Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. IV.
Reprinted under direction of Charles Warren Stone,
Secretary of the Commonwealth.
Edited by John B. Linn and Wm. H. Egle, M. D.
Harrisburg: E. K. Meyers, State Printer, 1890.


Short bio. James Edgar


21st Oct'r, 1794.
SIR:—Dr. Dorsey's indisposition having obliged him to withdraw from the Army, I find it indispensibly necessary to appoint a successor to his Office. At this distance from the seat of Government a regular Commission cannot be immediately issued, but this letter shall be your sufficient Warrant and assurance for discharging the duties and receiving the emoluments of the Office of Surgeon General to the Militia of Pennsylvania, engaged in the service of the United States upon the Western expedition.

I am, Sir,
Your mo. obed't Serv't,



HEAD QUARTERS, BEDFORD, October 21, 1794.
To-morrow, at the hour of eight in the morn'ng, the light corps will advance; Major General Morgan will lead the one, acting with the left wing, and Major General Frelinghuysen the one with the right wing. On the next day, at the same hour, the army will move in two columns—the right wing, composed of the New Jersey and Pennsylvania lines, forming the right column, under the immediate command of his Excellency Governor Mifflin; the left wing, composed of the Maryland and Virginia lines, forming the left column, with the Commander-in-Chief. The Quarter Master General will continue with the right wing, and the proper officers in his department, and in the department of Forage, attended with a sufficient number of axemen must accompany the light corps, under whose protection they are to prepare all necessaries for the army. Abundance of straw must be ready for the troops, inasmuch as their health greatly depends on their sleeping dry and warm. The utmost regularity must be preserved on the march and in the mode of [351] encampment, which must always be in two lines, with the Cavalry in the centre, unless prohibited by the nature of the ground. Dragoons are dreadful in light and impotent in darkness—their safety during night must, therefore, be regarded. The Artillery to move as a park, and march in the centre. Constant communication must be preserved between the light corps and the main body, and between the respective columns, with all other precautions necessary to protect the troops from surprise and insult.

Whatever may be the professions of the Insurgents, they are not to be regarded. Men who have acted a part so atrocious will cheerfully add to their guilt, if it can be done with impunity. Carelessness in the conduct of the army will invite attempts upon it, and produce war, while vigilance in the conduct of it will arrest the one and the other.

The different columns will be precise in the execution of the daily marches assigned to them respectively, and if, from unavoidable accidents, either should fall short one day, the deficiency is to be made up the next day, otherwise, the mutuality in operation will be lost, and the army will be exposed to the disgrace and evils of discordant movements. The particular routes, with the necessary instructions, will be given to the commanding Generals, and will, of course, form the rule of their conduct.

When the right wing reaches ____, it will divide into two columns. The New Jersey line and brigade of Cavalry, under Brigadier White, forming one column, to be commanded by his Excellency Governor Howell, will take a direction to the right, while the Pennsylvania line, with a light corps, will pursue the original route under the order of Governor Mifflin. When these columns divide, the right will move from their right, and the left, from their left. Chosen parties of Horse must follow the rear of each wing, to arrest stragglers from the line and to protect the property of individuals, to the due preservation of which, in every respect, the utmost attention is to be paid by officers of every rank.

The President of the United States being about to return to the seat of government has been pleased to direct to the Commander-in-Chief, to present to the army his affectionate wishes for their welfare and happiness. In no way can the very grateful command be as fully executed as by publishing the very words of the President, which are accordingly subjoined.

BEDFORD, Oct. 20, 1794.
To HENRY LEE, Esq., Commander-in-Chief of the Militia Army, on its march against the Insurgents in certain western counties of Pennsylvania:
SIR:—Being about to return to the seat of government, I cannot take my departure without conveying, through you, to the army under your command, the very high sense I entertain of the enlightened and patriotic zeal for the Constitution and Laws, which has led them cheerfully to quit their families and homes, and the comforts of private life, to undertake, and, thus far, to perform a long and fatiguing march, and to encounter and endure the hardships and privations of a military life. Their conduct hitherto affords a full assurance, that their perseverance will be equal to their zeal, and that they will continue to perform with alacrity, whatever the full accomplishment of the object of their march shall render necessary.

No citizen of the United States can ever engage in a service more important to their country. It is nothing less than to consolidate and preserve the blessings of that revolution which (at much expense of blood and treasure) constituted us a free and independent nation.

It is to give to the world an illustrious example of the utmost consequence to the cause of mankind. I experience a heartfelt satisfaction in the conviction, that the conduct of the troops throughout will be, in every respect, answerable to the goodness of the cause and the magnitude of the stake.

There is but one point on which I think it proper to add a special recommendation. It is this, that every officer and soldier will constantly bear in mind that he comes to support the laws, and that it would be peculiarly unbecoming in him to be in any way the infractory of them. That the essential principles of free government confine the province of the military when called forth on such occasions to these two objects:

1st. To combat and subdue all who may be found in arms in opposition to the national will and authority.

2d. To aid and support the civil magistrates in bringing offenders to justice.

The dispensation of this question belongs to the civil magistrate, and let it ever be our pride and our glory to leave the sacred deposit there unviolated.

Convey to my fellow citizens in arms my warm acknowledgments for the readiness with which they have thitherto seconded me in the most delicate and momentous duty the chief magistrate of a free people can have to perform—and add my affectionate wishes for their health, comfort and support. Could [353] my further presence with them have been necessary, or compatible with my civil duties, at a period when the approaching commencement of a session of Congress peculiarly urges me to return to the seat of government, it would not have been withheld. In leaving them, I have less regret, as I know I commit them to an able and faithful direction; and that this direction will be ably and faithfully seconded by all.


To this parental counsel of our beloved chief magistrate, the Commander begs leave to add the flattering hopes he entertains, that the conduct of the army will justify the favorable anticipations formed of it. Thus shall we establish to ourselves a character the most amiable, and exhibit to posterity a model for all future armies.

Lest, however, some individuals may have crept into the ranks callous to all the feelings of honor and virtue, and consequently the fair character, so justly due to the great body of the troops, may be snatched from them by the licentiousness of a few, the commandants of divisions, brigades, regiments, and corps, are requested to examine minutely their respective troops, before the army moves, and to dismiss all whom they may deem unworthy of participating in the honorable service into which we have embarked.

Six rounds of ammunition are to be issued to all corps as yet unfurnished. The troops are to draw two days' provisions, on all alternate days during the march. The Pennsylvania and Maryland lines to draw on one day, and the New Jersey and Virginia lines on the next day. This system will be convenient to the superintendents of provision, and consequently tends to secure punctuality in the supplies.

The Commander-in-Chief has been pleased to appoint Colonel William Alexander and Major Nelson, Deputy Adjutant Generals; Dr. Welford, Surgeon General; Majors Hand, Morgan, and Chetwood, Aids-de-Camp to the Commander-in-Chief. They are to be respected accordingly.

It is to be understood that that no appointments in the line of the army are to affect appointments of any sort hereafter made.


G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp, A. A. G.


HEAD QUARTERS, BEDFORD, Oct'r 25th, 1794.
Our conversation last Evening went fully into an explanation of the System announced in the orders of the Day.

I only, therefore, repeat to you my positive confidence in your wise and faithful execution of the part in this general operation assigned to you, and to request you will be so good as to bear in mind the extreme solicitude I feel that the Patriot Army under my command be not stained in their fair fame by the licentiousness of a few.

No Citizen is to be hurt in his Person, molested in his occupation, or injured in his Property.

I wish no Seizures of any sort, even of the deluded, as my instructions forbid the substitution of the Military for the civil authority. Suppress, therefore, I pray you, by precept and by example, every effort that may be made to lay hold of the Persons of Indiv[i]duals, and banish entirely the mistaken Idea from the Army. Soften the calamity by your mildness to every one and lull the apprehensions of the guilty by your indiscriminate civility.

Of your Troops, at the same time, take due care, their lives are pretious [precious] and their honor is more pretious.

They are not to be fired on with impunity, nor are they to be insulted by resistance.

The General Orders of the Day will exhibit the plan of March, and the enclosed Paper will inform you of the route and daily Stages.

Assure your columns of the deep Interest I take in their fame and welfare, and accept my best wishes for your health and success.

I have the honor to be
with great respect & consideration,
Your Exc'y's most obt. serv't,

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


At a meeting of the inhabitants of the Town of Greensburgh and Township of Hempfield, in the county of Westmoreland, [355] on Wednesday, the 22d day of October, 1794, convened for the purpose of giving to the deputies who are to meet at Parkinson's Ferry on the 24th inst., such unequivocal assurances of their disposition for submission to the laws, as would enable them to propose and adopt such measures on their behalf as would be decisive in manifesting their sincere regret for and abhorrence, of the late violent measures, and of their firm determination to support and yield obedience to the constitutional laws of their country. The following resolutions were proposed and adopted:

Resolved, as the sense of this meeting, That it is the duty of every good citizen to yield obedience to the existing laws of his country.

Resolved, That we discountenance all illegal acts of violence, from whatever motive, and that for redress of grievances, the privilege and right of the citizen is to petition and remonstrate if necessary.

Resolved, That we will support the civil authority and all officers in the legal exercise of their respective duties, and assist in securing for legal trial, all offenders against the laws, when called upon.

Resolved, That the citizens of this town and township will give no opposition to the opening an office of Inspection therein, should the same be contemplated by the government, and that we will use our endeavors to remove improper prejudices, and recommend a peaceable and general submission.

