republican community with respect to the necessity of obeying them, while they continue, as much as any other act, as much as any treaty, or even as much as the Constitution itself, the law of the land. They can be amended if they are imperfect, or they may be repealed if they are pernicious, but consistent with the oath or affirmation of every public officer, and the duty of every private Citizen, they cannot be disobeyed, or obstructed, or resisted.

Reflect for a moment on the fatal consequences of a contrary doctrine, upon our public and private prosperity. Suppose the Inhabitants of the populous Cities throughout the Continent were to refuse to pay the impost, suppose the collection of Taxes upon carriages, or the tax upon Snuff and refined sugar were to be forcibly resisted. Such a refusal and resistance, it is true, would be unconstitutional and unreasonable, but have not the parties interested in those cases as great a right to judge for themselves, or any other description of Citizens. And if a minority of any kind can justify an attempt to govern the majority, why not a minority of Merchants or Manufacturers as well as a minority of any other class of citizens. The same questions applied, as they may fairly be, to every instance of taxation, will shew obviously that our Government never should be supported, if every class of Citizens who were interested in opposing any particular duty, might ensure success to their opposition by taking arms against the State. There could be no revenue raised to protect us from any foreign violence or to secure us to the fruits of our industry. Discord and war would soon divide and ravage the continent, and the Republican fabrick, which [313] has been so honorably established, after a seven years' contest, must inevitably moulder into anarchy or harden into despotism.

But if a law be forcibly opposed because it is thought to be a bad law, it is a very serious enquiry, how far the example will betray the safety of individuals and the security of property. What protects a man's life or warrants the quiet possession of his estate? Is it not law? Then suppose one man were wilfully to kill another, would it be less a murder because the person slain was of a bad reputation or of a vicious course of life?

Again. Suppose one man were forcibly to seize upon the property in an another man's possession, would it be sufficient excuse that the possessor's title is doubtful? In both these cases, the law would be violated, and any upright jury would certainly punish the violators; for this plain reason, that till the law itself pronounces upon the crimes of the one man and upon the title of the other, it protects them both from outrage. Thus in the case of the Acts of Congress, to which I have alluded, let them be thought ever so bad, till the courts of justice pronounce them unconstitutional, or until the legislature repeals them, they are under the protection of the constitution, which we are bound by the most solemn ties to support. Any man, therefore, who violates them, violates that constitution upon which likewise, the safety of our lives and the security of our farms depend.

But to every candid mind, it must be evident that the present question is not confined to the policy of any Acts of Congress, but involves the very existence of our government. If we mean in any case to enjoy the security of the laws, we must in every case assert and maintain their authority; for, (as I have observed on another occasion,) if you permit them to be resisted or overthrown, with impunity, on any pretext, you in effect set an example to violate them on every pretext.

Regarding the subject in this interesting point of view, Gentlemen, that lawless perseverance of the Insurgents cannot fail to excite the most painful sensations; for, the strong sense of duty which we owe to our Country, to posterity and to ourselves, will not permit us, under such circumstances, to indulge those feelings of affection and attachment, which have hitherto guided our conduct towards our deluded fellow citizens.

The choice of peace and friendship, or of war and enmity, has been left to themselves. Having determined upon the latter, what can the Government do but prepare for its own preservation? What nobler motives can actuate virtuous minds than to assist in resisting the violence of lawless men and preserving their country from devastation and dishonor? With respect to the motives of the Insurgents, we must search further than the indisposition to pay a particular Tax, for an explanation of [314] their conduct. The devastation committed on private property by fires; the armed combination that marches with military parade thro' the country; the expulsion of every avowed friend to Government; the seizure of the public mail; the insults offered to commissioners, and the threats of establishing an Independent State, or of returning to the allegiance of Great Britain, are circumstances calculated not only to rouse an honest indignation, but to awaken suspicion of a deep and latent treachery.

It is time, therefore, my fellow-citizens, that the government, and every friend to law and order, should prepare to suppress, by the most effectual means, the tyranny that is attempted to be established by a few over the many; by a part of the community over the whole. The citizens of our sister States are already in arms, your brethern of the City and County of Philadelphia are already on their march. The quota of Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Bucks, eagerly preparing. Arms, ammunition, camp equipage and provisions, are plentifully provided. The Legislature has passed a law to raise the pay, and to allow a bounty to those who are destined for the present service; and of such critical importance is the object universally deemed, that an association of patriotic persons has been formed in Philadelphia for the purpose of raising subscriptions to provide for the families of the militia of the city, who shall be employed in the expedition.

But, indeed, there is scarce a principle that can actuate a benevolent and patriotic mind, which does not concur in recommending at this time the most firm and energetic measures. To assist in suppressing so violent a breach of the public peace, is only an act of duty in every good citizen; to shew our determination to punish every obstinate delinquent, may save our humanity the pain of doing it, and if the Militia of Pennsylvania shall evince, not only their disposition, but their power to aid the civil authority in executing the laws, the man of peace, as well as the patriot, will be relieved from the apprehensions of any necessity for the introduction of a standing army.

Let us look back, my fellow Citizens, but a few years, scarcely more than the term allotted for the life of an individual, and we shall be at once astonished at the prosperity of our Country, and ashamed at the ingratitude of any popular discontent. It is but little more than a century since our ancestors formed the enterprize of settling in America. And some have just quitted this worldly scene, who remembered when our Capital was distinguished only by a few Indian huts and our best cultivated farms were a wilderness.

Our fathers were compelled to constant labour and exposed to constant danger. The hope of transmitting affluence and [315] tranquility to their posterity was their greatest consolation, and mark with what a quick, with how great transition it is realized; scarce an Indian inhabits within our Territory; the comforts of life flow in abundance through all the channels that industry can invent; our agriculture, commerce and mechanics already rival the ancient establishments of Europe; our attainments in the arts and sciences are celebrated throughout the world; in questions of religion we have given the first example of universal toleration, and as a government the American Republic stands unrivaled by any ancient or modern political fabric. Is it a situation to be made the sport of lawless fury? What can the most visionary character expect to gain by a change? Is not every man that is honest safe? Is not every man that is industrious, comfortable? These questions are the touchstone of social happiness; and in no other country but ours, can they, at this time, be fairly answered in the affirmative.

Reflect, then, my fellow citizens, upon the awful crisis with regret, but encounter it with fortitude. Of the various description of people that constitute the American nation, none have contributed more to its honor and opulence, than the Germans, and none have a greater stake in preserving our government and laws from destruction. The mischief has already gone too far, as probably, to check the spirit of emigration from the distracted Countries of Europe, to our hitherto tempting shores, and in proportion to that effect, to any apparent want of disposition to support our Constitution, to any defect of power to protect our persons, and to any hazard in the possession of our estates, must be diminution of the value of labour, of property, and in short, of every right and privilege that is dear to man, in his separate or in his social Character.

To you Gentlemen, who belong to the militia, I now particularly address myself; to the conduct of the militia of Pennsylvania, the President's attention, the attention of all the citizens of the Union, is anxiously directed. I have pledged myself, that they will now, as upon every former occasion, manifest their zeal and spirit in the cause of their country. What say you to yourselves? Will you save your Constitution? Will you defend your laws? Will you assist to rescue from anarchy, as you did from despotism, the freedom and Independence of America? To these questions will you answer, as every patriotic citizen has hitherto answered? You will, with one voice, enable me to assure the Militia of other Counties, that you have cheerfully united with them in protecting our government from violence and our militia from reproach.

Is this, then, your resolution? If it is, I beseech you to declare it; fix the day when your quota will be ready to muster, and march to the place of rendezvous on the succeeding day.


READING, Sept. 26th, 1794.
DEAR SIR:—The Printer having disappointed me, has Occasioned the Delay in forwarding the Hand Bills, but am in hopes they will, notwithstanding, arrive time enough to have some good effect. We are trying every Thing in Our Power to see you soon at Carlisle.

