Transcriber: Donna Bluemink
THE TRVE TRAVELS, ADVENTVRES AND OBSERVATIONS
OF CAPTAIN IOHN SMITH,
IN EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICKE, AND AMERICA:
BEGINNING ABOUT THE YEERE 1598, AND CONTINUED
TO THIS PRESENT 1629.
From the London Edition of 1629,
Richmond: Republished at the Franklin Press.
William W. Gray,Printer, 1819.
THE THIRD BOOKE.
THE PROCEEDINGS AND ACCIDENTS OF THE
ENGLISH COLONY IN VIRGINIA,
Extracted From The Authors Following,
By WILLIAM SIMONS.
Doctour of Divinitie.
 CHAP. VII
The Presidency surrendred to Captaine Smith: the Arrivall and relume of the second supply. And what happened.
The tenth of September, by the Election of the Councell, and request of the Company, Captaine Smith receiued the Letters Patents: which till then by no meanes he would accept, though he was often importuned therevnto. Now the building of Ratliffes Pallace stayed as a thing needlesse; the Church was repaired; the Store-house recouered; buildings prepared for the Supplyes, we expected; the Fort reduced to a fiue-square forme; the order of the Watch renewed; the squadrons (each setting of the Watch) trained; the whole Company euery Saturday exercised, in the plaine by the west Bulwarke, prepared for that purpose, we called Smithfield: where sometimes more than an hundred Salvages would stand in an amazement to behold, how a fyle would batter a tree, where he would make them a marke to shoot at; the boats trimmed for trade, which being sent out with Lieutenant Percy, in their Iourney incountred the second Supply, that brought them backe to discover the Country of Monacan. How or why Captaine Newport obtained such private Commission, as not to returne without a lumpe of gold, a certaintie of the South sea, or one of the lost company sent out by Sir. Walter Raleigh, I know not; nor why he brought such a fiue peeced Barge, not to beare vs to that South sea till we had borne her over the mountaines, which how farre they extend is yet vnknowne. As for the Coronation of Powhatan, and his presents of Bason and Ewer, Bed, Bedstead, Clothes, and such costly nouelties, they had beene much better well spared then so ill spent, for wee had his favour much better onely for a playne peece of Copper, till this stately kinde of soliciting, made him so much overvalue himselfe, that he respected vs as much as nothing at all. As for the hyring of the Poles and Dutch-men, to make Pitch, Tar, Glasse, Milles, and Sope ashes, when the Country is replenished with people, and necessaries, would haue done well, but to send them and seauentie more without victualls to worke, was not so well aduised nor considered of, as it should haue beene. Yet this could not haue hurt vs had they beene 200. though then we were 130 that wanted for our selues. For we had the Salvages in that decorum, (their harvest being newly gathered,) that we feared not to get victuals for 500. Now was there no way to make vs miserable, but to neglect that time to make prouision whilst it was to be had, the which was done by the direction from England to performe this strange discovery, but a more strange Coronation to loose that time, spend that victualls we had, tyre and starue our men, hauing no meanes to carry victuals, munition, the hurt or sicke, but on their owne backes. How or by whom they were inuented I know not: but Captaine Newport we onely accounted the Author, who to effect these proiects, had so guilded mens hopes with great promises, that both Company and Councell concluded his resolution for the most part: God doth know they little knew what they did, nor vnderstood their owne estates to conclude his conclusions, against all the inconveniences the foreseeing President alledged.—Of this Supply there was added to the Councell, one Captaine Richard Waldo and Captaine Wynne, two ancient Souldiers, and valiant Gentlemen, but yet ignorant of the busines, (being but newly arriued.) Ratliffe was also permitted to haue his voyce, and Mr. Scrivener, desirous to sec strange Countries: so that although Smith was President, yet the Maior part of the Councell had the authoritie and ruled it as they listed. As for clearing Smiths obiections, how Pitch and Tarre, Wainscot, Clapbord, Glasse, and Sope ashes,  could be provided, to relade the ship, or provision got to liuc withall, when none was in the Country, and that we had, spent, before the ship departed to effect these projects. The answer was, Captaine Newport vndertooke to fraught the Pinnace of twentie tunnes with Corne in going and returning in his Discovery, and to refraught her againe from Werowocomoco of Powhatan. Also promising a great proportion of victualls from the Ship; inferring that Smiths propositions were onely devices to hinder his iourney, to effect it himselfe; and that the crueltie he had vsed to the Salvages, might well be the occasion to hinder these Designes, and seeke revenge on him. For which taxation all workes were left, and 120 chosen men were appointed for Newports guard in this Discovery. But Captaine Smith to make cleare all those seeming suspicions, that the Salvages were not so desperate as was pretended by Captaine Newport, and how willing (since by their authoritie they would haue it so) he was to assist them what he could, because the Coronation would consume much time, he vndertooke himselfe their message to Powhatan, to intreat him to come to Iames Towne to receiue his presents. And where Newport durst not goe with less then 120. he onely tooke with him Captaine Waldo, Mr. Andrew Buckler, Edward Brinton, and Samuel Collier: with these foure he went over land to Werowocomoco, some 12 myles; there he passed the river of Pamavnkee in a Salvage Canow. Powhatan being 30 myles of, was presently sent for: in the meane time Pocahontas and her women entertained Captaine Smith in this manner.