Resolved, That a copy of the preceding resolutions be given to one or more of the deputies for the town or township who are to meet at Parkinson's ferry, on Friday, the 24th inst., together with a copy of the assurance paper, signed by the citizens of this meeting, in order that the same may be laid before the members of the said committee, and that another copy be made out for publication in the Pittsburgh Gazette, and that the same be attested by the chairman and clerk of this meeting.

A true copy.


Thomas Hamilton, Clerk.

We, the undersigned citizens of the town of Greensburgh & township of Hempfield, in the county of Westmoreland, being desirous of living in peace and of adopting such measures as appear to us most likely to ensure the same in future, as well as to promote the real interests of the country, do severally promise, engage and certify that we will support, when legally [356] called upon, the civil authority and all officers in the due execution of their respective powers under the laws of the land, and give our assistance in bringing to legal trial all offenders against the laws; and further, that if an office of inspection for the entering of stills, &c., is opened in the said town or township or in any other part of the same county, that we will give all necessary support in protecting the same against violence; and such of us as are distillers and design continuing in the same employment promise to enter the same when such office shall be opened, and that we will use our endeavors to defeat all combinations having for object the disturbance of the public peace and opposition to the laws aforesaid. In witness we have hereunto set our hands this twenty-second day of October in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four.

A true copy.

Thomas Hamilton, Clerk.

N. B.—The above assurance or certificate was signed in the course of the evening by four hundred and twenty citizens, and it is expected the same, or something similar, will be entered into and subscribed in the other townships of the county of Westmoreland; in some parts of the same a similar assurance has been given, and in all it is expected a compliance will take place immediately.


October 24th, 1794
At a meeting of the committees of townships of the four western counties of Pennsylvania, and of sundry other citizens, held at Parkinson's Ferry, the following resolutions were unanimously adopted, viz:

1st. Resolved, That in our opinion the civil authority is now fully competent to enforce the laws and punish both past and future offenses, inasmuch as the people at large are determined to support every description of civil officers in the legal discharge of their duty.

2d. Resolved, That in our opinion, all persons who may be charged, or suspected of having committed any offense against the United States, or the State, during the late disturbances, and who have not entitled themselves to the benefits of the act [357] of oblivion, ought immediately to surrender themselves to the civil authority, in order to stand their trial; that if there be any such persons among us, they are ready to surrender themselves to the civil authority accordingly, and that we will unite in giving our assistance to bring to justice such offenders as shall not surrender.

3d. Resolved, That in our opinion, offices of inspection may be immediately opened in the respective counties of this survey, without any danger of violence being offered to any of the officers; and that the distillers are willing and ready to enter their stills.

4th. Resolved, That William Findley, David Redick, Ephraim Douglass, and Thomas Morton, do wait on the President with the foregoing resolutions.

JAMES EDGAR, * Chairman.



PHILADELPHIA, 24th October, 1794
DEAR SIR:—At a meeting of the Committee of distribution, (appointed by the Sub[s]cribers to the fund for the relief of the

* JAMES EDGAR was born in York county, Pennsylvania, on the Slate Ridge, November 15, 1744. His father's family emigrated to North Carolina; but he was never there, except on a visit to his relatives. He represented his native county in the constitutional convention of 1776. In the fall of 1779, he removed to Cross Creek Settlement, Washington county, where, with Col. John Canon, of Canonsburg, he was elected the first representative of that county. In 1781 he was elected to the council of censors. In 1788 he was appointed associate judge, which position he held until disabled by infirmity he was compelled to resign. He died on the first of January, 1806. Dr. Carnahan says of him: "This truly great and good man, little known beyond the precincts of Washington county, had a good English education; had improved his mind by reading and reflection; so that, in theological and political knowledge he was superior to many professional men . . . He lived in retirement on his farm, except when the voice of his neighbors called him forth to serve the church or the State. He was a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church, and on one occasion addressed a congregation of at least two thousand people, on the subject of the Insurrection, with a clearness of argument and a solemnity of manner, and a tenderness of Christian eloquence, which reached the understanding and penetrated the heart of every hearer. The consequence was, that few, if any, in his neighborhood were concerned in that affair."

[358] necessitous families of such of their fellow Citizens as are now serving in the City Militia on the Western expedition,) I was desired to write to you, & express the wish of the Committee, that you wou'd (if consistent with your arrangements) appoint as soon as possible, a suitable person here, to pay the Orders, (left by some of the militia,) in favor of their families, from the pay due them for their services. The number of applicants to the Committee for the benefit of this fund, is daily encreasing, which not being intended as an entire support of them, but only in aid of the allowance made by government, we are fearful, that unless some mode is devised for affording them relief, their wants must soon become very urgent, especially as cold weather is fast approaching & fuel greatly advanced in price. The Committee trust you will see the necessity of the above mentioned appointment, & have no doubt you will cheerfully make every exertion in your power to further the benevolent design of their Institution. They will be much obliged to you, to forward a list of the names of those who direct their pay to be given to their families, that they may know how to apply their assistance accordingly, & will thank you to favor them with an answer on the subject at first opportunity.

With sentiments of esteem & regard,
I am, in behalf of the Committee,
Your very humble Serv't,


CAMP BERLIN, BEDFORD, October 26th, 1794.
SIR:—You will be pleased to co-operate, as far as you are able, in raising for the maintenance of the Post at Fort Le Boeuf, one hundred and thirty men to serve six months after the expiration of the present enlistments, unless sooner discharged. The Pay and Rations will be the same as the pay and rations of the Troops of this State, now employed in the same service. I have directed Colonel Clement Biddle as Quarter Master General of Pennsylvania, to make the necessary arrangements for paying and furnishing the supplies. From them, therefore, you will receive particular instructions on that subject.

As the business will not admit of any delay, it will be proper to communicate my orders to Capt'n Denny by the most expeditious conveyance.

[359] On the other points contained in your letters, which have been received in the course of the March, I shall probably have an opportunity of personally conversing with at Pittsburgh. If not, I will write to you before I return to Philadelphia.

I am, Sir,
Your Most Obed't Serv't,

To JOHN WILKINS, Jun'r, Esquire, Brigadier General.


PITTSBURGH, October 26, 1794.
Citizens of the army advancing to the Western Country:
Serious intimations are given me that I am considered by you as greatly criminal in the late insurrection in this country, and that though I have shielded myself from the law by taking advantage of the terms of the amnesty proposed by the commissioners and sanctioned by the Proclamation of the President, yet that I shall not escape the resentment of individuals. It would seem to me totally improbable that republican soldiers, would sully the glory of voluntary rising by a single intemperate act. Nevertheless as it would wound me with exquisite sensibility, to be treated with indignity by words or looks short of violence, I beg leave to suggest to you that it is a maxim of reason, that a man "shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved," and I give you a strong presumption of my innocence, viz: that though having the opportunity of relinquishing the country, I stand firm, and will surrender myself to the closest examination of the judges, and put myself entirely on the merit or demerit of my conduct through the whole of the unfortunate crisis.



CARLISLE, Oct. 28th, 1794.
DEAR SIR:—I have at this Garrison four Companies of foot and a Troop of Horse. As they have frequently suggested their expectations of Pay, I have, by my Orders of yesterday, directed the Officers Commanding Companies, to make out muster rolls for their respective Companies and have appointed the first day of November next, for mustering the Troops.

[360] The pay of the Dragoons, I have not been able to ascertain. If any decision has taken place with you at Head Quarters, please to inform me.

I would be happy to be informed when the Troops might expect payment, as it will be among the first of their enquiries after Muster.

As I am not properly acquainted with the nature of your appointment, If this application to you should be improper, please to direct them to the proper Officer.

I am, Sir, with the greatest respect.

Your obed't serv't,

A. J. DALLAS, Esq.


Tuesday, Sept. 30, 1794.
We arrived here on Sunday at 2 o'clock and encamped at the back of the town—near us lay the Jersey troops.

Nothing material has occurred, except that yesterday a detachment of 20 horse, (of which I was one,) under adjutant Jacob Cox, was dispatched with a constable at their head, to take several of those who are here called Whiskey Boys. Two were, but some others, having notice of our approach, escaped. One of the dragoon's pistols went off by accident and shot a man in the groin, of which he since died. He was a brother to one of the persons we were in pursuit of, and during a parley at a farm-house the accident happened.

The two persons we brought in, were last night examined by the Attorney General, which proved their inveteracy to the government, & it is probable some of those gentry will soon suffer for their ill judged enmity to the best of countries and mildest of governments.

We rode through the woods in various directions in pursuit of these jockies; those we took did not appear much concerned.

At Harrisburg we found a flag erected with the words, "Liberty and Equality" on it, which we left standing as we found it, and here is a high pole with a red flag on it, describing the number of counties combined in the opposition.

This day we began to cook, which is one of the most troublesome parts of our duty. As yet we have lived very happily, [361] no disturbance having happened since we left the city. The event of the campaign appears to be quite unforseen; No one pretends to say how long we shall stay here, but I believe it will be until the infantry and artillery arrive, which will be some days first. In the meantime parties will be dispatched to apprehend those who have been most active in the mischief, and I suppose they will be tried under the act of treason.

CAMP AT CARLISLE, October 3, 1794.
On Thursday Major MacPherson, at the head of a very respectable body of young men entered this town, and yesterday 17 pieces of artillery, under Capt. Thompson with Col. Gurney's battalion, arrived and immediately encamped near us. Here is a most extensive common, admirably calculated for the present purpose. It is sufficient to encamp 10,000 men on; at present are about 1,000, including Philadelphia horse, infantry and artillery—Lancaster, Berks, &c., horse.