I am, Sir,
Your most ob't
and very h'ble Servant,

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


YORK TOWN, September 26th, 1794.
SIR:—Doubting whether my Communications, by letter of the 23d Instant, may have come to hand before you left the City, & hearing by Mr. Torrans that you have arrived at Lancaster, I have taken the liberty to write by express, & inform your Excellency, That notwithstanding, as well from Gen'l Orders, as from a particular Communication by letter from the Dep'ty Q'r M'r Gen'l, we expected the Arms & Equipments, Tents & Camp Equippage before this time, none have yet arrived. I have supposed it possible these things may be in Lancaster, & therefore write that you may Please to give Orders for their being forwarded. Several difficulties have occurred which I will omit troubling you with untill we have the honor of your presence in this County. There will be a necessity for, from 50 to 100 Riffles, a quantity of new Riffles lie here Contracted for by Major Gen'l Hand. I beg leave to suggest the propriety of obtaining an order for these & save the expence of Transportation. Samuel Russell, Jun'r Cornet of the Marsh-creek Troop of Horse, is the bearer hereof.

I have the honor to be,
Your Excellency's,
Most Obed't & very humble Serv't,
A. RUSSELL, Brigade Inspector of York County.

His Excellency THOS. MIFFLIN, Governor.

* GEORGE ECKERT was a native of Berks county, and served in the war of the Revolution. He was a lieutenant of the county, a deputy surveyor under Gen. Brodhead, in 1796, and Treasurer of Berks in 1797.


STRASBURG, 1 o'clock P. M. ,
26th Sept'r, 1794.
SIR:—I have the honor to inform your Excellency of my having just arrived, with the Corps under my Command, all in good health and high spirits, at this place, where I propose remaining until to-morrow, it being necessary, to give the men half a day's rest, particularly, as they made a long march yesterday, and got extremely wet, as well as for the purpose of making some arrangements, which until now, I had not an opportunity of going into.

As your Excellency may perhaps leave Lancaster before our arrival—should that be the case—I beg to be honored with any commands you may have, by the return of the bearer.
I shall take up my march from this place to-morrow morning a little after Day-Break, and proceed to the Bridge over the

* WILLIAM MacPHERSON, a native of Philadelphia, born in the year 1756. Was educated at Princeton. At thirteen, he was appointed a cadet in the British army, and previous to the Revolution, his father having purchased for him a lieutenant's commission, he was made Adjutant of the 16th Regiment. Mr. MacPherson was stationed at Pensacola at the commencement of the war, when he offered to resign his commission, but it was not accepted. Subsequently, he was allowed by Sir Henry Clinton to resign, in consequence of his declaring that he never would bear arms against his countrymen. About the close of the year 1779, he joined the American army on the Hudson, and was appointed on the recommendation of Gen. Washington, Major by brevet. Major MacPherson always retained the esteem and friendship of the Commander-in-Chief. September 19, 1789, he was appointed Surveyor of the Port of Philadelphia, and in 1792, Inspector of the Revenue for the same. From 1793 to 1813, he filled the position of Naval Officer, having been continued by the successive administrations of Presidents Adams, Jefferson and Madison. In 1794, a large and respectable body of the citizens of Philadelphia formed themselves into several companies, as volunteers for the Western expedition, and Major MacPherson was invited to place himself at their head. They were organized into a battalion, and in compliment to him, styled themselves "MacPherson's Blues." They formed a part of the army under command of Governor Mifflin. On the threatened war with France, in 1798, the "Blues" were re-organized. On the 11th of March, 1799, Gen. MacPherson was appointed Brigadier General of the Provisional army, and commanded the troops sent into Northampton county. After the disbanding of the Provisional army, Gen. MacPherson retired from military life to his country seat, near Philadelphia, where he resided until his death, which took place November 5, 1813.

[318] Conestoga—where I shall make a short Halt, and then proceed to Lancaster, which place I expect to arrive at, by half past 12 o'clock.

I have the Honor to be,
Your Excellency's
most obed't Serv't,
W. MACPHERSON. Maj'r Comm'd Volunteer Blues.


LANCASTER, 27th Sept., 1794
The Governor, intending to prosecute his route to Carlisle, to-morrow morning, takes this opportunity to express his entire satisfaction with the progress and appearances of the Detachments of Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry, which have reached this borough from the quota of the City and County of Philadelphia, and of the County of Chester. The example of order, discipline, and expedition which they have given on their march, cannot fail to produce the most beneficial effects; and the Governor is happy in being able to assure them, that they will speedily be joined by their Fellow Citizens from the other Counties, included in the present requisition. To the Militia of Lancaster county in particular, he returns his best thanks, for the spirit and alacity with which they are preparing to engage in a service so honorable and so interesting to every Freeman.

As many false and injurious reports are in circulation, respecting the State of the Western Counties, and it is probable that they proceed from a desire to relax and defeat the patriotic exertions of the Militia, the Governor thinks it incumbent upon him to guard his Fellow Citizens against the effect of such artifices, by stating that the most authentic advices lately received, do not justify any expectation of a general submission to the laws, and that nothing but an official declaration of the President's being satisfied with the nature and extent of the submission of the insurgents, can hereafter be sufficient to warrant a discontinuance of our military preparations.

By order of the Commander-in-Chief.
JOSIAH HARMAR, Adjutant Gen.


LANCASTER, 27th, Sept'r, 1794.
SIR:—In a conversation with Mr. Secretary Hamilton, acting on behalf of the Secretary of War, he informed me that I could obtain from you a supply of Rifles, for a company of one hundred men, raising by Captain Seely, in Northampton county, for the Western Expedition. Though you should not have received an official instruction for that purpose, I hope you will think yourself justifiable in delivering the rifles upon my application, as it is certainly an object of great importance to the public service. Captain Seely will promise to account for them.

I have just received a letter from the Brigade Inspector of York county, informing me that he, likewise, is in want of Rifles, and requesting that an order might be given for putting into his possession, from fifty to one hundred of those which you have contracted for in York. As this proposition tends to save the expense of transportation, as well as to promote the general object of our armament, I hope it may be convenient to comply with it.

I am, with great esteem, Sir,
Your Most obed. Serv't,

To Maj. Gen'l HAND.


NORTHUMBERLAND, Sept. 27th, 1794.
D'R CHARLES:—I need not describe to you our situation; the disposition of the people instigated by a number of factious Characters has arisen to an alarming heighth.

A Liberty Pole was erected at Milton the 26th Inst. Upwards of three hundred were assembled—all expressing their disapprobation of the existing Laws. The Pole in North'ld was cut down by Messrs. Brady, Levy & Dr. Young. On Tuesday next they propose to erect another in Town which will be effected.

On our side no attempts has been made, as yet; were we unanimous we could defy their united efforts. But when the officers of Government take a decided part with the rioters, what can possibly be expected.

[320] I could wish from my soul that we may be hon'd with a detachment: such a one as would convince these fellows that Government is not to be insulted with Impunity. Dr. Young & Levy will join you at Carlisle. They have been threatened, with a coat of Tar and Feathers.

I expected that Gen'l Wilson would have wrote to the Gov'r, suggesting the propriety of granting us a Regiment; we could then exert ourselves. But at present we dare not.

Adieu; I wish you a pleasant campaign.


I have packed up every article you wrote for, & with some difficulty have procured you a Bear skin.


PITTSBURGH, Sept. 27, 1794.
At a meeting of a considerable number of the inhabitants of Washington, and other of the counties on the west of the mountains, the present state of the country, with respect to the late convulsion, was taken into view, and from comparing information, it appeared to them that the country was in fast progression if not wholly arrived, at a state of general submission to the laws; so as to render it unnecessary for any advance of force on the part of the government, for the purpose of assisting the civil authority in suppressing insurrection and preserving peace, and that measures ought to be taken, as speedily as may be, to communicate information of this favorable state of affairs to the government.

Resolved, therefore, That a meeting of the delegates of townships, of the 14th of August, at Parkinson's ferry, be called, to convene at the same place, viz: Parkinson's ferry, on Thursday next, the 2d of October, to take the above into consideration, and as it is of great moment, the delegates are earnestly requested to be punctual in their attendance, and at an early hour that day.

And it is recommended, that all justices of the peace and members of the committee, obtain and bring forward all signatures of the declaration of submission that may be taken, in order to lay before the committee, and forward to government, with such address or commissioners on the part of the country as may be thought advisable.