In a fayre plaine field they made a fire, before which, he sitting vpon a mat, suddainly amongst the woods was heard such a hydeous noise and shreeking, that the English betooke themselues to their armes, and seized on two or three old men by them supposing Powhatan with all his power was come to surprise them. But presently Pocahontas came, willing him to kill her if any hurt were intended) and the beholders, which were men, women, and children, satisfied the Captaine there was no such matter. Then presently they were presented with this anticke; thirtie young women came naked out of the woods, onely covered behind and before with a few greene leaues, their bodies all painted, some of one colour, some of another, but all differing, their leader had a fayre payre of Bucks hornes on her head, and an Otters skinne at her girdle, and another at her arme, a quiver of arrowes at her backe, a bow and arrowes in her hand; the next had in her hand a sword, another a club, another a pot-sticke; all horned alike: the rest every one with their severall devises. These fiends with most hellish shouts and cryes, rushing from among the trees, cast themselues in a ring about the fire, singing and dauncing with most excellent ill varietie, oft falling into their infernall passions, and solemnly againe to sing and daunce; having spent neare an houre in this Mascarado, as they entred in like manner they departed.
Having reaccommodated tliemselues, they solemnly invited him to their lodgings, where he was no sooner within the house, but all these Nymphs more tormented him then ever, with crowding, pressing, and hanging about him, most tediously crying, Loue you not me? loue you not me? This salutation ended, the feast was set, consisting of all the Salvage dainties they could devise: some attending, others singing and dauncing about them; which mirth being ended with firebrands in stead of Torches they conducted him to his lodging.
Thus did they shew their feats of armes, and others art in dauncing.
Some other vs'd there oatea pipe; and others voyces chanting.
The next day came Powhatan: Smith delivered his message of the presents sent him, and delivered him Namontack he had sent for England, desiring him to come to his Father Newport, to accept these presents, and conclude their revenge against the Monacans. Wherevnto this subtile Savage thus replyed.
If your King haue sent me Presents, I also am a King, and this is my land: eight dayes I will stay to receiue them. Your Father is to come to me, not I to him, nor yet to your Fort, neither will I bite at such a bait: as for the Monacans I can revenge my owne iniuries, and as for Atquanachuk, where you say your brother was slaine, it is a contrary way from those parts you suppose it; but for any salt water beyond the mountaines, the Relations you haue had from my people are false. Wherevpon he began to draw plots vpon the ground (according to his discourse) of all those Regions.— Many other discourses they had (yet both content to giue each other content in complementall Courtesies) and so Captaine Smith returned with this answer.
 Vpon this the Presents were sent by water which is neare an hundred myles, and the Captains went by land with fiftie good shot. All being met a Werowocomoco, the next day was appointed for his Coronation, then the presents were brought him, his Bason and Ewer, Bed and furniture set vp, his scarlet Cloke and apparell with much adoe put on him, being perswaded by Namontack they would not hurt him: but a foule trouble there was to make him kneele to receiue his Crowne, he neither knowing the maiesty nor meaning of a Crowne, nor bending of the knee, endured so many perswasions, examples, and instructions, as tyred them all; at last by leaning hard on his shoulders, he a little stooped, and three having the crowne in their hands put it on his head, when by the warning of a Pistoll the Boats were prepared with such a volley of shot, that the King start vp in a horrible feare, till he saw all was well. Then remembering himselfe to congratulate their kindnesse, he gaue his old shooes and his mantell to Captaine Newport: but perceiving his purpose was to discover the Monacans, he laboured to divert his resolution, refusing to lend him either men or guides more then Namontack; and so after some small complementall kindnesse on both sides, in requitall of his presents he presented Newport with a heape of wheat eares that might containe some 7 or 8 Bushels, and as much more we bought in the Towne, wherewith we returned to the Fort.