This day, at 12 o'clock, we witnessed a most interesting scene. It was announced that the President of the United States was approaching. Immediately the 3 troops from Philadelphia, Gurney's and Macpherson's battalions, and the artillery paraded. The horse marched down the road about two miles, followed by the Jersey cavalry in great numbers. We were drawn up on the right of the road, when our beloved Washington approached on horseback in a traveling dress, attended by his Secretary, &c. As he passed our troop, he pulled off his hat, and in the most respectful manner bowed to the officers and men; and in this manner passed the line, who were (as you may suppose) affected by the sight of their chief for whom each individual seemed to show the affectionate regard that would have been to an honored parent. As soon as the President passed, his escort followed, we joined the train, and entered the town whose inhabitants seemed anxious to see this very great and good man; crowds were assembled in the streets, but their admiration was silent. In this manner the President passed to the front of the camp, where the troops were assembled in front of the tents; the line of artillery, horse and infantry, appeared in the most perfect order; the greatest silence was observed. President approached the right uncovered, passed along the line bowing in the most respectful and affectionate manner to the officers in front; he appeared to be well pleased. The spectacle was grand, interesting and affecting—every man, as he passed along, poured forth his wishes for the preservation of this most valuable of their fellow citizens. The Jersey troops returned, before this, to their own encampment, and were not present at this last sublime instance [362] of the cheerful subordination of citizens to the call of their chief, for the support of law and order.

Here you might see the aged veteran, the mature soldier, and the zealous youth, assembled in defence of that government which must (in turn) prove the protection of their persons, family and property.

As the troops are coming in daily, there will soon be here a most formidable body of men sufficient to subdue all the opposers of government, and, if necessary, any foreign foes.

BEDFORD, October 19th, 1794.
The friends of government and to order have penetrated to the very centre of the territory of sedition. We are now encamped in the country, and at the town of Bedford, with Pittsburgh in our front and Carlisle in our rear, at distance nearly equal. The insurgents, whose seditious di[s]position and conduct, called us from our habitations of peace and ease, to the fields of war and fatigue, tremble to each extreme. They now see the rod of their offended country shaken over them with a powerful hand and shrink from it, with a degree of pusillanimity, that is equaled only by their former audacity and violence.

No applauses can exceed the merit of our scouts, for activity and perseverance. Through the shades of midnight, they pass over rough and dangerous roads to very considerable distances, apprehend the insurgents in the houses and return with them to camp before the dawn of day. Such are the exertions of citizen soldiers in defence of a constitution which they revere and of laws which they determined to support. Ten or twelve of the advocates for faction and disorder were apprehended the night after our arrival at this ground, and several more have been since brought in. For their late insurrections and proceedings, the reward of some of them, will doubtless be death.

Our number at Carlisle, tho' considerable, were yet far inferior to what are now encamped on the commons of Bedford. I do not know the precise amount, but think it must be between six and eight thousand. The troops are uncommonly healthy, well armed and accoutred. Provisions are plenty and good, the utmost harmony and order prevails throughout the line. The troops are hourly advancing in the knowledge of tactics, and improving rapidly in the use of all the implements of war. A perfect unity of spirit and motives, appears to inspire and actuate the whole. We are truly formidable; had our armament at sea been equal during the last twelve months, to our land forces at present, I am confident the American Eagle would have repeatedly sailed in triumph from the naval combat.

[363] BEDFORD, 220 miles w. from Philadelphia,
Oct. 20th, 1794.
Stupendous hills without inhabitants, narrow valleys badly cultivated, huge rocks where naught but moss has ever ventured, giddy precipices which the most daring approach with dread, headlong streams murmuring loudly at the roughness of their beds, and sickly vegetables contracted in size by the bleakness of their situation, and by deficiency of nutriment, are the only objects which have for several days past presented themselves to my view in continual succession. We have, however, at length arrived and are now encamped at a place where the enterprise and industry of man has reared more memorable monuments.

The town of Bedford does not indeed contain many houses, but some of them are sufficiently large & very convenient. A number of the buildings are stone, a few of them brick and the work not illy executed. Two or three houses are now rising which promise to be very convenient habitations.

The town of Bedford stands in a circular valley surrounded by mountains on every side except the North, where the rising ground descends to the denomination of hills. The dimensions of the valley I am not able to learn. The mountains to the N. W. are not sufficiently lofty to defend this village from the impression of the wind, and, therefore, must render its situation intensely cold in winter when they come from that quarter.

The inhabitants are, in general healthy, to this however, the present season has constituted an exception. Intermittents and some fluxes made their appearance here about the closing months of the last summer and in the beginning of the present autumn.

Of autumnal diseases scarcely the vestige remains among the troops of our regiment, nor has the diseases of winter yet made their appearance. I have endeavored to protect the troops from these more to be dreaded than the foe of which we are in search, by directing them to procure for themselves a panoply of flannel.

BEDFORD, 21st October, 1794.
Anarchy trembles, and order triumphs—consternation rides post-haste throughout the whole territory of sedition. The martial appearance, the health, the spirits and the good order of our military, exceed the most sanguine expectations of the warmest friends to order and good government. A spirit of fraternal harmony breathes throughout our whole line. Horse and Foot, Jerseyans and Pennsylvanians, regard each other in all their transactions as brethren embarked in a common cause, [364] and appear determined to co-operate, on every emergency, for that noblest of objects, the public good.

We have now in the common prison of this place, several infractors of the laws, whom the activity of our scouts have brought in, some from the distance of 40 or 50 miles. Those of them who may be clearly convicted of the greatest atrocities, will be doubtless removed from the possibility of future action. No violence is offered to any man in making him a prisoner, unless he either resists or attempts to fly—thus lenity marks the conduct of the friends to government in all their measures for re-establishing order, and more permanently securing the future peace of our country.

On the day after to-morrow we shall assume the line of march, and in two days pass the Allegheny—those everlasting hills that still rear their heads in the West. Our route will doubtless extend as far as Pittsburgh. I have a strong inclination to take around in Braddock's field—the spot where heroes formerly bled, and where an army of licentious Insurgents lately assembled, for the purpose of dictating to a powerful nation.

JONES' MILL, Oct'r 29th, 1794.
I am distressed at the ridiculous accounts sometimes published in our papers. I assure you that there has not been a single shot fired at our troops to my knowledge. The whole country trembles. The most turbulent characters, as we advance, turn out to assist us, supply forage, cattle, &c. From Washington we hear of little but fear and flight; a contrary account as to one neighborhood (Pidgeon Creek) has been sent down, but no appearance of an armed opposition, and this the only part of the country where the friends of government are not triumphant. Our army is healthy and happy; the men exhibit unexpected fortitude in supporting the continued fatigues of bad roads and bad weather.

Our march to Berlin was one of the severest kind. The ascent of a mountain in fine weather, to a single traveller, must be laborious; judge then what it must prove in a heavy rain to an army, with all their train of artillery and wagons, each private soldier carrying his arms and knapsack, yet no discontent appeared and a double allowance of whiskey made them as happy as could be; the only difficulty we have found with them, in relation to the main object, was to restrain them from eagerly apprehending those who were pointed out as Whiskey boys; their resentment appears to be pressed into the aid of their principles, but their principles still guide their passions, and those they have occasionally seized have been regularly brought [365] to the judiciary. From the advanced corps nothing but good order and good humor is heard; they precede a day's march before us, and as we come up after them we find their conduct universally applauded. On the whole, I believe it may be said with truth, that no army thus hastily collected, ever before exhibited in the aggregate so much manly fortitude and active virtue.


We, the underwritten, being called upon by the commander-in-chief to declare the current prices of the undermentioned articles, do declare them to be according to the best of our judgment, agreeably to the following specification in the counties of Fayette and Washington:


Your declarations of the good intentions of the people of Washington county, who have been pleased to depute you to present to me certain papers containing assurances of fidelity to government, cannot but excite the most agreeable sensations in my breast. To restore happiness to our deluded fellow citizens of this country, by restoring to them the competent enjoyment of the blessings flowing from the government established by the people of the United States, is the chief object of the advance of the army under my command, and its stay here will depend on the execution of the work.

Those individuals to whom may justly be attributed the awful crisis which has arrived, among the many groundless tales which they have industriously circulated to mislead their fellow citizens, in pursuit of their wicked and ambitious schemes, told them that the excise law was odious to the people, that the administration was corrupt, that British influence swayed the measures of Congress, and that under this load of complicated guilt, it was only necessary to erect the standard of opposition to government, to secure the accomplishment of your mistaken wishes.

Unfortunately for your peace and our happiness, you believed their assertions, and a species of violence, disgraceful to the name and character of the United States, ensued; they told you too, that no army could be brought into action against you by the government, and had the audacity to repeat their assertion, even after the troops had reached their points of rendezvous.

Such was your delusion, that no counter declaration on the part of government obtained any credit. At length you begin to discern the truth and to know your real good. You see a formidable force suddenly collected in obedience to the law of Congress, crossing the mountains at a very inclement season of the year, determined to subdue all who may dare to resist, and anxious to protect all who submit to the constitution and laws.

Hereafter you cannot credit the tales of the vicious and designing, because your experience of their baseness and falsehood is so impressive and solemn as to leave not a doubt in your minds of the perils to which they have exposed your lives and fortunes. Derive wisdom from experience; confide not in the man who courts your respect by defaming your government, [367] and be as sincere in your active endeavors to restore order, as you are warm in your professions to do so; then will my task be easy, and your future felicity certain.