YORKTOWN, 29th Sept'r, 1794.
SIR:—The Governor has received a very honorable recommendation, for issuing a Commission in your favor, as Surgeon to the Marsh Creek Troop of Horse, on the western Expedition, and he directs me to inform you, that the recommendation shall be complied with upon our arrival at Carlisle. In the meantime, you will be pleased to consider yourself regularly appointed.

I am, Sir,
Y'r most obed. serv't,
A. J. DALLAS, Secretary.



READING, Septem. 29, 1794, Monday.
DEAR SIR:—I arrived here last evening, having before I left Philadelphia, forwarded the alotment of arms and Camp equipage for Bucks County delivered to an officer sent from the County—nearly the proportion for Montgomery delivered to Col. Wentz who commands the quota from that County, the proportions for Chester and Delaware fully sent on to Downingtown. A great part of the supplies for York and Lancaster actually loaded, and some gone on, and arrangements made for the furnishing the Militia which were assembling at Reading, for which the arms and part of the Stores are arrived and the rest on the road. I found great difficulty in procuring carriage, few teams coming in from the Country, by which the Counties of York & Lancaster were supplied later than I could wish, and the Camp equipage for Harrisburgh & Carlisle are yet to come on, but I expect will move from the City this day or tomorrow. In short I have forwarded the stores as fast as I could procure them from the public Stores, and in many instances the Waggons have waited for the delivery from thence, and We shall be greatly deficient in Knapsacks and Horsemen's tents, which I could not procure fast enough for the demand, and having issued them fully as they were provided. I fear those who are latest in making the field will be most deficient, and some of the back Counties entirely without, but I have urged Col. Hodgdon to forward them as they are prepared to Harrisburgh or Carlisle.

[322] Colonel Hamilton expressed a surprize at our calling for so many arms, but I stated to him in writing the cause. There are 1,000 muskets & 500 rifles at Carlisle, where the Counties of Dauphin, York, Cumberland & Franklin must be furnished. I know it is disagreeable to the Militia to march without arms, but it cannot be avoided.

Col. Cowperthwait had collected above 400 men in the encampment at Peters's farm who were fully furnished with everything they required. The drafts from the County continued to come in, and he proposed marching to-morrow. I wrote to him expressing your anxiety for his marching and that no arms would remain to issue after Monday, but if the drafts continued to come in greater numbers than their quota, that he would apply direct to Colonel Hodgdon and get him to state their case to the Secretary of the Treasury, as I was under a necessity of proceeding to the Counties.

Captain Taylor's Corps marches this day from the City by way of Lancaster. Capt. Forrest's troop moved on Saturday for this place. At Norristown I found the Militia of Montgomery assembling. I urged them to hasten, but they will not march for here till Tuesday. To-morrow I expect the Bucks County Militia, here, and on Wednesday those of this County assemble, till when, I think my presence necessary here. I hear nothing from Northampton.

Permit me to suggest to you that the whole of our State Militia, except the Cavalry (who I suppose are at Carlisle should encamp on the other side of Susquehanna on the first good ground that can be found, which I am told is not nearer than Robert Whitehill's farm, and that they should remain there some days till organized. I could there supply them with everything required while the magazines at Carlisle are forming, and which I suspect are not yet in readiness, and we shall be near enough to be considered at the general rendezvous. I fear that near Harrisburgh it is too sickly to remain, but Mr. B. Fox, who will be there, will take your orders till I arrive, which I expect will be on Friday.

I send this by two gentlemen of the City troop who remained to escort Mr. Brown, D. P. M. Gen'l, but he has not yet arrived here but is expected to-night and has a sufficient escort with him.

I am with great respect, Dear Sir,
Your most obed't Serv't,

I have issued Blankets to the most necessitous and have about 6 or 800 blankets coming on.

[323] The rear of the Jersey Troops march from here to-morrow under Gen'l White. Gen'l Henry Miller, Q. M. G., is gone to Virginia.

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


PHILAD'A, 29th Sept., 1794.
At a meeting of the citizens appointed to procure Subscriptions for the relief of the families Of persons who have marched against the western insurgents, John Barclay. Esq., was appointed Treasurer to the Funds, and to whom the monies collected will be paid. The following persons were appointed to distribute to the necessitous families of their respective wards, viz:

For New-Market ward, David Smith.
Dock ward, Levi Hollingsworth.
Walnut ward, James Cox.
South ward, Persifor Frazer.
Lower Delaware, Andrew Bayard.
Chestnut ward, John Stille.
Middle ward, Israel Whelen.
North ward, James Ash.
High street ward, Mahlon Hutchinson.
Upper Delaware, William Montgomery.
South Mulberry, Andrew Guyer.
North Mulberry, Godfrey Haga.

Published by order of the Meeting.



September 29th, 1794.
The Commanding officer of the First Troop of Philadelphia Light Horse, feels himself bound, by duty, as well as inclination, to acknowledge and applaud the conduct of the Troop under his command, during the late march. Their strict attention to orders—their decent and gentlemanly deportment towards the inhabitants, and that spirit of harmony and accommodation which they uniformly displayed, are happy pre- [324] sages of the success which must attend the patriotic cause in which they are engaged. May that noble spirit be ever continued as the surest means of obtaining the objects for which we contend—punishment of the guilty violated of the laws of our Country, and submission to them by all descriptions of Citizens—on which depend the Peace, Liberty and Safety of the


* JOHN DUNLAP was born at Strabane, county of Tyrone, Ireland in 1744. He came to this country at the early age of eight or nine, and served an apprenticeship at printing with his uncle, William Dunlap. In 1771 he assumed the business of his relative and issued "The Pennsylvania Packet or General Advertiser," and subsequently became one of the most extensive and successful printers in the country. During the occupancy of Philadelphia by the British, 1777-8, his paper was published at Lancaster. In connection with David C. Claypole, in 1784, it was issued daily—the first in the United States. The "North American" is the successor of Mr. Dunlap's paper. Prior to the Revolution Mr. Dunlap was a member of the City Troop, first as cornet and afterwards as lieutenant, and was with that company in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, &c. About the close of the war he became captain of the troop, and was in command during the Insurrection of 1794, Mr. Dunlap subscribed £4,000, in 1780, to supply provisions for the American army. He died on the 27th of November, 1812, in the sixty-eighth year of his age, and was buried with all the honors of war.


Captain—John Dunlap.
1st Lieut.—David Lenox.
2d Lieut.—Thomas Lieper.
2d Lieut.—William Hall
Cornet—John Lardner.
Adjutant—Jacob Cox.
Quarter Master—John Donaldson,
Surgeon—James S. Ewing,

Samuel Howell, jun., William Wilcocks,
Francis Johnston, Robert C. Latimer,
David H. Conyngham, Daniel Williams,
John Meese, George McCall,
John Redman, Robert Andrews,
William Lardner, William Forrest,
Robert Smith, Meredith Clymer,
325] William Miller, sen., Henry Nixon,
Joseph B. McKean, Michael Keppele,
Andrew Pettit, Henry Wikoff,
Robert Hiltzheimer, John Melbeck,
Francis West, Charles Ross,
John Caldwell, Richard Willing,
Robert Rainey, Benjamin Ringgold,
Benjamin Morgan, Daniel S. Delany,
Anthony Benezet, Robert Lewis,
Samuel Wheeler, William Phillips,
Joseph Marsh, William S. Budden,
Robert S. Bickley, Joseph Simmons,
David C. Claypoole, Francis Nichols,
John Vaughan, Benjamin F. West,
Jonathan Robeson, Patrick Moore,
Jonathan Williams, William W. Burrows,
William Miller, jun.,  


READING, Octo. 2, 1794.
DEAR SIR:—The President was here last Night and Went on this morning to Carlisle. He was urgent that the Militia should be hastened, and by Colonel Hamilton's directions, I have sent One of my Assistants down the road to hasten the Montgomery & Bucks Militia, part of which will certainly be here to-night.

There are about 90 men Armed from Northampton which are nearly all we may expect from there. The Cavalry of this County are by this time at Carlisle. Capt. Spade has a fine Company of Infantry ready to march, & I shall hasten the drafts from the County off to-morrow but do not expect they will be numerous, but I shall urge the whole to push on as the Secretary of the Treasury directed me to have them by all means ready to march from Carlisle on the 10th, but to provide means for the march of any that might follow.