The Ship having disburdened her selfe of 70 persons, with the first Gentlewoman and woman-seruant that arrived in our Colony, Captaine Newport with 120 chosen men, led by Captaine Waldo, Lieutenant Percie, Captaine Winne, Mr West, and Mr Scrivener, set forward for the discovery of Monacan, leaving the President at the Fort with about 80. or 90. (such as they were) to relade the Ship. Arriving at the Falles we marched by land some fortie myles in two dayes and a halfe, and so returned downe the same path we went. Two townes we discovered of the Monacans, called Massinacak and Mowhemenchouch, the people neither vsed vs well nor ill, yet for our securitie we tooke one of their petty Kings, and led him bound to conduct vs the way. And in our returncs searched many places we supposed Mines, about which we spent some time in refyning, having one William Callicut, a refyner fitted for that purpose. From that crust of earth we digged, he perswaded vs to beleeue he extracted some small quantitie of silver; and (not vnlikely) better stuffe might be had for the digging. With this poore tryall, being contented to leaue this fayre, fertile, well watered Country; and comming to the Falles, the Salvages fayned there were divers ships come into the Bay, to kill them at Iames Towne, Trade they would not, and finde their Corne we could not; for they had hid it in the woods: and being thus deluded, we arrived at Iames Towne, halfe sicke, all complaining, and tyred with toyle, famine, and discontent, to haue onely but discovered our guilded hopes, and such fruitlesse certainties, as Captaine Smith foretold vs.
But those that hunger seeke to slake,
Which thus abounding wealth would rake.-
Not all the gemmes of Ister shore,
Nor all the gold of Lydia's store,
Can fill their greedie appetite;
It is a thing so infinite.
No sooner were we landed, but the President dispersed so many as were able, some for Glasse, others for Tarre, Pitch, and Sope-ashes, leauing them with the Fort to the Councels oversight, but 30 of vs he conducted dowe the river some 5 myles from Iames towne, to learne to make Clapbord, cut downe trees, and lye in woods. Amongst the rest he had chosen Gabriel Beadle, and Iohn Russell, the onely two gallants of this last Supply, and both proper Gentlemen. Strange were these pleasures to their conditions; yet lodging, eating, and drinking, working or playing, they but doing as the President did himselfe. All these things were carried so pleasantly as within a weeke they became Masters: making it their delight to heare the trees thunder as they fell; but the Axes so oft blistered their tender fingers, that many times; every third blow had a loud othe to drowne the echo; for remedie of which sinne, the President devised how to haue every mans othes numbred, and at night for every othe to haue a Cann of water powred downe his sleeue, with which every offender was so washed (himselfe and all) that a man should scarce heare an othe in a weeke.
For he who scornes and makes but iests of cursings, and his othe.
He doth contemne, not man but God, nor God, nor man, but both.
By this, let no man thinke that the President and these Gentlemen spent, their times as common Wood-haggers at felling of trees, or such other like labours, or that they  were pressed to it as hirelings, or comnon slaues; for what they did, after they were but once a little invred, it seemed and some conceited it, onely as a pleasure and recreation, yet 30 or 40 of such voluntary Gentlemen would doe more in a day then 100 of the rest that must be prest to it by compulsion, but twentie good workmen had beene better then them all.