Return to your country, and asure your fellow citizens, that no man will receive injury, either in person or property, from the army. Advise them to bring to our camp all the necessaries of life they may have to spare, for which promise them, from me, a fair price in cash. Tell them it is the pride, as it is the duty of all my fellow citizens in arms with me, to maintain, and not to violate the laws of our country; and tell them further, that such is the positive injunction of the President of the United States; at the same time, mention to all my expectation that exactions in price will not be attempted by any, because it would not only manifest a want of sincerity in the professions of friendship which have been made on the part of the inhabitants, but would convey a desire to deprive the troops of those articles essential, not only to their comfort, but to their health, to which deprivation no consideration can induce me to submit them.


By the Commander-in-Chief: G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp.


UNION TOWN, November 1, 1794.
Messrs. Findley, Reddick, Douglass and Morton, inform the inhabitants of the counties of Westmoreland, Washington, Fayette and Allegheny, that in consequence of their appointment to wait on the President of the United States, they proceeded on that duty, but on their way to Bedford, where it was expected the President might probably be seen, they learned that he had left the army for the seat of government; they, therefore, on consideration, took the right wing of the army, commanded by the Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, in their way, where they conversed with the Governor as well as with the Secretary of the Treasury on the subject of their mission, and proceeded to the other wing, to Governor Lee, of Virginia, (the commander-in-chief,) who after receiving the various papers and faithful information, which they could give, presented them with the following letter which they now lay before the people for their serious consideration:

[368] Henry Lee to Messrs. Findley, Reddick, Morton and Douglass, deputies from the people of the counties of Fayette, Washington, Allegheny and Westmoreland.

GENTLEMEN:—The resolutions entered into at the late meeting of the people at Parkinson's Ferry, with the various papers declaratory of the determination of the numerous subscribers to maintain the civil authority, manifest strongly a change of sentiment in the inhabitants of this district. To what cause may truly be ascribed this favorable turn in the public mind, it is of my province to determine.

Yourselves in the conversation last evening, imputed it to the universal panic which the approach of the army of the United States had excited in the lower order of the people.

If this be the ground of the late change, and my respect for your opinions will not permit me to doubt it, the moment the cause is removed the reign of violence and anarchy will return. Whatever, therefore, may be the sentiments of the people respecting the present competency of the civil authority to enforce the laws, I feel myself obligated by the trust reposed in me by the President of the United States, to hold the army in this country until daily practice shall convince all that the sovereignty of the constitution and laws is unalterably established. In executing this resolution, I do not only consult the dignity and interest of the United States, which will always command my decided respect and preferential attention, but I also promote the good of this particular district.

I shall, therefore, as soon as the troops are refreshed, proceed to some central and convenient station, where I shall patiently wait until the competency of the civil authority is experimentally and unequivocally proved. No individual can be more solicitous than I am for this happy event, and you may assure the good people whom you represent, that every aid will be cheerfully contributed by me to hasten the delightful epoch.

On the part of all good citizens, I confidently expect the most active and faithful co-operation, which in my judgment, cannot be more effectually given than by circulating in the most public manner the truth among the people, and by inducing the various clubs which have so successfully poisoned the minds of the inhabitants, to continue their usual meetings for the pious purpose of contradicting, with their customary formalities, their past pernicious doctrines. A conduct so candid should partially atone for the injuries which, in a great degree, may be attributed to their instrumentality, and must have a propitious influence in administering a radical cure to the existing disorders.

On my part, and on the part of the patriotic army I have the honor to command, assure your fellow citizens that we come to [369] protect and not to destroy, and that our respect for our common government and respect to our own honor, are ample pledge for the propriety of our demeanor.

Quiet, therefore, the apprehensions of all on this score, and recommend universally to the people to prepare, for the use of the army, whatever they can spare from their farms necessary to its substance, for which they shall be paid, in cash, at the present market price; discourage exaction of every sort; not only because it would testify a disposition very unfriendly, but because it would probably produce very disagreeable scenes. It is my duty to take care that the troops are comfortably subsisted, and I cannot but obey it with the highest pleasure, because I intimately know their worth and excellence.

I have the honor, to be, gentlemen,
your most obedient servant,
with due consideration,


HEAD QUARTERS, UNION (Beeson's) TOWN, Nov'r 2, 1794.


The army will resume its march on the morning of the 4th, at the hour of eight, when a signal gun will be fired. They will advance in two columns composed of the respective wings. The right column will take the route by Lodge's to Budd's ferry, under the command of his excellency governor Mifflin, who will please take the most convenient situation in the vicinity of that place for the accommodation of the troops, and wait further orders. The left column will proceed on the route to Peterson's, on the east side of Parkinson's ferry, under the orders of major general Morgan; they will march by the left in the following manner:—Light corps, cavalry, artillery, Virginia brigade, Maryland brigade, the baggage to follow each corps, and the public stores of every kind, in the rear of the Virginia brigade. On the first day, the light corps and artillery will march to Washington Bottom, fourteen miles; the Virginia brigade to Peterson's farm, twelve miles; the cavalry under major Lewis, will move with the commander-in-chief—the bullocks to precede the army at daylight. On the second day the column will proceed to the camp directed to be marked out between Parkinson's and Budd's ferries. Should brigadier gen- [370] eral Smith find the second day's march rather too much, he will be pleased to divide the same into two days. The quarter master general will immediately take measures for the full supply of forage and straw at the different stages. The commissary will place the necessary supply of provisions at particular intermediate stages, where issues will be necessary; it must invariably be the duty of the officer of the day to place guards over the straw as soon as the van reaches the ground, and to see the same fairly divided amongst the troops, which must be in the following ratio:—Forty-five loads to the light troops; forty-five loads to the Maryland brigade, and sixty loads to the Virginia brigade; to the cavalry six loads, and to the artillery, four loads. The brigadiers and commanders of corps will give the necessary orders, that the regimental, field, staff and company pay rolls, for one month's pay, from their first commencement of service, be immediately made out, for which purpose the regimental paymasters will call on the inspector and muster master general, for the proper forms, which pay rolls are to be examined with the muster rolls, and countersigned by the inspector and muster master generals, before application is made to the paymaster general. The inspector and muster master generals of the respective line, will also make pay rolls for the General staff, to be countersigned by the Commander-in-chief previous to payment.


By the Commander-in-Chief.
G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp.


CAMP, 7th November, 1794.
SIR:—I take the liberty to subjoin an account of one months' pay, made to the militia of Pennsylvania; and a balance of money in my hands. By this you will be pleased to observe that it is necessary that money be provided to complete the payment of another month, which will be due from the 14th to the 20th instant. The Horse have not been paid, but some advances have been made on account; and I understand they do not mean to require a settlement of their pay at present, but may want some further advances on account.

I beg the favor of knowing what can be done in this business for my government, and have the honor to be, Sir,

Your very ob. Serv't,
JOHN BROWN, A. P. M. G. Militia of Penn'a.

Governor MIFFLIN.

[372] In addition to the aforegoing it is proper to add that 25s. 0d. per hundred is the established price for beef on the foot; and that 2s. 0d. instead of 2s. 6d. per bushel for oats, is found to be the highest price heretofore given in the country, and of course will be the highest price given by the army.

The above is published by order of the Commander-in-Chief for the information of all concerned, and it is presumed by him that a standard of current prices fixed generally by men who have been highly trusted by the people will be universally acquiesced in.

By order of the Commander-in-Chief.

G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp.


To the Inhabitants of certain Counties lying west of the Laurel Hill, in the State of Pennsylvania:

FRIENDS AND FELLOW CITIZENS:—You see encamped in the bosom of your district, a numerous and well appointed army, [373] formed of citizens of every description, from this and the neighboring States of New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia, whom the violated laws of our common country have called from their homes to vindicate and restore their authority.

The sacrifice of private interest and ease; the relinquishment of family and friends, and of all the domestic comforts and enjoyments; the fatigues of a long and arduous march, at an inclement season; the many inconveniences and hazards of military life, could not withhold them from obeying with alacrity so sacred a call. Actual hardships and sufferings, such as might try the patience of troops the most inured to military toils, have only served to display in strong colours the genuineness of the patriotic sentiments by which they are impelled, and to furnish a memorable example of the fortitude and perseverance capable of surmounting all obstacles which may be expected from men who are moved by principle and the love of their country. The scene before your eyes ought to be an instructive one; it ought to teach many useful truths, which should, for your own happiness, make a deep and lasting impression on your minds.

In the sudden collection and rapid movement into your country, of so respectable a source, you behold an unequivocal proof of the ability and determination of the people of the United States to uphold the government they have established, as well as of the energy and resources of that government.

You see the fallacy of the suggestions by which most of you have been deceived, as to the power of the government, and the inclination of the great body of the citizens to support and maintain the authority of the laws.

In the largeness of the force which has come into your country (though partial inconveniences may attend it) may be discerned another evidence of the clemency, as well as of the power of government.

A beloved President, whose wisdom and virtues will be indelibly engraven on the hearts of every true American, to the latest posterity, unmindful of the neglect with which his parental overtures were treated, has still sought to save the deluded from the fatal consequences to which the violence of their passions has exposed them by convincing the most obstinate and the most rash that resistance would be madness.

Those who have been perverted from their duty may now perceive the dangerous tendency of the doctrines by which they have been misled, and how unworthy of their confidence are the men by whom, for personal and sinister purposes they have been brought, step by step to the precipice from which they have no escape but in the moderation and benignity of that very government which they have vilified, insulted and opposed.

[374] The friends of order may also perceive in the perils and evils that have for some time surrounded them, how unwise and even culpable is that carelessness and apathy with which they have permitted the gradual approaches of disorder and anarchy.

All ought to see the extreme danger of sporting with public passions, of misrepresenting the measures of government, of converting differences of opinion about the means of promoting the public good, into evidences of pernicious designs of interested and corrupt aims of criminal plots against the liberty and happiness of the people.