I am very uneasy at being Detained, but cannot leave here before sometime to-morrow, especially as the Stores from Philadelphia are not come on, from which I am in dread of some disappointment in their being detained by the United States, agreeably to the orders left by me. Mr. Dallas' Waggon went on with my Own this morning. I have appointed Dr. Forrest, of Harrisburgh, (by whom this goes) to be Brigade Quarter Master to the 3d, or Gen'l Chambers' Brigade. Mr. Wm. M. [326] Biddle comes on in the same Capacity with the 2d, in Gen'l Murray's Brigade.

In hopes of having the honour to join you shortly, I am,

With the greatest Respect,
Your Excellency's Mo. Obed. Serv't,

Cap. Forrest's Troop from Philad. County marched from here this morning.

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


CARLISLE, Oct'r 2d, 1795 [1794].
SIR:—I have seen your General Orders respecting the quota of Militia of Pennsylvania, for general defence, and entertain the most gratefull sense of the honor you have done me, in appointing me to the chief Command. It is respectable with regard to number, & I hope to make it so in all respects, if our services should be called for. I am not accustomed to much boasting, but hope you will allow me to flatter myself that, at least no discredit will attend the State you represent, by the appointments you have made on this occasion. I am highly gratified in the selection you have been pleased to make in the other general officers who are associated with me, most of them veterans who have been tried, and their merit long acknowledged; their experience and ablities, which I am confident will be exerted, must lessen to me the difficulty unavoidably attending so arduous a duty. I have written to Generals Chambers & Wilson to meet me soon, to make the nceessary arrangements in our district.

From the enquireys I have made, I fear there will be great deficiency of arms. If Dauphin County had been joined to the first division, I think it would have made the divisions more equal, & been more convenient for the people, perhaps this has been an error, or probably there may be reasons that have not occurred to me, I wish not to make any difficulty.

Sundry Staff Officers are omitted, but whether you think their appointment yet unnecessary, or whether you mean to leave that to me, I know not, but will be much obliged by information. You know sir, that neither the Adjutant General nor Quartermaster General are or can properly march or take the field, but when you do—and Deputies for so numerous a detachment [327] will be indispensably necessary, so will Commissarys, both of provision & military stores, and a Surgeon or Director General of the Hospital—as for Division, Brigade & Regimental Staff, they can be taken from the line when assembled. I hope you will excuse these suggestions—I should not make them, if I was not convinced you wish everything complete, & that I think it more than probable, the confusion and distress occasioned by the prevailing sickness, may have occasioned it to escape both you & your officers, whose duty it was, more immediately to enter into detail.

With the highest respect & esteem,
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your most obed't Humble Servant,

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.

P. S.—If you consider it your province to make the appointments mentioned, I ask the favor of you, to appoint Doctor Robert Johnston, of Franklin County, Surgeon or Director General.

Private.—If you think it proper (but otherwise by no means) I would like to have the first part of this letter published.

W. I.

The Governor.


Resolutions of the delegates of Townships, of the 14th of August, assembled at Parkinson's Ferry on the 2d of October, agreeable to the notice in the Pittsburgh Gazette.

Revolved, That it is the unanimous opinion of this meeting, that if the signature of the submission be not universal, it is not so much owing to any existing disposition to oppose the laws, as to a want of time and information to operate a correspondent sentiment; and with respect to the greatest number, a prevailing consciousness of their having had no concern in any outrage, and an idea that their signature would imply a sense of guilt.

Resolved, unanimously. That we will submit to the laws of the United States; that we will not, directly or indirectly, oppose the execution of the acts for raising a revenue on distilled spirits and stills, and that we will support, so far as the law requires, the civil authority in affording the protection to all officers [328] and to the citizens, reserving, at the same time, our constitutional rights of petition and remonstrance.

Resolved, unanimously, That in our opinion, in the four counties of Pennsylvania, westward of the Allegheny mountains, there is a general disposition to submit to all laws of the United States, and determined to support the civil authority in their execution.

Resolved, unanimously, That William Findley, of Westmoreland county, and David Redick, of Washington county, be appointed commissioners to wait on the President of the United States, and the Governor of Pennsylvania, with a copy of these resolutions, and to explain to government the present state of this country, and detail such circumstances as may enable the President to judge whether an armed force be now necessary to support the civil authority in those counties.

Resolved, unanimously, That the secretary transmit a copy of these resolutions, by post, to the President of the United States, and to the Governor of Pennsylvania, and have them printed in the Pittsburgh Gazette.



United States, Pennsylvania District, ss:
Before me, Richard Peters, Judge of the District Court in the United States, in the Pennsylvania District, appeared Alexander Addison, of the town of Washington, in the State of Pennsylvania, and made oath that he was present at Brownsville, or Redstone old fort, in the county of Fayette and State of Pennsylvania, on the 28th and 29th of August last, when what was called the Standing Committee met to receive the report of the committee appointed to confer with the commissioners on the part of government that the minds of all men appeared to be strongly impressed with a sense of the critical situation of this country, and the minds of almost all with a fear of opposing the current of the popular opinion, and this deponent believes these impressions were greatly increased by the appearance of a body of armed men assembled there from Muddy Creek, in Washington County, to punish Samuel Jackson as an enemy to what they called their cause.

This deponent further made oath that, on the 29th, Mr. Gallatin opened the business of the meeting by proposing a resolution, that in the opinion of that committee, it was the interest [329] of this country to accept of the terms offered by the commissioners, and by a speech of great length, stating the impolicy and danger of force in resistance of law, the incompetency of these western counties to contend with the United States and the necessity of submission. That Mr. Brackenridge followed him also at great length and to the same effect.

This deponent further made oath, that then Mr. Bradford rose and answered and opposed the various arguments used by Mr. Brackenridge and Mr. Gallatin, alluded to the revolutions in America and in France as models of imitation, and inducements to hope of success in the opposition of these counties to government, stated the capacity of these western counties from their situation as separated from the eastern country by mountains and from other circumstances to maintain a successful war against the United States, and in a state of separation to attain and secure all the essential objects and protection, safety and trade.

This deponent cannot undertake to repeat the expressions of Mr. Bradford, but is certain that he has stated the ideas which they communicated to him and his whole speech seemed manifestly calculated to keep up the opposition to government and prevent the adoption of the resolutions proposed by Mr. Gallatin.

This deponent further made oath that Mr. Bradford, in a conversation with this deponent on the 27th of September last, told this deponent that he made the speech before alluded to with a view to maintain his influence with the people under an opinion that unless some show of resistance was made to the terms of accommodation, the people would reject them and consider themselves as betrayed.



HARRISBURGH, October 3d, 1794.
To His Excellency George Washington, President of the United States of America:
SIR:—While we, the burgesses and citizens of Harrisburgh, rejoice in the opportunity of presenting our respects to a character, so justly revered and dear to Americans, we cannot but lament that we should owe it to an interruption of the peace and prosperity of our country, those constant objects of [330] your public cares. We trust, however, that the just indignation which fires the breasts of all virtuous citizens, at the unprovoked outrages committed by those lawless men, who are in opposition to one of the mildest and most equal governments of which the condition of man is susceptible, will excite such exertions, as to crush the spirit of disaffection wherever it has appeared, and that our political horizon will shine brighter than ever on a dispersion of the clouds which now menace and obscure it.

Though our sphere of action is too limited to produce any important effects, yet we beg leave to assure your excellency that, so far as it extends, our best endeavours shall not be wanting to support the happy constitution and wise administration of our government.

Signed in behalf of the borough.
ALEX. BERRYHILL, † Burgesses.


To the Burgesses and other Citizens of Harrisburgh:
GENTLEMEN:—In declaring to you the genuine satisfaction I derive from your very cordial address, I will not mingle any expression of the painful sensations which I experience from the occasion that has drawn me hither. You will be at no loss to do justice to my feelings. But relying on that kindness of

* CONRAD BOMBAUGH was a native of Lancaster county, having been born on the Chicques, about 1750. He was a mill-wright by profession, and settled, at an early period, at Standing Stone, Huntingdon, where he established a mill. About the commencement of the Revolution he removed to Highspire, and when the county of Dauphin was organized, in 1785, we find him a resident of Harrisburg. He was a prominent citizen of the new town, and was honored by the highest office in the gift of its people. He died in April, 1821, aged seventy-one years.