Master Scrivener, Captaine Waldo, and Captaine Winnt at the Fort, every one in like manner carefully regarded their charge. The President returning from amongst the woods, seeing the time consumed and no provision gotten, (and the Ship lay idle at a great charge and did nothing) presently imbarked himselfe in the discovery barge, giving order to the Councell to send Lieutenant Percie after him with the next barge that arrived at the Fort; two Barges he had himselfe and 18 men, but arriving at Chickahamania, that dogged Nation was too well acquainted with our wants, refusing to trade, with as much scorne and insolency as they could expresse. The President perceiuing it was Powhatans policy to starue vs, told them he came not so much for their Corne, as to revenge his imprisonment, and the death of his men murthered by them, and so landing his men and ready to charge them, they immediately fled: and presently after sent their Ambassadors with corne, fish, foule, and what they had to make their peace, (their Corne being that yeare but bad) they complained extreamely of their owne wants, yet fraughted our Boats with an hundred Bushels of Corne, and in like manner Lieutenant Percies, that not long after arrived, and having done the best they could to content vs, we parted good friends, and returned to Iames towne.
Though this much contented the Company, (that feared nothing more then starving) yet some so envied his good successe, that they rather desired to hazzard a starving, then his paines should proue so much more effectuall then theirs.— Some proiects there were invented by Newport and Ratliffe, not onely to haue deposed him, but to haue kept him out of the Fort: for that being President, he would leaue his place and the Fort without their consents, but their hornes were so much too short to effect it, as they themselues more narrowly escaped a greater mischiefe.
All this time our old Tavcrne made as much of all of them that had either money or ware as could be desired: by this time they were become so perfect on all sides (I meane the souldiers, saylers, and Salvages) as there was tenne times more care to maintaine their damnable and private trade, then to provide for the Colony things that were necessary. Neither was it a small policy in Newport and the Marriners to report in England we had such plentie, and bring vs so many men without victuals, when they had so many private Factors in the Fort, that within six or seauen weeks, of two or three hundred Axes, Chissels, Hows, and Pick-axes, scarce twentie could be found: and for Pike-heads, shot, Powder, or any thing they could steale from their fellowes, was vendible; they knew as well (and as secretly) how to convey them to trade with the Salvages for Furres, Baskets, Mussaneeks, young Beasts, or such like Commodities, as exchange them with the Saylers for Butter, Cheese, Beefe, Porke, Aqua vitae, Beere, Bisket, Oatmeale, and Oyle: and then fayne all was sent them from their friends. And though Virginia affoorded no Furres for the Store, yet one Master in one voyage hath got so many by this indirect meanes, as he confessed to haue sold in England for 301.
Those are the Saint-seeming Worthies of Virginia, that haue notwithstanding all this meate, drinke, and wages; but now they begin to grow weary, their trade being both perceived and prevented; none hath beene in Virginia that hath observed any thing, which knowes not this to be true, and yet the losse, the scorne, the misery, and shame, was the poore Officers, Gentlemen, and carelesse Governours, who were all thus bought and sold; the adventurers cousened, and the action overthrowne by their false excuses, informations, and directions. By this let all men iudge, how this businesse could prosper, being thus abused by such pilfring occasions. And had not Captaine Newport cryed Peccavi, the President would haue discharged the ship, and caused him to haue stayed one yeare in Virginia, to learne to speake of his owne experience.
Master Scrivener was sent with the Barges and Pinnace to Werowocomoco, where he found the Salvages more readie to fight then trade; but his vigilancy was such as prevented their proiects, and by the meanes of Namontack got three or foure hogsheads of Corne, and as much Pocones, which is a red roote, which then was esteemed an excellent Dye.
 Captaine Newport being dispatched, with the tryals of Pitch, Tarre, Glasse, Frankincense, Sope ashes; with that Clapboord and Waynscot that could be provided; met with Mr. Scrivener at poynt Comfort, and so returned for England. We remaining were about two hundred.
The Copy of a Letter sent to the Treasurer and Councell of Virginia from
Captaine Smith, then President in Virginia.
Right Honorable, &c.
I received your Letter, wherein you write, that our minds are so set vpon faction, and idle conceits in diuiding the Country without your consents, and that we feed You but with ifs and ands, hopes, and some few proofes; as if we would keepe the mystery of the businesse to our selues: and that we must expressly follow your instructions sent by Captain Newport: the charge of whose voyage amounts to neare two thousand pounds, the which if we cannot defray by the Ships returne, we are alike to remain as banished men. To these particulars I humbly intreat your Pardons if I offend you with my rude Answer.