Let chimeras like these no longer disturb our tranquillity; let them be banished as the inventions of men, who, at the expence of truth, and at the hazard of the peace and tranquillity of the community, seek either to destroy a fabric which the people have reared as the depository of their happiness, or to gratify their rivalships and resentments to promote their own aggrandizement.

In thus addressing myself to you, you must be sensible that I can have no motive but my solicitude for the restoration of your happiness, to establish and perpetuate which is the principal object of the command with which I am entrusted. The attainment of this and every other end of my trust, with as little inconvenience to individuals as shall be practicable, is what I anxiously desire and will materially depend upon yourselves.

Under the influence of this sentiment, I recommend to the citizens in general to give every evidence in their power of a disposition friendly to the constitution and government, to demean themselves peaceably and remain quietly at home, to contribute all in their power towards the accommodation and supply of the army, to prepare and produce freely what they have to spare of the necessaries of life, and to content themselves in the sale thereof with the price to which they have been accustomed, avoiding all appearance of exaction and extortion.

By this conduct the evils unavoidably incident to the presence of an army will be in a great degree mitigated, if not effectually removed.

I further recommend to all the well-disposed to manifest their good intentions by taking and subscribing without delay, sincerely and truly, an oath to support the constitution and obey the laws, and by entering into an association to protect and aid all the officers of government in the execution of their respective duties, and to protect them from ill-treatment of every sort. For this purpose a paper will be deposited with magistrates in each county according to the form subjoined.

[375] I do also exhort all men capable and willing to bear arms, truly attached to their government and country, to array themselves into regiments, one for each county, and to place themselves under such officers as may be selected by the Governor of the State, known to be firm friends to order and right, upon the express conditions of holding themselves in constant readiness to act in defence of the civil authority, whenever called upon, receiving for their services the same pay and subsistance as is allowed to the militia of the United States, when in actual service.

In pursuance of the authority vested in me by the President of the United States, and in obedience to his instructions, I do moreover assure all who may have entitled themselves to the benefit of the amnesty proffered by the commissioners, heretofore sent by him to this district, and who may not have forfeited their title by subsequent misconduct, that the promise will be faithfully and liberally observed, and that all possible endeavors will be used to prevent injury to the persons or property of peaceable citizens, by the troops, whose sole province it is to subdue these, if any there should be, hardy enough to attempt an armed resistance, and to support and aid the civil authority as far as may be required. To the promulgation of these, my orders, I with pleasure add my assurances, that every exertion will be made by me, and, from my knowledge of the officers and soldiers of the army, I am persuaded with full success, to carry these wise and benevolent views of the President into complete effect.

Given under my hand at Head Quarters, near Parkinson's Ferry, this eighth day of November, 1794.


By the Commander-in-Chief.
G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp.

I, A. B., do solemnly, in the presence of Almighty God, swear and declare, that I will faithfully and sincerely support the Constitution of the United States and obey all laws thereof, and will discountenance opposition thereto, except by way of petition and remonstrance, and all attempts to resist, obstruct or ill-treat the officers of the United States in the execution of their respective duties; So help me God.

And in pursuance of the above oath, I do hereby engage and associate myself to and with all others who may subscribe these presents, to countenance and protect the officers of the United States in the execution of their said duties according to law, and to discover and bring to justice all persons who may be [376] concerned, directly or indirectly, in illegally hindering or obstructing the said officers or any of them in the execution of his or their duty, or in doing any manner of violence to them or any of them. In witness of all which, I have hereunto subscribed my hand, the day and the year above written.

A. B.


November 9th, 1794.
SIR:—Prom the delays and danger of escapes which attend the present situation of judiciary investigations to establish preliminary processes against offenders, it is deemed advisable to proceed in a summary manner, in the most disaffected scenes, against those who have notoriously committed treasonable acts; that is, to employ the military for the purpose of apprehending and bringing such persons before the judge of the district, to be by him examined and dealt with according to law, to you is committed the execution of this object within that part of Allegheny county to which you are advancing.

As a guide to you, you have herewith a list of persons; (No. 1,) who have complied with the terms offered by the commissioners of the United States, are entitled to an exemption from arrest and punishment, and who are therefore not to be meddled with. You have also a list (No. 2) who, it is understood on good grounds, have committed acts of treason, and who may, therefore, be safely apprehended.

Besides these, you may, in the course of your operations, receive satisfactory information of others who have committed like acts, and whom, in that case, you will also cause to be apprehended. The acts alluded to are the following:

1st. The firing upon, imprisoning, or interrupting in the course of his duty, the Marshal of the District.

2d. The two attacks on the house of John Neville, Esq., Inspector of the Revenue.

3d. The assembling, or aiding assembling of an army at Braddock's Field, in the county of Allegheny, on the 1st of August last.

4th. The assembling and acting as delegates at the meeting at Parkinson's Ferry which began on the 14th of the same month.

5th. The meeting at Mingo Creek meeting-house, termed a society, sometimes a congress.

[377] 6th. The destruction of property and the expulsion of persons at and from the town of Pittsburgh.

7th. The interruption and plundering of the public mail and the injuries to the houses and violence to the persons of Benjamin Wells, John Webster and Philip Regan, officers of the revenue.

8th. The planting of May poles, impudently called liberty poles, with the intention to countenance and co-operate in the insurrection. You will carefully direct your inquiries toward civil and military officers, who have been extensively concerned in the enormities committed; it being their special duty to have prohibited, by their exertions, every species of enormity. But, in the apprehension of persons not named in the list, (No. 2,) you will use great circumspection to embrace none but real offenders, nor will you be too promiscuous or too general. The persons apprehended ought to be leading or influential characters or particularly violent. You will find a list, (No. 3,) this paper comprehends witnesses. The individuals are to be brought forward and treated as such. Direct all who may be apprehended by you to be conveyed to your camp until further orders. Send off your parties of horse, with good guides, and at such a period as to make the surprises, however distant or near, at the same moment, or intelligence will precede them, and some of the culprits will escape. I presume the proper hour will be at day break on Thursday morning, and have, therefore, desired the operation to be then performed in every quarter.

I have the honor to be, Sir,
With great respect,
Your most obedient servant,

List No. 1, mentioned in this letter, is in the possession of Governor Howell and will be sent to you if required. Wait not for it. List No. 3 is not to be expected, as no witnesses are to be summoned for the district for which you act.


PITTSBURGH, Nov. 10, 1794.
To the Citizens of Allegheny County:
The period has now arrived wherein the good citizens of the county of Allegheny may, with safety, step forward in defense of the laws and the good order of the country.

[378] His Excellency Henry Lee, General and Commander-in-Chief of a large, respectable and well regulated army of your fellow citizens, now within the four Western counties of Pennsylvania, hath given in charge to us, the sub[s]cribers, that each of us do immediately open books and receive the tests or oath of Allegiance of all good citizens. And it is expected that the friends to government will not hesitate a moment in complying with the requisition, it being absolutely necessary that his Excellency should know a state of the minds of the people before the army is withdrawn. We believe the intention is not to distress, but to relieve the deluded part of the union.

A. TANNEHILL, JOHN WILKINS, Justices of the Peace.


Notice is hereby given, that on Thursday, the 20th inst., an Officer of Inspection will be opened at Pittsburgh, for the county of Allegheny; at the Town of Washington, for the county of Washington; at Greensburgh, for the county of Westmoreland, and at Union-Town, for the county of Fayette.

All distillers are required forthwith to enter their stills at the Office of the county in which they respectively reside, and to do further what the laws prescribe concerning the same, of which they may receive more particular information from the Officer of Inspection with whom entry is made.

JOHN NEVILLE, Inspector of the Revenue, District of Pennsylvania, 4th Survey.
10, 1794.


SIR:—I have the honor to inform your Excellency that on the 30th of October, having understood that David Bradford, of Washington, was going down the river in a small canoe, by himself, and had passed opposite to Galliopolis but a little while ago, I thought it was my duty, as being a public officer at this post, to give orders to stop him. Consequently, I sent three of the spies, and a subaltern officer, with orders to take [379] him and deliver him to my possession at Galliopolis, where I intended to keep him under a strong guard till I had been honored with your orders.

My men overtook him on the 31st, about eleven in the morning. 30 miles below the Big Scioto; but unluckily for them, he had two hours before got into a boat of the Contractors, where they found 13 men, all ready to protect Bradford, and massacre any who would undertake to take him away. My men, after having used their best endeavors, and exerted all measures which prudence and inferiority could suggest in such occurrence, compelled to give, up to the majority, and follow the boat as long as possible to try to get a reinforcement from some of the stations on the river; they offered 50 dollars to any man who would turn out with them to take Bradford; but they found the most part of the people disposed in his favor, and inclined to serve his cause.

By several reports, I have right to conjecture that Bradford landed at Limestone, and was conducted to some part of the country where he could safely preach his doctrine, and spread the flame of a new insurrection. It will be almost impossible to take him alive in a country where the majority is in favor, and a matter of great chance if he can be killed without any fatal consequences. I yesterday saw Capt. Jolly, of the mouth of Whelen, who communicated to me the orders issued by your Excellency, to take Bradford, or to kill him, rather than suffer him to escape. I gave to Capt. Jolly all the information which I had, and ordered him to proceed to Limestone where he could receive some directions favorable to his purpose. That boat of the Contractors, aboard which Bradford was found, was bound to Fort Washington, under the command of a certain Samuel Duncan, and loaded with coal; there were several passengers on board, who by their hostile disposition appeared to be particularly attached to Bradford. All the information you may wish to have on this important subject can be easily obtained at Fort Washington where S. Duncan delivered his boat.