† ALEXANDER BERRYHILL was a native of Paxtang Dauphin county, where he was born, about 1749. He was one of the first inhabitants of the city of Harrisburg on its being laid out in 1785. He erected a house on the corner of Market street and Dewberry alley, where he resided for a number of years. He was appointed a justice of the peace by Gov. Mifflin, and served as burgess of the then flourishing town. He was an elegant pensman, and an active and intelligent citizen. He died at Harrisburg.

[331] Providence towards our country, which every adverse appearance hitherto has served to manifest, and counting upon the tried good sense and patriotism of the great body of our fellow citizens, I do not hesitate to indulge with you, the expectation of such an issue as will serve to confirm the blessings of peace we enjoy, under a constitution that well deserves the confidence, attachment and support of virtuous men. To class the inhabitants of Harrisburgh among this number, is only to bear testimony to the zealous and efficient exertions, which they have made towards the defence of the laws.



PITTSBURGH, October 3d, 1794.
His excellency the Governor of Pennsylvania:
SIR:—In haste from what is called Parkinson's ferry, in order to reach this place before the departure of the Post. I enclose you in haste, as the Post is Just Setting Out, or, as I would say, the Mail Just about to be Closed, a rough draught of a Copy of Resolutions of a meeting. They are Just as Copied Under a tree where the meeting was held. It is at the request and on behalf of the Secretary that I enclose them. He had not time to do himself that honour before my Setting Out.

I have the honour to be,
your excellency's most obedient humble Servant,


At a meeting of the inhabitants of the township of Tioga, (Formerly in Bradford county). held on the 3d day of October, 1794, took into consideration the cause of the disturbances in the four western Counties of this State, with the measures pursuing by the General and State Governments against them.

[332] General Spaulding,* Moderator.

Obadiah Gore. † Clerk.

Voted, that the Constitution of the United States is wisely calculated to secure the liberties of the people and ought to be supported.

Voted, that the powers exercised by the legislature of the general government laying an excise is strictly constitutional, that it is the duty of every citizen of the United States to support and maintain the laws of the United States, and that the Executive of the General and State Governments are justifiable in calling out the Militia to enforce a due obedience to the Laws.

Voted, that if there are existing faults in our Constitution or Laws, or abuses in the administration thereof, it is more easy and expedient to correct such faults or such abuses by constitutional means than to appeal to arms and cause a revolution in government.

Voted, that this meeting highly disapprove of the present opposition to the Constitutional laws of the United States in some of the western counties of this State.

Voted, that we stand ready (if it be required) to turn out personally with our fellow citizens of the State and of the United States, to support that free government under which we live.

Voted, that the foregoing votes be published for the information of our fellow citizens.


* SIMON SPAULDING was born at Plainfield, Conn., in the year 1741, coming with his family during the Connecticut settlement of Wyoming. He was a captain in the Revolution, and done efficient service in Sullivan's expedition. To him was due the credit of the victory at Bound Brook, where he recovered the forage the British had gathered and took a number of prisoners. In 1783, in company with several of his neighbors, he removed from Wyoming to Sheshequin in Bradford county, a location he took a fancy to in the expedition to the Genesee country referred to. The General married Ruth Shephard in 1761. He died at Sheshequin, 24th January, 1814, aged seventy-three.

† OBADIAH GORE was the eldest son of one of the heroes of Forty-Fort. He was a native of Norwich, Connecticut, removing with his father's family to Wyoming at an early day. He was a lieutenant in the Continental service, and was on the lines before New York when occurred that fearful massacre of the 3d of July, 1778. He was a member from Westmoreland to the Connecticut assembly in 1781 and 1782, and subsequently an associate judge of the court in Luzerne county on the constitution of that court under the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania, 1798. He died at Sheshequin whither he had removed with Gen. Spaulding, in 1783.


CARLISLE, 4th Oct'r, 1794.
SIR:—In order to carry into effect the assurances which were given to the Militia, that an arrangement should be made for advancing to their respective families the amount of their monthly pay, I am obliged to request that you will favor me with the returns of such as are desirous of that accommodation, distinguishing their corps and places of abode in their proper counties. My intention is to forward an Express to the county Treasurers, upon the subject, as soon as it can be regulated by a view of the returns. How far it may be proper to make it the occasion of a General Order, I submit to your better knowledge of Military business.

I am, with great esteem, Sir,
Your Most Obed. Serv't,
A . J. DALLAS, P. M. G. Penn'a Militia.

To JOSIAH HARMAR, Esquire, Adjutant General of the Militia, of Penns'a.


WASHINGTON, Oct'r 4th, 1794.
SIR:—This will be handed you by Mr. Redick, who, with Mr. Finley, waits on the Pres't of the U. S. & yourself, on the Subject of the unhappy Disturbances that have taken place here. I hope the Gloom is at length dispelled, and that the Sun will shine forth from the unclouded Heavens bright as usual.

We have had a very general meeting at Parkinson's Ferry, & concluded that it was a Duty we owed to Government & ourselves, to give the true present State of things. We hope this will be done by the Gent'n who wait upon you.

I am much mortiefied to hear that my Conduct is greatly misrepresented or entirely misunderstood in the late Occurrence. I must confess, I always disliked the Excise Law, but it was never in my mind to go farther than the Committees, who met at Pittsburgh, expressed in their Resolutions, to wit: a negative opposition.

[334] After the first Effray at Nevills, when informed of it & consulted what ought to be done, I disapproved in the Strongest Terms, of the measures. Mr. Redick can explain to you my conduct, for he was present, and I hope it will not be unpleasing to you to hear it.

My conduct has been greatly misconstrued, at the last meeting at Redstone old Fort. Other Conduct would have defeated my Design, to wit: to bring about a submission to the Laws. I believe I may say, without arrogating more to myself than is due, that I have done as much as any here, towards a Reconciliation & Submission to the Laws. Mr. Redick was, in a great measure, witness to my Conduct in affecting this desirable End.

Had I acquiesced in the Terms, when first offered by the Com'rs the people, I am convinced, would have believed I had been bribed. A multitude dispersed over a Country cannot, in a Day, be reasoned into opinions & measures as an Individual may.

In fine, Sir, let me pray you to suspend your opinion respecting my Conduct, till time & a future Explanation will throw more light & afford means of a more correct Judgment thereon.

I am with sentiments of the highest Esteem & regard,
Y'r mo. Ob't humble Serv't,



CARLISLE, 5th Oct'r, 1794.
SIR:—In obedience to a Resolution of the General Assembly, I have transmitted to you herewith, a copy of the Act, entitled "An Act to provide for suppressing an Insurrection in the Western counties of this Commonwealth;" and also, a copy of an Act, entitled "An Act to enable such of the Militia of this Commonwealth as may be on service and absent from their respective counties, to vote at the next General Election."

I am, Sir,
Your Most Obed. Serv't,
A. J. DALLAS, Secretary.

To the respective Field Officers and Captains of the Militia on the Western Expedition.


WILKESBARRE, October 5th, 1794.
SIR:—This will be handed to you by Mr. George Eddy, who hath spent a few days in this County, I believe, much to the advantage of Government. At this Crisis, I think it my duty to inform you of the sentiments of this County, as nigh as my information will enable me to do it. The Inhabitants of Wilkesbarre and its neighbourhood are warmly attached in support of Government, and so are the well informed throughout the County. Where anything has been said in favour of the Insurgents, it is amongst the Ignorant, those opposed to any Government, and the disaffected in the late War; but as information gains ground daily, I hope we shall soon be unanimous of favour of Government in this County. As an assurance of our warm attachment to the present Cause of Supporting Government and quelling the Western Insurgents, we have embodied a company of Infantry which have this day marched forward; they have elected their Officers, Certificates whereof is enclosed. I hope this measure & their Conduct will meet your approbation. Should you have Occasion for more assistance and our frontier Situation warrant the measure, there are numbers in this County who have declared their willingness, if called upon, to turn out in Support of Government—amongst them, I may mention Col'n. Franklin, who always leads with him a Strong party. After taking advisement, I have lent to Capt. Samuel Bowman, the Publick muskets entrusted to my care, for the use of his company, with a few Catriges for their Safety. Perhaps they never can be used in a better Cause, neither may they be safe on their march without arms, as this is a voluntary business. I hope my Conduct therein may meet your approbation.