For our factions, vnlesse you would haue me run away and leaue the Country, I cannot prevent them: because I do make many stay that would els fly any whether. For the idle Letter sent to my Lord of Salisbury, by the President and his confederats, for diuiding the Country &c, What it was I know not, for you saw no hand of mine to it; nor euer dream't I of any such matter. That we feed you with hopes, &c. Though I be no scholer, I am past a schoole-boy; and I desire but to know, what either you, and these here doe know, but that I haue learned to tell you by the continuall hazard of my life. I haue not concealed from you any thing I know; but I feare some cause you to beleeue much more then is true.
Expressly to follow your directions by Captaine Newport, though they be performed, I was directly against it; but according to our Commission, I was content to be overruled by the maior part of the Councell, I feare to the hazard of vs all; which now is generally confessed when it is too late. Onely Captaine Winne and Captaine Waldo I haue sworne of the Councell, and Crowned Powhatan according to your instructions.
For the charge of this Voyage of two or three thousand pounds, we haue not receiued the value of an hundred pounds. And for the quartred Boat to be borne by the Souldiers over the Falles, Newport had 120 of the best men he could chuse. If he had burnt her to ashes, one might haue carried her in a bag, but as she is, fiue hundred cannot, to a navigable place aboue the Falles. And for him at that time to find in the South Sea, a Mine of gold; or any of them sent by Sir Walter Raleigh: at our Consultation I told them was as likely as the rest. But during this great discovery of thirtie myles, (which might as well haue beene done by one man, and much more, for the value of a pound of Copper at a seasonable tyme) they had the Pinnace and all the Boats with them, but one that remained with me to serue the Fort. In their absence I followed the new begun workes of Pitch and Tarre, Glasse, Sopeashes, Clapboord, whereof some small quantities we haue sent you. But if you rightly consider, what an infinite toyle it is in Russia and Swethland, where the woods are proper for naught els, and though there be the helpe both of man and beast in those ancient Common-wealths, which many an hundred yeares haue vsed it, yet thousands of those poore people can scarce get necessaries to liue, but from hand to mouth. And though your Factors there can buy as much in a week as will fraught you a ship, or as much as you please; you must not expect from vs any such matter, which are but as many of ignorant miserable soules, that are scarce able to get wherewith to liue, and defend our selues against the inconstant Salvages: finding but here and there a tree fit for the purpose, and want all things els the Russians haue. For the Coronation of Powhatan, by whose advice you sent him such presents, I know not; but this giue me leaue to tell you, I feare they will be the confusion of vs all ere we heare from you againe. At your Ships arrivall, the Salvages harvest was newly gathered, and we going to buy it, our owne not being halfe sufficient for so great a number. As for the two ships loading of Corne Newport promised to provide vs from Powhatan, he brought vs but fourteene Bushels; and from the Monacans nothing, but the most of the men sicke  and neare famished. From your Ship we had not provision in victuals worth twenty pound, and we are more then two hundred to liue vpon this: the one halfe sicke, the other little better. For the Saylers (I confesse) they daily make good cheare, but our dyet is a little meale and water, and not sufficient of that Though there be fish in the Sea, foules in the ayre, and Beasts in the woods, their bounds are so large, they so Wilde, and we so weake and ignorant, we cannot much trouble them. Captaine Newport we much suspect to be the Author of those inventions. Now that you should know, I haue made you as great a discovery as he, for lesse charge then be spendeth you every meale; I haue sent you this Mappe of the Bay and Rivers, with an annexed Relation of the Countries and Nations that inhabit them, as you may see at large. Also two barrels of stones, and such as I take to be good Iron ore at the least; so divided, as by their notes you may see in what places I found them. The Soul-diers say many of your officers maintaine their families out of that you sent vs: and that Newport hath an hundred pounds a yeare for carrying newes. For every master you haue yet sent can find the way as well as he, so that an hundred pounds might be spared, which is more then we haue all, that helps to pay him wages. Cap. Ratliffe is now called Sicklemore, a poore counterfeited Imposture. I haue sent you him home, least the company should cut his throat.— What he is, now every one can tell you: if he and Archer returne againe, they are sufficient to keepe vs alwayes in factions. When you send againe I entreat you rather send but thirty Carpenters, husbandmen, gardiners, fisher men, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers vp of trees' roots, well provided, then a thousaud of such as we haue: for except wee be able both to lodge them, and feed them, the most will consume with want of necessaries before they can be made good for any thing. Thus if you please to consider this account, and the vnnecessary wages to Captaine Newport, or his ships so long lingering and staying here (for notwithstanding his boasting to leaue vs victuals for 12 moneths, though we had 89 by this discovery lame and sicke, and but a pinte of Corne a day for a man, we were constrained to giue him three hogsheads of that to victuall him homeward) or yet to send into Germany or Poleland for glasse-men and the rest, till we be able to sustaine ourselues, and releeue them when they come. It were better to giue fine hundred pound a tun for those grosse Commodities in Denmarke, then send for them hither, till more necessary things be provided. For in over-toyling our weake and vnskilfull bodies, to satisfie this desire of present profit, we can scarce ever recover our selues from one Supply to another. And I humbly in treat you hereafter, let vs know what we should receive, and not stand to the Saylers courtesie to Leaue vs what they please, els you may charge vs what you will, but we not you with any thing. These are the causes that haue kept vs in Virginia, from laying such a foundation, that ere this might haue given much better content and satisfaction; but as yet you must not looke for any profitable returnes: so I humbly rest.