I am mortified that my undertaking has been unsuccessful, where I would have been happy to have my attachment for this country fully manifested.

And if your excellency thinks that I could be of any service in this affair, and would honor me with some orders they should be performed with the greatest vigilance and punctuality.

I am your Excellency's
most humble and obedient servant,
D'HEBECOURT, Captain commanding Militia at Galliopolis.

His Excellency Governor LEE, Commander-in-Chief of the Army at Pittsburgh.



Nov. 15, 1794.
To the officers and soldiers of the Maryland brigade:
FELLOW-CITIZENS IN ARMS:—It is with pleasure that I congratulate you on the order to return to your own homes after having performed the most sacred of all duties, that of having contributed to the support of our free and excellent government and its laws. A duty which you have performed in a most severe and inclement season and over the most mountainous and rugged part of America, with a fortitude and patience that does honor to yourselves and your country. You have assisted to convince the world that the free men and free republics can and will support their constitution and their laws without the aid of a standing army, and that altho' a few may be deluded into errors by designing and ambitious men, yet that the great body of the people of America are lovers of order and are ready to risk their lives to prevent anarchy and confusion. Permit me to acknowl- [381] edge my personal obligations to you for the order of discipline that has reigned in the ranks, and for the able assistance I have received from the infinite attention to their duty that has been so conspicuous among the officers. It is with the highest satisfaction that I can assert that you have literally obeyed the injunctions of your beloved President; that going to enforce the laws, you have carefully avoided the infraction of any.

You will, each of you, return to your respective counties with considerable military information, which you will diffuse among our fellow citizens, and strongly impressed with the necessity of an efficient and well regulated militia. Permit me to add that I shall at all times be happy in hearing of your personal welfare and to assure you that I am with sincere regard,

Your fellow citizen,


November 17th, 1794.
SIR:—The enclosed Queries, &c, having appeared essential, are respectfully submitted for your answer thereto.

I remain your very humble servant,
JOSEPH KER, Brigade Inspector Phila C'y.

ALEXANDER J. DALLAS, Esquire, Sec't'y to the Commonwealth.

Section 1 Requires, That each and every free able-bodied white Male Citizen, of this or any other of the United States, residing in this Commonwealth, who is or shall be of the age of Eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years, Except as is hereinafter Excepted, shall be Enrolled, &c.

Quere. What constitutes a citizen under the Militia Law, and whether all residents who are not citizens are Exempt?

Sect'n 2 Of act of Congress of 8th May, 1792, Exempts all Custom house officers with their Clerks.

Quere. Are the characters of Inspectors of the Customs included in said Exemptions?

Sect'n 2 Of State Law exempts all young men under the age of Twenty-One years, and Servants purchased Bonafide and for a valuable consideration, except in Cases of Rebellion, or Actual or threatened Invasion, &c.

Quere. Does the Last call embrace either of those Terms?

Sect'n 10 Says, That every person refusing or neglecting to perform his Tour of duty in person or by substitute, shall pay [382] Twelve dollars for every such neglect or refusal. If the Tour was to be for a Term not exceeding One Month, and in proportion if the Tour was to be for any longer Term.

Quere. As the Last call was for a Tour of Duty, but no time specified, but generally understood for two Months. Can the fine be now ascertained, and if so, what is the amount?

Sect'n 22 Seems to give a general power to Courts of Appeal, and afterwards rather confines to two reasons only.

Quere. Does this Sect'n give to Courts of Appeal a power to afford relief to those who appeal On any other Terms than Innability of body and unavoidable absence?

Quere. If Minors & Servants were liable to Last Call, and delinquency took place, from whome are the fines to be recovered?

Addition to Quere on section 10. Section 20 lais a fine of 12 Dol. for non-attendance, the attorney general has given his opinion that tho' the duty is but for one day the fine of 12 Dols. is incurred and in proportion if the tour was to be for any longer term.

Quere 1. If the tour be for some days in the second month, is the fine to be a part of the 12 Dols. proportioned to the number of days?

Quere 2d. The law of the U . S., as I am informed, specifies that militia called in service by the U. S., are to serve 3 months, are the citizens of this State to be fined for more than 2 months on the present occasion.


HEAD QUARTERS, PITTSBURGH, November 17th, 1794.
The complete fulfillment of every object dependent on the efforts of the army, makes it the duty of the commander-in-chief to take measures for the immediate return of his faithful fellow soldiers to their respective homes, in execution of which no delay will be permitted, but that which results from the consultation of their comfort.

On Tuesday Morning, at the hour of eight, the Pennsylvania Cavalry will be ready to accompany his Excellency Governor Mifflin whose official duties renders his presence necessary at the seat of government.

On the next day the first division of the right column, consisting of the Artillery and Proctor's Brigade under the orders of Major General Irvine, will commence their march to Bedford on the route commonly called the Old Pennsylvania road.

[383] The following day, at the same hour, the New Jersey line will move under the command of his Excellency Governor Howell, who will be pleased to pursue from Bedford such routes as he may find most convenient.

On the subsequent day, at the same hour, the residue of the Pennsylvania line, now on this ground, will march under the command of Brigadier General Chambers taking the route heretofore mentioned, and making the same stages as shall have been made by the leading division.

Major Freelinghuysen, with Elite Corps of the right column, will follow the next day and pursue the same route.

Brigadier General Smith, with the Maryland line, will move to Union Town agreeably to orders heretofore communicated to him, and from thence to proceed on Braddock's road to Fort Cumberland, where he will adopt the most convenient measures in his power for the return to his troops to their respective counties.

Brigadier General Mathews will move on Wednesday next to Morgan Town, from thence to Winchester by the way of Frankfort. From Winchester the troops will be marched to their respective Brigades under the Commanding Officers from each Brigade.

As soon as the public service will permit afterwards, the Elite corps of the left column, under General Dark, will follow on the route prescribed for Brigadier Mathews and be disbanded as they reach their respective Brigades.

All arms, accoutrements, camp equipage of every sort, belonging to the United States, must be deposited at the following places and to the following Public officers: Those with the New Jersey line at Trenton with Major Hunt; those with the Pennsylvania line at Lancaster, to the care of General Hand, and at Philadelphia to the address of the Secretary of War; those of the Maryland line at Fredrick Town with the proper officer there; those with the Virginia line at Winchester to the care of General Mathews. Reports must be made by the Commanding Generals of all articles thus deposited, one of which must be put to the Secretary of War and the other to the Commander-in-Chief.

All arms, accoutrements and camp equipage in the possession of the troops belonging to the particular States, must be returned to the State officers and State Arsenals, from which they were received, reports of which must be made by the commanding generals, one of which must be transmitted to the Governor of the State to which the articles may belong, and the other to the Commander-in-Chief.

[384] All sorts of ammunition, military stores, medical stores, clothing, unissued quarter master's stores and commissary's stores, not necessary to the troops returning, must be deposited at Pittsburgh with Major Craig, and at Bentley's farm, with the Quarter Master there.

The Corps destined for the winter defense will move without delay to Bentley's farm, on the west side of the Monongahela, near Perry's ferry, where they will receive orders from Major General Morgan.

The Virginia Cavalry will take the route by Morgan Town, from thence to Winchester, by Romney's, the Commandant will receive particular instructions as to their time and manner of march.

The right column will receive their pay (still due) at Bedford, the Maryland line at Fort Cumberland, and the Virginia line at Winchester.

In the punctual and certain execution of this honorable attention to the rights of the soldiers, the commander-in-chief reckons confidently on the personal superintendence of the commanding generals, who will very much gratify him by communicating particularly the completion of this injunction, as he will feel himself commanded by attachment to the troops, and admiration of the principles which actuate them, to take care that they be not in any instance submitted to wrong.


G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp.


The governor of Pennsylvania being obliged to return to Philadelphia, in order to attend to his civil duties of the approaching session of the General Assembly, which will commence on the first day of December, cannot, in justice to his feelings, forbear the expression of his pride and happiness in reviewing the exertions of his fellow citizens, upon an occasion so interesting to the honor and prosperity of the Union. The alacrity with which they engaged in the service, the zeal and spirit with which they have manifested their determination to defend the constitution and laws,—the honorable attention which they have shown to discipline and order, and the exemplary patience with which they have sustained the fatigues of a long and tedious march—furnish a lasting monument of their patriotism, and cannot fail to command universal admiration and respect. [385] The influence of such a conduct will suppress the spirit of anarchy and discord at home, and give an additional lustre to our national character abroad.

Under the fullest confidence that the same laudable conduct will continue on the march home, the governor takes an affectionate leave of his fellow citizens, and wishes them an early return to their respective families and domestic pursuits, For which the quarter master general and commissary general are making the necessary arrangements.

By order of Major General Mifflin.

JOSIAH HARMAR, Adjutant General.


In this moment of separation of the army, the commander-in-chief would commit a violence on his own feelings, was he not to express, in the most public manner, the respectful and grateful sense he entertains of their merit and services. Moved by the purest principles which can actuate the human mind, they stepped forward in a menacing crisis to vindicate the insulted majesty of the people, to uphold our political fabrick, and to restore the sovereignty of the laws.

To no citizens was ever committed a more important task; it has been completely executed, and in a manner which gives new lustre to the patriotism which impelled the exchange of domestic comfort for the toils of a camp. The suffering and wants inseparable from military service have been greatly increased by the inclemency of the weather; they have been met with fortitude, and borne without a murmur. Animated by love of country and respect for order, the only emulation has been, who best should execute their duty. Ready to combat and subdue all who might dare to resist—they have been equally ready to forgive and protect; thus adorning the military character by the endearing and winning virtues of humanity.