I am, Sir,
Your Obedient and very Humble Servant,

His Excellency THOMAS MIFFLIN, Esq'r, Governor of Pennsylvania.

* JESSE FELL was a native of Bucks county, born in 1751, removing early to Luzerne. He was elected sheriff of the latter county and after the expiration of his term of office, was appointed by Gov. Mifflin associate judge, a position he held for thirty-five years. To him the credit is due for demonstrating by actual experiment, on the 11th of February, 1808, the burning of anthracite coal in a grate. In this particular he was a public benefactor, and deserves to be held in remembrance by the people of Pennsylvania. Judge Fell was a member of the Society of Friends. He died at Wilkes-Barre, August 11 1830.


WILKEBARRE, October 6th, 1794.
SIR:—I have just returned from my tour up this River, & I have the pleasure to tell you that the Inhabitants where I have traveled, are all attached to the Gen'l Government, and are disposed to do everything in their power to support it. Two meetings were called, one at Tioga & one at Wyalusing, & each passed some votes expressive of this Disposition, which I suppose maybe published.

I have inclosed to Captain Bowman, a letter directed to him & his Company, signed by Maj'r Saturlie, Capt. Matthewson Spalding and others, expressing their good wishes, & that they will back his Company if times should go hard, &c., which letter I wish you would read.

All that I can tell you about the treaty, is that the Oneida, Cayuga & Onondagua Indians, amounting to 150, had arrived at the place of the Treaty, & those at Buffaloe, (the Senecas, Mohawks, &c.,) had sent word by their Runners, that they should arrive by the 8th instant. It is expected it will be a great treaty, that is, the Indians will generally attend. This intelligence I had from Esq. Maxwell, of Tioga point, who had just arrived from the place of Treaty, & had seen the Indians. It is reported at the Lakes, that at the Garrisons of Detroit & Niagara, the people are in great consternation on account of the threat of the Indians, & it is expected the Indians will turn their arms on the British, take the Garrison & join the Americans, because the British have not supported them in the War agreeable to promise—ever since their late action with Gen'l Wayne, (in which they lost 300 warriors,) they have been disaffected towards the British. It is further reported that Gov. Simcoe has disappeared (& is not to be found) on account of the disturbance raised by the Indians—this news, I fear, is too good to be true.

I cannot express how much success, honor & pleasure I wish may attend you in your Expedition. My heart is with you. I know you will be overjoyed at meeting your own Company in the camp, and I am persuaded, too, that you will not forget our Little Band of Heroes who marched with you from this place.

I shall write to Capt. Bowman & if I have time, to some others of his Company.

I am, sir, with esteem & Respect,
Your most obed't Servant,



PHILA, 6th October, 1794
SIR:—Your letter of the fourth instant, to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, was this day received by Express. As the Secretary has gone with the Governor to Carlisle, I will as soon as possible transmit a copy of your letter to him for the consideration of the Governor. At present, I wish you to be informed that the doubts you mention have not been entertained here; the Brigade Inspectors of the City and County of Philadelphia, having, under the instructions from the Governor, proceeded to draft from the first, second, third and fourth classes of the Militia of their Brigades, and I believe the same has been done in the neighboring counties.

As soon as I receive an answer, it shall be forwarded with all dispatch.

I am, Sir,
Your Most Obed. Serv.,
JAMES TRIMBLE, Dept'y Sec'ry.

To JOHN CRAIG, Esquire, Brigade Inspect, of the County of Northampton.


Return of the Philadelphia troop of Volunteer Greens, commanded by Matthew McConnell, now doing duty in the army of the United States at the encampment near Carlisle, October 8, 1794:

* JAMES TRIMBLE was born in Philadelphia, July 19, 1755. His father dying when quite young and being a good pensman, he was apprenticed a clerk in the Land Office under James Tilghman about 1770. In March, 1777, he became assistant to Col. Timothy Matlack, Secretary of the Supreme Executive Council, and under the Commonwealth was successively appointed deputy secretary down to January 14, 1835, the administration of Gov. Ritner, covering a period of fifty-nine years. Mr. Trimble married, in April, 1782, Clarissa, widow of John Hastings. Her maiden name was Claypoole and she was a descendent of Oliver Cromwell. She died at Lancaster, Feb. 6, 1810. Mr. Trimble assisted to remove the State records from Philadelphia to Lancaster in 1799, and from Lancaster to Harrisburg in 1812. He died at Harrisburg 26th January, 1836.

[338] Matthew McConnell, Captain,
John Morrell, First Lieutenant.
John D. Blanchard, Lieut. & Adjut.
John Cumming, Surgeon.
John Inskeep, Quarter Master
George Weed, Assistant do.


John Sitgreaves, George Lauman,
Henry Miercken, William Brown,
R'bt Crozier, Peter Wikoff, Jun.,
Joshua B. Bond, John Davis
William Massey, Henry Toland,
Charles Harris, James Grubb,
David McCormick, William Meredity,
Jonathan Smith, Jun., Franklin Wharton,
William Moore Smith, John Crosby,
William McFadden, William Mott,
Matthias Sadler, Henry L. Waddell,
James Biggs, Alexander Cochran,
Joseph R. Tatem, Samuel N. Potts,
James Bacon, Richard W. Meade,
Richard Potter, William Hunter,
Edward Price, Caleb Foulke,
John Morgan Price, Adam Hoops,
John Fairhairn, David Levy,
Robert Campbell, Charles Francis.

William Sergeant, acting as Brigade Major and Aid de Camp to General Proctor,
Jacob Gideon, Trumpeter.
Enrolled men equipped by the troop:
George Rawlin, William B. Smith, Martin Lombert, Joseph Blythe, Chas. Tallman.


NORTHUMBERLAND, October 8th, 1794.
SIR:—It is with pain we are under the necessity to inform you, that a very disorderly and riotous spirit exhibits itself in several parts of this county, and particularly in Buffaloe & this town. We do not think that any Treasonable attempts against the Constitution & Laws of the United States are intended as yet [339] by our Northumberland anarchists, but it is hard to say with confidence, that an outrage may not hereafter be committed on the public peace, as a number of Liberty-poles (as they are erroniously called) have lifted their baneful & poisonous heads in several parts of the county. These poles have already been productive of much riot & confusion, & they still prove a standard for rioters to flock round. A few well disposed citizens ventured to cut down the pole, which was erected in this Town. A few days after, a second & much larger one was raised (by the same persons who were active in the first) and with more circumstances of irritation & firment than the former.

This pole was also cut down by order of Capt. Bowman, who arrived here yesterday with his Company of Luzerne Volunteers. The Town now seems quiet, but how long the calm may continue is difficult to determine. Under all these circumstances, we thought it most advisable to request the stay of Capt. Bowman & his company for a few days, until we can raise & equip a company of volunteers for the preservation of order & the suppression of riots & disorderly meetings of the people in this county. We hope that our example will be followed in this respect, in other parts of the county.

Capt. Bowman has very politely agreed to the above requisition, on condition that we would undertake to inform your Excellency the reason of his stay. Capt. Bowman requests that Mr. George Eddy, a volunteer in Capt. McPherson's Blues, may be permitted to remain in his company until he arrives at Carlisle.

Capt. Bowman is a very Gentlemanly Officer; his conduct since his arrival has given universal satisfaction to all good citizens; his company consists of about fifty men, all in full uniform, & in high spirits.

We are, With Respect,
Y'r Excellency's ob't Serv'ts,
WM. WILSON Br. Genr'l,
BER'D HUBLEY, Brig'e Insp'r.