The Names of those in this Supply, were these:
with their Proceedings and Accidents.
Captaine Peter Winne and Captaine Richard Waldo were appoynted to be of the Councell.
Master Francis VVest, brother to the Lord La VVare.
Gentlemen Tradesmen Labourers Thomas Braues Thomas Phelps Thomas Dawse Raoeigh Chroshaw Iohn Prat Thomas Mallard Gabriel Beadle Iohn Clarke William Tayler Iohn Beadle Ieffrey Shortridge Thomas Fox Iohn Russell Dionis Oconor Nicholas Hancock William Sambage Hugh Winne Walker Henry Leigh Dauid ap Hugh Williams Henry Philpot Thomas Bradley Floud Harmon Harrison Iohn Burras Morley Daniel Tucker Thomas Lavander Rose Henry Collins Henry Bell Scot Hugh Wolleston Master Powell Hardwyn Iohn Hoult David Ellis Thomas Norton Thomas Gibson Boyes: George Yarington Milman George Burton Hillard Thomas Abbay William Dowman Thomas Maxes Michael Lowick Master Hunt Thomas Forrest Iohn Dauxe
Mistresse Forrest, and Anne Burras her maide; eight Dutch men and Poles, with some others, to the number of seaveutie persons, &c
 These poore conclusions so affrighted vs all with famine, that the President provided for Nandsamund, and tooke with him Captaine Winne, and Mr Scrivener, then returning from Captaine Newport. These people also long denied him not onely the 400 Baskets of Corne they promised, but any trade at all; (excusing themselues they had spent most they had, and were commanded by Powhatan to keepe that they had, and not to let vs come into their river) till we were constrained to begin with them perforce. Vpon the discharging of our Muskets they all fled and shot not an Arrow; the first house we came to we set on fire, which when they perceiued, they desired we would make no more spoyle, and they would giue vs halfe they had: how they collected it I know not, but before night they loaded our three Boats; and so we returned to our quarter some foure myles downe the River, which was onely the open woods vnder the lay of a hill, where all the ground was covered with snow, and hard frozen; the snow we digged away and made a great fire in the place; when the ground was well dryed, we turned away the fire; and covering the place with a mat, there we lay very warme. To keepe vs from the winde we made a shade of another Mat; as the winde turned we turned our shade, and when the ground grew cold we remoued the fire. And thus many a cold winter night haue wee laine in this miserable manner, yet those that most commonly went vpon all those occasions, were alwayes in health, lusty, and fat. For sparing them this yeare, the next yeare they promised to plant purposely for vs; and so we returned to Iames towne. About this time there was a marriage betwixt Iohn Laydon and Anne Burras; which was the first marriage we had in Virginia.
Long he stayed not, but fitting himselfe and Captaine Waldo with two Barges. From Chawopoweanock, and all parts thereabouts, all the people were fled, as being iealous of our intents; till we discovered the river and people of Apamatuck; where we found not much, that they had we equally divided, but gaue them copper, and such things as contented them in consideration. Master Scrivener and Lieutenant Percie went also abroad, but could find nothing.