Complete the memorable example so far exhibited, by terminating your term of soldiership correspondents to its beginning and progress. You thus secure to yourselves the reward of your own breasts, and you secure to your country every good expected from your patriotism and valor.

[386] The general officers and commandants of corps will add to the many obligations imposed in the course of this service on the commander-in-chief, by regarding with unremitting attention this his last injunction.

To the officers of every description he presents his warmest thanks for the faithful and able support which he has derived from their exertions in every stage of the execution of the objects intrusted to his direction, and he intrusts them to convey to his fellow soldiers, in the most lively terms, his respectful attachment and his best wishes for their safe return and happy meeting with their friends.

At a general court martial, whereof col. Lane was president, sergeant Greenwood, sergeant Wolpart, James Simpson and William Braggs were sentenced to receive corporal punishment. The commander-in-chief approves the sentence of the court and remits the punishment directed.

He is induced to do this from a conviction that the prisoners were not guilty of any premeditated crime from respect to the intercession made in their favor, and from his disinclination to mark the return of the army by the disgrace of any individual, he flatters himself his clemency will be attributed to the proper motives and will produce the effects he promises to himself from it.

Major General Morgan will command the force destined for the winter defense. He is requested to accelerate the collection of the troops at Bentley's Farm near Perry's Ferry in order to establish them in quarters without delay.


G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-camp.


Nov'r 18th, 1794.
SIR:—I have the honor to inform you that there are not exceeding fifty men sick in the Pennsylvania line.

I am, Sir, yours &c.,
EDWARD CUTBUSH, Sur. Gen. Pennsylvania.

N. B.—There have been only 5 deaths; another expected to die from a blow received in falling a tree.

His Excellency Governor MIFFLIN.


PHILADA., Nov. 19, 1794.
Fellow Citizens of the Senate and of the House of Representatives.

When we call to mind the gracious indulgence of Heaven, by which the American People became a nation; when we survey the general prosperity of our country, and look forward to the riches, power and happiness to which it seems destined; with the deepest regret do I announce to you, that during your recess, some of the Citizens of the United States, have been found capable of an insurrection. It is due however, to the character of our Government, and to its stability, which cannot be shaken by the enemies of order, fully to unfold the course of this event.

During the session of the year 1790, it was expedient to exercise the legislative power granted by the Constitution of the United States, "to lay and collect excises." In a majority of the States, scarcely an objection was heard to this mode of taxation. In some, indeed, alarms were at first conceived, until they were banished by reason and patriotism. In the four western counties of Pennsylvania, a prejudice, fostered and embittered by the artifice of men who labored for an ascendancy over the will of others, by the guidance of their passions, produced symptoms of riot and violence. It is well known that Congress did not hesitate to examine the complaints which were presented, and to relieve them as far as justice dictated or general convenience would permit. But the impression which this moderation made on the discontented, did not correspond with what it deserved; the arts of delusion were no longer confined to the efforts of designing individuals.

The very forbearance to press prosecutions was misinterpreted into a fear of urging the execution of the laws, and associations of men began to denounce threats against the officers employed. From a belief, that, by a more formal concert their operation might be defeated, certain self-created societies assumed the tone of condemnation. Hence, while the greater portion of the people of Pennsylvania itself were conforming themselves to the acts of excise, a few counties were resolved to frustrate them. It was now perceived, that every expectation from the tenderness which had hitherto been pursued, was unavailing, and that further delay could only create an opinion of impotency or irresolution in the government. Legal process was, therefore, delivered to the Marshal, against the rioters and delinquent distillers.

[388] No sooner was he understood to be engaged in this duty, than the vengeance of armed men was aimed at his person and the personal property of the inspector of the revenue. They fired upon the Marshal, arrested him and detained him for sometime as a prisoner. He was obliged by the jeopardy of his life to renounce the service of other process on the west side of the Allegheny mountain, and a deputation was afterwards sent to him to demand a surrender of that which he had served. A numerous body repeatedly attacked the house of the Inspector, seized his papers of office and finally destroyed by fire his buildings and whatsoever they contained. Both of these officers, from a just regard to their safety fled to the seat of government, it being avowed that the motives to such outrages were to compel the resignation of the Inspector, to withstand by force of arms the authority of the United States, and thereby to extort a repeal of the laws of excise and an alteration in the conduct of government.

Upon the testimony of these facts, an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States notified to me, that "in the Counties of Washington and Allegheny, in Pennsylvania, laws of the United States were opposed and the execution thereof obstructed by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings or by the powers vested in the Marshal of that district." On this call, momentous in the extreme, I sought and weighed what might best subdue the crisis. On the one hand the judiciary was pronounced to be stript of its capacity to enforce the laws. Crimes which reached the very existence of social order, were perpetrated without controul, the friends of government were insulted, abused and overawed into silence, or an apparent acquiescence; and to yield to the treasonable fury of so small a portion of the United States would be to violate the fundamental principle of our constitution, which enjoins that the will of the majority shall prevail. On the other, to array citizen against citizen, to publish the dishonor of such excesses, to encounter the expence and other embarrassments of so distant an expedition, were steps too delicate, too closely interwoven with many affecting considerations to be lightly adopted. I postponed, therefore, the summoning the militia immediately into the field, but I required them to be held in readiness, that if my anxious endeavours to reclaim the deluded and to convince the malignant of their danger should be fruitless, military force might be prepared to act before the season should be too far advanced.

My proclamation of the seventh of August last, was accordingly issued and accompanied by the appointment of Commissioners who were charged to repair to the scene of insurrection. They [389] were authorized to confer with any bodies of men or individuals. They were instructed to be candid and explicit in stating the sensations which had been excited in the Executive, and his earnest wish to avoid a resort to coercion; to represent however, that without submission, coercion must be the resort, but to invite them at the same time to return to the demeanor of faithful citizens by such accommodations as lay within the sphere of the executive power; pardon, too, was tendered to them by the government of the United States and that of Pennsylvania, upon no other condition than a satisfactory assurance of obedience to the laws.

Although the report of the Commissioners marks their firmness and abilities, and must unite all virtuous men, by shewing that the means of conciliation have been exhausted; all of those who had committed, or abetted the tumults, did not subscribe the mild form which was proposed as the atonement; and the indications of a peaceable temper were neither sufficently general nor conclusive to recommend or warrant a further suspension of the march of the Militia.

Thus, the painful alternative could not be discarded. I ordered the Militia to march, after once more admonishing the insurgents, in my proclamation of the twenty-fifth of September last.

It was a task too difficult to ascertain with precision the lowest degree of force competent to the quelling of the insurrection. From a respect, indeed, to economy, and the ease of my fellow citizens, belonging to the militia, it would have gratified me to accomplish such an estimate. My very great reluctance to ascribe too much importance to the opposition, had its extent been accurately seen would have been a decided inducement to the smallest efficient numbers. In this uncertainty, therefore, I put into motion fifteen thousand men, as being an army, which, according to all human calculation, would be prompt and adequate in every view, and might, perhaps, by rendering resistance desperate, prevent the effusion of blood. Quotas had been assigned to the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia,—the Governor of Pennsylvania, having declared on this occasion an opinion which justified a requisition to the other States.

As Commander-in-Chief of the Militia, when called into the actual service of the United States, I have visited the places of general rendezvous, to obtain more exact information, and to direct a plan for ulterior movements. Had there been room for a persuasion that the laws were secure from obstruction—that the civil magistrate was able to bring to justice such of the most culpable as have not embraced the proffered terms of amnesty, and may be deemed fit objects of example; that the friends [390] of peace and good government were not in need of that aid and countenance which they ought always to receive, and, I trust, ever will receive, against the vicious and turbulent; I should have caught with avidity the opportunity of restoring the Militia to their families and home. But succeeding intelligence has tended to manifest the necessity of what has been done; it being now confessed by those who were not inclined to exaggerate the ill conduct of the insurgents, that their malevolence was not pointed merely to a particular law; but that a spirit, inimical to all order has actuated many of the offenders. If the state of things had afforded reason for the continuance of my presence with the army, it would not have been withholden; but every appearance assuring such an issue as will redound to the reputation and strength of the United States, I have judged it most proper to resume my duties at the seat of government, leaving the chief command with the Governor of Virginia.

Still, however, as it is probable, that in a commotion like the present, whatsoever may be the pretence, the purpose of mischief and revenge may not be laid aside; the stationing of a small force for a certain period in the four western counties of Pennsylvania, will be indispensable whether we contemplate the situation of those who are connected with the execution of the laws, or of others, who may have exposed themselves by an honorable attachment to them.

Thirty days from the commencement of this session being the legal limitation of the employment of the militia, Congress cannot be too early occupied with this subject.

Among the discussions which may arise from this aspect of our affairs, and from the documents which will be submitted to Congress, it will not escape their observation, that not only the Inspector of the Revenue, but their officers of the United States in Pennsylvania, have, from their fidelity in the discharge of their functions, sustained material injuries to their property. The obligation and policy of indemnifying them are strong and obvious. It may also merit attention whether policy will not enlarge this provision to the retribution of their Citizens, who, though not under the ties of office, may have suffered damage by their generous exertions for upholding the constitution and the laws. The amount, even if all the injured were included, would not be great, and on the future emergencies, the government would be amply repaid by the influence of an example that he, who incurs a loss in its defence, shall find a recompence in its liberality.