NORTHUMBERLAND, October 9th, 1794.
SIR:—Agreeably to the furlough given me by Major McPherson, I left the City on the 20th ult'o, and on my arrival at Wioming, Immediately in Co-operation with the leading People there, got resolves Expressive of their attachment to Government [340] Passed, and likewise raised a company of Volunteers under Capt. Bowman, who have marched this far on their ways to Camp. General Wilson and all the other friends to government, having been overawed & Insulted, by a set of Lawless People for sometime past, have requested Capt. Bowman to halt here in order to raise a Standard to which the friends of order may repair and Embody themselves to Defend the Civil authority in Executing the Laws; it has already had a good Effect. William Bonam and others in this Town have Submitted. As I have acted so much at my own discretion, I must still Continue absent from my Corps, and by your Execellency's Sanction of my absence, but if you think it proper that I should leave Capt. Bowman, will Instantly Join my Company in Camp. General Wilson thinks our remaining here six Days will be Sufficient to answer all the purposes proposed by halting at this place; therefore, on the 15th Inst. Capt. Bowman proposes marching by the Rout Enclosed unless Countermanded by your Excellency.

General Wilson Expects he will be accompanied by about 100 men, which, I believe, is as great a number of friends to Government as he can Raise in this County on the present occasion; Capt. Bowman's Strength is about 50. If you should think proper to order a Troop of Horse over to accompany us or to meet us in our Rout, they might render Esential services in seizing the Disaffected; you will pardon my taking the Liberty of this Suggestion. Capt. Bowman is very anxious to receive your orders to march towards Camp.

I am, Sir,
Your most obed't
h'ble Serv't,

His Excellency, Gov. MIFFLIN.

P. S.—William Ross, Esquire, of Luzerne County, will deliver these Dispatches to your Excellency. His sword which he carries with him will be an honorable Passport to your notice, haveing been presented to him on an occasion similar to the present. He can inform you of the Steps hitherto taken and of the Disposition of the People up the river. The Commissions of the officers of the Luzerne Volunteers, I suppose, will bear date from the Time of their Election, which will appear by Mr. Fell's Letter Enclosed to you.

I enclose you a letter from Mr. Catlin, which perhaps may be useful.

The Rout to Bedford which General Wilson Recommends for the Troops under Capt. Bowman, now at North'd, in case they could receive the Governor's orders to march there, is as follows:

[341] From North'd to Derr's Town, 1 Liberty Pole, . . . 8 Miles.
To Bilmyer's, 1 Liberty Pole, . . . 2
To Wilson's Tavern, 2 Poles, . . . 16
To Aaronsburgh, . . . 16
To Hanford's Hostile, . . . 16
To Vanhorn's & Montgomery's, . . . 18
To Juniatta, . . . 4
To Water Street, . . . 6
To Frankstown, . . . 12

After this we are unacquainted with the Stages and must Expect the Governor's orders.



CARLISLE, Octob. 10, 1794.
SIR:—The President thinks he ought not to leave this place without a formal expression of the very poignant regret he has felt at the unfortunate accidents which happened, in two instances, previous to his arrival at this place, having occasioned the death of two persons; and of his extreme solicitude that all possible pains may be taken to avoid, in future, not only accidents of a similar kind, but all unauthorized acts of injury to the persons or property of the inhabitants of the country through which the army may march. It is a very precious & important idea that those who are called out in support & defence of the Laws, should not give occasion, or even protect to impute to them infraction of the laws. They cannot render a more important service to the cause of government & order, than by a conduct scrupulously regardful of the rights of their fellow citizens and exemplary for decorum, regularity & moderation.

The vindication of the just authority of the laws, by effectual yet legal means, will not be neglected; but all good citizens must unite in the wish that none other may be employed.

The President is not unaware of the circumstances of justification or excuse which have attended the accidents to which an allusion had been had. They afford him much consolation. Yet, as it is always important to cultivate the confidence & affections of the citizens at large, as it is frequently very difficult to cause circumstances which justify or excuse to be properly & generally understood, it is desirable that there should be an increased vigilance & caution to avoid anything that may require explanation.

These observations & sentiments I have the honor to communicate by the special direction of the President.

[342] It has also been mentioned to him, that among various false reports in circulation, contrived, no doubt, to check the zeal of the Militia for the service they are to perform, it is given out that the real ultimate intention is to employ them against the British posts or against the savages; he therefore desires me to authorize and instruct you to declare in his name to the troops, that no such intention has been or is entertained; that the sole object of their march was & is the suppression of the insurrection which exists in the Western counties in this State, & that their continuance in service will not be protracted a moment longer than is essential to this object.

In consideration of the difficulty of supplying, with exactness, certain small articles, which enter into the composition of the ration, owing to the extent of the demand & the shortness of the time to provide, I have the President's permission to inform you, that whenever the state of the supply will admit of it, there will be added to each ration of beef issued, a quarter of a pound.

With great respect & esteem,
I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obed't serv't,

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


CARLISLE, 10th October, 1794.
SIR:—As I understand you have arrived with a Volunteer Company of Infantry, at Sunbury, I am induced, by the request of the Brigadier General and Brigade Inspector of Northumberland County, to consent to your remaining there for six days, or any longer period that may be essentially necessary to preserve peace and order. After that object is accomplished, I wish you to join the Army at Bedford, by the best and most expeditious route.

I am, Sir,
Your Most Obed. H'ble Serv.,



STRASBURG, 7 o'clock P. M.,
Oct'r 7th, 1794.
SIR:—I had the Honor to Receive your Letter enclosing the Route, and had fixed my posts in the requisite Order. The Election is to be held at Fort Littleton of which the Pennsylvania Gentlemen are informed. Provisions are ordered to be drawn by the Whole, at the same time & for an equal Number of Days. The Troops are in high Spirits & to-morrow we ascend the Mountain, as the Hill is called. If there had been forage elsewhere I should have proceeded further this Day, but to-morrow I will reach Fort Littleton. My Compliments await the Gentlemen of you Corps, & All is well.

I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your most Obedient H'mble Serv't,
Command'g, &c.

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


WAR DEPARTMENT, Oct. 14, 1794.
SIR:—I am directed by the President of the United States, to arrest the march of all the Jersey Militia, whether Cavalry, Artillery or Infantry, who had not crossed the Delaware on the twelfth. You will, therefore, please to order all those who have arrived at Trenton, or who shall arrive, to return to their respective homes. Let this be made known extensively.

I am, Sir, with respect,
Your obedient servant,
H. KNOX, Sec'ry of War.

Major PARROT, Commanding Officer of Trenton.


CARLISLE, October 17th, 1794.
To GEORGE WASHINGTON, Esq., President of the United States:
SIR:—We, the subscribers, inhabitants of this borough, on behalf of ourselves and our fellow citizens, friends to good order, government and the laws, approach you at this time, to express our sincere admiration of those virtues which have been uniformly exerted with so much success, for the happiness of America, and which, at this critical period of impending foreign and domestic troubles, have been manifested with distinguished lustre.

Though we deplore the cause which has collected in this borough all classes of virtuous citizens, yet it affords us the most heartfelt satisfaction to meet the Father of our Country and brethren in arms, distinguished for their patriotism, their love of order and attachment to the constitution and laws; and while on the one hand we regret the occasion which has brought from their homes men of all situations, who have made sacrifices unequalled in any other country, of their private interests to the public good, yet we are consoled by the consideration, that the citizens of the United States have evinced to our enemies abroad and the foes of our happy constitution at home, that they not, only have the will but possess the power to repel all foreign invaders and to crush all domestic traitors.

The history of the world affords us too many instances of the destruction of free governments by factions and unprincipled men. Yet the present insurrection and opposition to government is exceeded by none, either for its causeless origin or for the extreme malignity and wickedness with which it has been executed.

The unexampled clemency of our councils, in their endeavors to bring to a sense of duty the western insurgents, and the ungrateful returns which have been made by that deluded people, have united all good men in one common effort, to restore order and obedience to the laws, and to punish those who have neglected to avail themselves of, and have spurned at the most tender and humane offers that have ever been made to rebels and traitors.

We have viewed with pain, the great industry, art and misrepresentations which have been practised, to delude our fellow citizens. We trust that the effort of the general government, the combination of the good and virtuous against the vicious [345] and factious, will cover with confusion, the malevolent disturbers of the public peace, and afford to the well disposed the certainty of protection to their persons and property.

The sword of justice in the hands of our beloved President, can only be considered as an object of terror by the wicked, and will be looked up to by the good and virtuous as their safeguard and protection.