The President seeing the procrastinating of time, was no course to liue, resolved with Captaine Waldo (whom he knew to be sure in time of need) to surprise Powhatan, and all his provision, but the vnwillingnesse of Captaine Winne, and Master Scrivener, for some private respect, plotted in England to ruine Captaine Smith, did their best to hinder their proiect; but the President whom no perswasions could perswade to starue, being invited by Powhatan to come vnto him: and if he would send him but men to build him a house, giue him a gryndstone, fiftie swords, some peeces, a cock and a hen, with much copper and beads, he would load his Ship with Corne. The President not ignorant of his devises and subtiltie, yet vnwilling to neglect any opportunitie, presently sent three Dutch-men and two English, having so small allowance, few were able to doe any thing to purpose: knowing there needed no better a Castle to effect this proiect, tooke order with Captaine Waldo to second him, if need required; Scrivener he left his substitute, and set forth with the Pinnace, two Barges, and fortie-six men, which onely were such as voluntarily offered themselues for his Iourney, the which by reason of Mr. Scriveners ill successe, was censured very desperate, they all knowing Smith would not returne emptie, if it were to be had: howsoever, it caused many of those that he had appointed, to find excuses to stay behinde.
Captaine Smiths Iourney to Pamavnkee.
The twentie-nine of December he set forward for Werowocomoco: his Company were these;
In the Discovery Barge himselfe.
Gentelmen: Souldiers: Robert Behethland Anas Todkill Nathanael Graues William Loue Iohn Russell William Bentley Releigh Chrashow Ieffrey Shortridge Michael Sickelmore Edward Pising Richard Worley William Ward
In the Pinnace.
Lieutenant Percie, brother to the Earle of Northumberland.
Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La Warre.
William Phittiplace, Captaine of the Pinnace.
Gentlemen. Sould'rs. Michael Phittiplace Iames Browne Ieffrey Abbot. Serieant Edward Brinton William Tankard George Burton George Yarington Thomas Coe
Ionas Profit, Master
Robert Ford, Clarke of the Councell
Iohn Dods, Souldier
Henry Powerll, Souldier.
 Thomas Gipson, David Ellis, Nathanael Peacock, Saylers. Iohn Prat, George Acrig, Iames Read, Nicholas Hancock, Iames Watkins, Thomas Lambert, foure Dutch-men, and Richard Salvage were sent by land before to build the house for Powhatan against our Arrivall.
This company being victualled but for three or foure dayes, lodged the first night at Warraskoyack, where the President tooke sufficient provision. This kind King did his best to divert him from seeing Powhatan, but perceiuing he could not prevaile, he advised in this manner. Captaine Smith, you shall find Powhatan to vse you kindly, but trust him not, and be sure he haue no opportunitie to seize on your Armes; for he hath sent for you ouely to cut your throats. The Captaine thanking him for his good counsell: yet the better to try his loue, desired guides to Chawwonock; for he would send a present to that King, to bind him his friend. To performe this iourney was sent Mr Sicklemore, a very valiant, honest, and a painefull Souldier: with him two guides, and directions how to seeke for the lost company of Sir Walter Raleighs, and silke Grasse. Then we departed thence, the President assuring the King perpetuall loue; and left with him Samuel Collier his Page to learne the Language.
So this King's deeds by sacred Oath adiur'd.
More wary proues, and circumspect by ods.
Fearing at least his double forfeiture;
To offend his friends, and sin against his Gods.
The next night being lodged at Kecoughtan; six or seaven dayes the extreame winde, rayne, frost and snow caused vs to keepe Christmas among the Salvages, where we were never more merry, nor fed on more plentie of good Oysters, Fish, Flesh, Wild foule, and good bread; nor never had better fires in England, then in the dry smoaky houses of Kecoughtan: but departing thence, when we found no houses we were not curious in any weather to lye three or foure nights together vnder the trees by a fire, as formerly is sayd. An hundred fortie eight foules the President, Anthony Bagnall, and Serieant Pising did kill at three shoots. At Kiskiack the frost and contrary winds forced vs three or foure dayes also (to suppresse the insolency of those proud Salvages) to quarter in their houses, yet guard our Barge, and cause them giue vs what we wanted; though we were but twelue and himselfe, yet we never wanted shelter where we found any houses. The 12 of Ianuary we arrived at Werowocomoco, where the river was frozen neare halfe a myle from the shore; but to neglect no time, the President with his Barge so far had approached by breaking the ice, as the ebbe left him amongst those oasie shoules, yet rather then to lye there frozen to death, by his owne example he taught them to march neere middle deepe, a flight shot through this muddy frozen oase. When the Barge floated, he ap-poynted two or three to returne her aboord the Pinnace.—Where for want of water in melting the ice, they made fresh water, for the river there was salt. But in this march Mr Russell, (whom none could perswade to stay behinde) being somewhat ill, and exceeding heauie, so overtoyled himselfe as the rest had much adoc (ere he got ashore) to regaine life into his dead benummed spirits. Quartering in the next houses we found, we sent to Powhatan for provision, who sent vs plentie of bread, Turkies, and Venison; the next day having feasted vs after his ordinary manner, he began to aske vs when we would be gone: fayning he sent not for vs, neither had he any corne; and his people much lesse: yet for fortie swords he would procure vs fortie Baskets. The President shewing him the men there present that brought him the message and conditions, asked Powhatan how it chanced he became so forgetfull; thereat the King concluded the matter with a merry laughter, asking for our Commodities, but none he liked without gunnes and swords, valuing a Basket of Corne more precious then a Basket of Copper; saying he could rate his Corne, but not the Copper.