While there is cause to lament that occurences of this nature should have disgraced the name or interrupted the tranquillity of any part of our community, or should have diverted to a [391] new application any portion of the public resources, there are not wanting real and substantial consolations for the misfortune. It has demonstrated that our prosperity rests on solid foundations, by furnishing an additional proof, that my fellow citizens understand the true principles of government and liberty; that they feel their inseparable union; that notwithstanding all the devices which have been used to sway them from their interest and duty, they are now as ready to maintain the authority of the laws against licentious invasions as they were to defend their rights against usurpation. It has been a spectacle displaying to the highest advantage, the value of Republican government, to behold the most and the least wealthy of our citizens standing in the same ranks as private soldiers, pre-eminently distinguished by being the army of the constitution—undeterred by a march of three hundred miles over rugged mountains, by the approach of an inclement season or by any other discouragement. Nor ought I to omit to acknowledge the efficatious and patriotic co-operation which I have experienced from the chief magistrates of the States, to which my requisitions have been addressed.

To every description, indeed, of citizens, let praise be given, but let them persevere in their affectionate vigilance over that precious depository of American happiness, the Constitution of the United States. Let them cherish it, too, for the sake of those who from every clime are daily seeking a dwelling in our land. And when in the calm moments of reflection, they shall have retraced the origin and progress of the insurrection, let them determine, whether it has not been fomented by combinations of men, who careless of consequences and disregarding the unerring truth that those who rouse cannot always appease a civil convulsion, have disseminated from an ignorance or perversion of facts, suspicions, jealousies and accusations of the whole government.

Having thus fulfilled the engagement which I took, when I entered into office, "to the best of my ability, to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States," on you, gentlemen, and the people by whom you are deputed, I rely for support.


November 20, 1794.
The head of departments are requested to bestow every possible attention to the fair and immediate liquidation of all demands against the United States for the subsistence and other charges [392] appertaining to the army. In the execution of this important duty they will be governed uniformly by the strictest regard to equity, always preferring in dubious eases the individual's right, if marked by particular circumstances of damage.

In the payment of ferriages for any part of the army or its baggage, a sum fully adequate for the use of the boats and hands employed therein is to be given and not the established rates per head and wheel.

The supplies of provisions and forage which cannot be readily transported to the camp of the troops destined to continue during the winter must be sold for and on account of the United States.

The commanding officers of the several State lines composing the army, are required immediately to make returns of the troops engaged in their respective lines for the winter defence, comprehending arms and every other article belonging to the public in their possession.

With deep regret the commander-in-chief announces the death of major Watkins, of the Maryland line, and Lieut. Jones, of the Virginia line, both of whom in their several stations, ably and honorably discharged their duties. To their memory we will pay the highest tribute of respectful condolence; they must be buried with the honors of war and attended to the grave conformably to their rank. This last homage of profound respect, the commander-in-chief presents to their manes [names?] as the highest testimony he can give of his sense of the merit of fellow soldiers, who fell victims to the toils and sufferings to which the virtuous army under his command was unavoidably subjected in the course of a campaign undertaken to stop the progress of anarchy, and to perpetuate to their fellow citizens the inestimable blessings of order and good government.


G. K. TAYLOR, Aid-de-Camp.


November 21, 1794.
The commander-in-chief has directed me, in the most public manner, to declare his surprise and mortification in discovering that some of the magistrates with whom have been deposited books for the purpose of enabling the citizens of this district to manifest their attachment to their government by taking the oath of allegiance, and subscribing an association, as recommended in his address of the 8th instant, have assumed the privilege of annexing fees to their agency. This conduct is so [393] repugnant to the system he has strenuously endeavored to establish, as well as so opposite to that spirit of affection and kindness which he is anxious to inculcate and diffuse among the inhabitants, that he feels himself obligated at once to stop the practice, and hereby requires all magistrates who will not officiate without a fee or reward, to return the books in their possession, that they may be otherwise placed. Should any moneys be necessarily expended in printing the certificates to be given by them to the people who may comply with his recommendation, he considers himself answerable for it, and will, on production of the accounts, discharge the same.

By order of the commander-in-chief,

THOMAS NELSON, dep. adj't gen.


November 22d, 1794.
To the President of the United States:
SIR:—We receive with pleasure, your speech to the two Houses of Congress. In it we perceive renewed proofs of that vigilant and paternal concern for the prosperity, honor and happiness of our country, which has uniformly distinguished your past administration.

Our anxiety arising from the licentious and open resistance to the laws, in the Western counties of Pennsylvania, has been increased by the proceedings of certain self-created societies, relative to the laws and administration of the government, proceedings in our apprehension founded in political error, calculated, if not intended, to disorganize our government, and which, by inspiring delusive hopes of support, have been influential in misleading our fellow citizens in the scene of insurrection.

In a situation so delicate and important, the lenient and persuasive measures which you adopted, merit and receive our affectionate approbation; these failing to procure their proper effect, and coercion having become inevitable, we have derived the highest satisfaction from the enlightened patriotism and animating zeal with which the citizens of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia have rallied round the standard of Government, in opposition to anarchy and insurrection.

Our warm and cordial acknowledgments are due to you, Sir, for the wisdom and decision with which you arrayed the [394] militia, to execute the public will, and to them for the disinterestedness and alacrity with which they obeyed your summons.

The example is precious to the theory of our government, and confers the brightest honor upon the patriots who have given it.

We shall readily concur in such farther provisions for the security of internal peace and a due obedience to the laws as the occasion manifestly requires.

The effectual organization of the militia and a prudent attention to the fortifications of our ports and harbours, are subjects of great national importance, and, together with the other measures you have been pleased to recommend, will receive our deliberate consideration.

The success of the troops under the command of General Wayne cannot fail to produce essential advantages. The pleasure with which we acknowledge the merits of that gallant General and army, is enhanced by the hope that their victories will lay the foundation of a just and durable peace with the Indian tribes.

At a period so momentous in the affairs of nations, the temperate, just and firm policy that you have pursued in respect to foreign powers, has been eminently calculated to promote the great and essential interest of our country, and has created the fairest title to the public gratitude and thanks.

JOHN ADAMS, Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate.


GENTLEMEN:—Among the occasions, which have been afforded, for expressing my sense of the zealous and stedfast co-operation of the Senate in the maintenance of government, none has yet occurred more forcibly demanding my unqualified acknowledgments than the present.

Next to the consciousness of upright intentions, it is the highest pleasure to be approved by the enlightened representatives of a free nation. With the satisfaction therefore, which arises from an unalterable attachment to public order, do I learn, that the Senate discountenance those proceedings which would arrogate the direction of our affairs without any degree of authority derived from the people.

It has been more than once the lot of our government to be thrown into new and delicate situations, and of these, the insurrection has riot been the least important. Having been compelled at length to lay aside my repugnance to resort to arms, [395] I derive much happiness from being comfirmed by your judgment in the necessity of decisive measures and from the support of my fellow citizens of the militia, who were the patriotic instruments of that necessity.

With such demonstrations of affection for our constitution, with an adequate organization of the militia, with the establishment of necessary fortifications, with a continuance of those judicious and spirited exertions which have brought victory to our Western army, with a due attention to public credit and an unsullied honor towards all nations, we may meet, under every assurance of success, our enemies from within and from without.



SIR:—I have received your letter of the 10th inst. and maturely considered its contents.

I am concerned that the party in pursuit of Mr. Bradford were unsuccessful in efforts to arrest him, in as much as I fear the late convulsions of this part of the country may, in a great degree be ascribed to his counsels and efforts. I hope, at the same time, that he will yet be delivered into the hands of justice, that he may expiate by his punishment, those offenses which he is supposed to have committed against that country from which he derived his existence and support; but while I wish that he should be taken, I wish not that he should be destroyed; on the contrary, I should be affected with great concern, should I hear that he had been killed, or even treated with unnecessary severity or cruelty. It is the happiness as it is the pride of America, that no person can be deprived of his property or existence but by law. The principles of justice, on which are founded those of the law, pronounce that before he shall be deprived of the latter, he shall be confronted with his accusers, allowed the benefit of exculpatory testimony, and permitted to urge whatever he may think necessary for his defense.

Conformably to this idea, the several offenders who have been seized in this deluded country, have been regularly delivered to the civil power which will deal with them according to their merits.

Permit me, therefore, to assure you, Sir, that the information you have received, that I wished Bradford to be killed, rather [396] than suffered to escape, is erronious, and that I shudder at the idea of hunting to death a fellow being.

If, by your exertions, he could be sent to this place alive, you would confer an obligation on me, and on the United States; at the same time, in that event, I should wish him to be treated with every civility consistent with his safe custody.

I am, &c., &c,



H'D Q'RS, BEDFORD, Nov. 23d, 1794.
To Colonel William M[a]cPherson, commanding the Infantry, and Captain John Dunlap, commanding the Cavalry of the advanced Corps of the right wing of the Militia Army:
GENTLEMEN:—In the hurry of making the arrangements at Pittsburgh, for the march of the advanced Corps of the right wing, it became impracticable to communicate to you the General Orders of the 18th instant. A copy of them is now inclosed, and you will, of course, acquaint your respective Commands with the sentiments of our worthy Commander-in-Chief respecting their and their fellow soldiers patriotic conduct in supporting the Laws and the Constitution, and the happiness of their Country.

Whilst you are discharging this duty, I request you will likewise express to them my high satisfaction with their soldierlike deportment, during the whole time I had the honor to command them. While I live, I shall recollect with pleasure the fortitude and patience with which they endured the severe toils and hardships of the Campaign, and the promptitude with which they obeyed every order. To my latest breath, I shall keep in my mind with the liveliest sensibility, the remembrance of their politeness and attention to me on every occasion,

I am, Gentlemen,
with sentiments of pure regard,
Your most obedient and
very humble servant,


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