We bless that Providence which has preserved a life so valuable through so many important scenes, and we pray that He will continue to direct and prosper the measures adopted by you, for the security of our internal peace and stability of our government, and that after a life of continued usefulness and glory, you may be rewarded with eternal felicity.


GENTLEMEN:—I Thank you sincerely for your affectionate address. I feel as I ought, what is personal to me, and I cannot but be particularly pleased with the enlightened and patriotic attachment which is manifested towards our happy constitution and the laws.

When we look round and behold the universally acknowledged prosperity which blesses every part of the United States, facts no less unequivocal than those which are the lamented occasion of our present meeting, were necessary to persuade us that any portion of our fellow citizens could be so deficient in discernment or virtue, as to attempt to disturb a situation which, instead of murmurs and tumults, calls for our warmest gratitude to Heaven, and our earnest endeavors to preserve and prolong so favored a lot.

Let us hope that the delusion cannot be lasting; that reason will speedily regain her empire, and the laws their just authority, where they have lost it. Let the wise and the virtuous unite their efforts to reclaim the misguided, and to detect and defeat the arts of the factious. The union of good men is a basis on which the security of our internal peace and the stability of our government may safely rest. It will always prove an adequate rampart against the vicious and disorderly.

In any case in which it may be indispensable to raise the sword of justice against obstinate offenders, I shall deprecate the necessity of deviating from a favorite aim, to establish the authority of the laws in the affections of all rather than in the fears of any.



BEDFORD, 20th October, 1794.
SIR:—I have it in special instruction from the President of the United States, now at this place, to convey to you on his behalf the following instructions for the general directions of your conduct, in command of the militia army with which you are charged:

The objects for which the militia have been called forth are:

1. To suppress the combinations which exist in some of the western counties of Pennsylvania, in opposition to the laws laying duties upon spirits distilled within the United States and upon stills.

2. To cause the laws to be executed. These object[s] are to be effected in two ways:

1. By military force.

2. By judiciary process and Other civil proceedings.

The objects of the military force are two-fold.

1. To overcome any armed opposition which may exist.

2. To countenance and support the civil officers in the means of executing the laws.

With a view to the first of these two objects, you may proceed as speedily as may be with the army under your command, into the insurgent counties to attack, and as far as shall be in your power subdue all persons whom you may find in arms in opposition to the laws above mentioned. You will march your army in two columns from the places where they are now assembled, by the most convenient routes, having regard to the nature of the roads, the convenience of supply and the facility of cooperation and union, and bearing in mind that you ought to act until the contrary shall be fully developed on the general principle of having to contend with the whole force of the counties of Fayette, Westmoreland, Washington and Allegheny and of that part of Bedford which lies westward of the town of Bedford, and that you are to put as little as possible to hazard. The approximation, therefore, of your columns is to be sought, and the sub-division of them so as to place the parts out of mutual supporting distance to be avoided as far as local circumstances will permit. Parkinson's Ferry appears to be a proper point toward which to direct the march of the columns for the purpose of ulterior measures.

When arrived within the insurgent country, if an armed opposition appear it may be proper to publish a proclamation inviting all good citizens, friends to the constitution and laws, to [347] join the standard of the United States. If no armed opposition exist, it may still be proper to publish a proclamation exhorting to a peaceful and dutiful demeanor and giving assurances of performing with good faith and liberality whatsoever may have been promised by the commissioners, to those who have complied with the conditions prescribed by them, and who have not forfeited their title by subsequent misdemeanor.

Of those persons in arms, if any, whom you may make prisoners; leaders, including all persons in command, are to be delivered to the civil magistrates, the rest to be disarmed, admonished and sent home, (except such as may have been particularly violent and also influential,) causing their own recognizances for their good behavior to be taken in the cases which it may be deemed expedient.

With a view, to the second point namely; the countenance and support of the civil officers in the means of executing their laws, you will make such dispensations as shall appear proper to countenance and protect, and if necessary, and required by them, to support and aid the civil officers in the execution of their respective duties for bringing offenders and delinqents to justice; for seizing the stills of delinquent distillers, as far as the same shall be deemed eligible by the supervisor of the revenue or chief officer of inspection, and also for conveying to places of safe custody such persons as may be apprehended and not admitted to bail.

The objects of judiciary process, and other civil proceedings, shall be:

1. To bring offenders to justice.

2. To enforce penalties on delinquent distillers by suit.

3. To enforce the penalties of forfeiture on the same persons by the seizure of their stills and spirits.

The better to effect these purposes, the Judge of the district, Richard Peters, Esq'r., and the attorney of the district, William Rawle, Esq., accompany the army.

You are aware that the Judge cannot be controlled in his functions. But I count on his disposition to co-operate in such a general plan as shall appear to you consistent with the policy of the case. But your method of giving directions to proceedings, according to your general plan, will be by instructions to the district attorney.

He ought particularly to be instructed (with due regard to time and circumstances,)

1st. To procure to be arrested all influential actors in riots and unlawful assemblies, relating to the insurrection and combination to resist the laws, or having for object to abet that insurrection and these combinations; and who shall not have complied [348] with the terms offered by the commissioners, or manifested their repentance in some other way, which you may deem satisfactory.

2d. To cause process to issue for enforcing penalties on delinquent distillers.

3d. To cause offenders who may be arrested to be conveyed to jails where there will be no danger of rescue—those for misdemeanors, to the jails of York and Lancaster; those for capital offenses to the jail of Philadelphia, as more secure than the others.

4th. Prosecute indictable offenses in the court of the United States; those for penalties, or delinquents, under the laws before mentioned, in the courts of Pennsylvania.

As a guide in the case, the district attorney has with him a list of the persons who have availed themselves of the offers of the commissioners on the day appointed.

The seizure of stills is the province of the supervisor and other officers of inspection. It is difficult to chalk out a precise line concerning it. There are opposite considerations which will require to be nicely balanced, and which must be judged of by those officers on the spot. It may be useful to confine the seizure of stills to the most leading and refractory distillers. It may be advisable to extend them far into the most refractory county. When the insurrection is subdued and the requisite means have been put in execution to secure obedience to the laws, so as to render it proper for the army to retire, (an event which you will accelerate as much as shall be consistent with the object,) you will endeavour to make an arrangement for attaching such a force as you may deem adequate, to be stationed within the disaffected counties, in such a manner as best to afford protection to well disposed citizens, and the officers of the revenue, and to suppress by their presence, the spirit of riot and opposition to the laws.

But, before you withdraw the army, you shall promise, on behalf of the President, a general pardon to all such as shall not have been arrested, with such exceptions as you shall deem proper.

The promise must be so guarded, as not to affect pecuniary claims under the revenue law. In this measure, it is advisable there should be a co-operation with the Governor of Pennsylvania.

On the return of the army, you will adopt some convenient and certain arrangements for restoring to the public magazines, the arms, accoutrements, military stores, tents and other articles of camp equipage and entrenching tools, which have been furnished, and shall not have been consumed or lost.

[349] You are to exert yourself by all possible means, to preserve discipline amongst the troops, particularly, a scrupulous regard to the rights of persons and property, and a respect for the authority of the civil magistrates, taking especial care to inculcate and cause to be observed this principle, that the duties of the army are confined to attacking and subduing of armed opponents of the laws, and to the supporting and aiding of the civil officers in the execution of their functions.

It has been settled that the Governor of Pennsylvania will be second, the Governor of New Jersey third in command, and that the troops of the several States in line, on the march and upon detachment, are to be posted according to the rule which prevailed in the army during the late war, namely, in moving toward the seaboard, the most southern troops will take the right in moving toward the north, the most northern troops will take the right.

These general instructions, however, are to be considered as liable to such alterations and deviations in the detail, as from local and other causes may be found necessary, the better to effect the main object upon the general principles which have been indicated.

With great respect,
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,


BEDFORD, 20th October, 1794.
SIR:—From Capt. Spark's knowledge of the Western Country and its resources, I am anxious to avail myself of his service, which I consider essential in procuring the necessary supplies for the Army now on its March to that Country. If he can be permitted to engage in this business I, promise myself that from his assistance the interest of the United States and the accommodation of the troops will be greatly promoted.

ELI WILLIAMS, Agent for U. States prov'n D'ptm't.


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