Captaine Smith seeing the intent of this subtill Salvage began to deale with him after this manner. "Powhatan, though I had many courses to haue made my provision, yet beleeving your promises to supply my wants, I neglected all to satisfie your desire: and to testifie my lone, I sent you my men for your building, neglecting mine owne. What your people had you haue ingrossed, forbidding them our trade: and now you thinke by consuming the time, we shall consume for want, not having to fulfill your strange demands. As for swords and gunns, I told you long agoe I had none to spare; and you must know those I haue can keepe me from want: yet steale or wrong you I will not, nor dissolue that friendship we haue mutually promised, except you constraine me by our bad vsage."
 The King having attentiuely listned to this Discourse, promised that both he and his Country would spare him what he could, the which within two dayes they should receiue. "Yet Captaine Smith," sayth the King, "some doubt I haue of your comming hither, that makes me not so kindly seeke to relieue you as I would: for many doe informe me, your comming hither is not for trade, but to invade my people, and possesse my Country, who dare not come to bring you Corne, seeing you thus armed with your men. To free vs of this feare, leauc aboord your weapons, for here they are needlesse, we being all friends, and for ever Powhatans."
With many such discourses they spent the day, quartering that night in the Kings houses. The next day he renewed his building, which hee little intended should proceede. For the Dutch-men finding his plentie, and knowing our want, and perceiving his preparations to surprise vs, little thinking we could escape both him and famine; (to obtaine his favour) revealed to him so much as they knew of our estates and proiects, and how to prevent them. One of them being of so great a spirit, iudgement, and resolution, and a hireling that was certaine of his wages for his labour, and ever well vsed both he and his Countrymen; that the President knew not whom better to trust; and not knowing any fitter for that imployment, had sent him as a spy to discover Powhatans intent, then little doubting his honestie, nor could ever be certaine of his villany till neare halfe a yeare after.
Whilst we expected the comming in of the Country, we wrangled out of the King ten quarters of Corne for a copper Kettell, the which the President perceiving him much to affect, valued it at a much greater rate; but in regard of his scarcity he would accept it, provided we should haue as much more the next yeare, or els the Country of Monacan.— Wherewith each seemed well contented, and Powhatan began to expostulate the difference of Peace and Warre after this manner.
"Captaine Smith, you may vnderstand that I having seene the death of all my people thrice, and not any one liuing of those three generations but my selfe; I know the difference of Peace and Warre better then any in my Country. But now I am old and ere long must die, my brethren, namely Opitchapam, Opechancanough, and Kekataugh, my two sisters, and their two daughters, are distinctly each others suc- cessors. I wish their experience no lesse then mine, and your loue to them no lesse then mine to you. But this bruit from Nandsamund, that you are come to destroy my Country, so much affrighteth all my people as they dare not visit you. What will it availe you to take that by force you may quickly haue by loue, or to destroy them that provide you food. What can you get by warre, when we can hide our provisions and fly to the woods? whereby you must famish by wronging vs your friends. And why are you thus iealous of our loues seeing vs unarmed, and both doe, and are willing still to feede you, with that you cannot get but by our labours? Thinke you I am so simple, not to know it is better to eate good meate, lye well, and sleepe quietly with my women and children, laugh and be merry with you, haue copper, hatchets, or what I want being your friend: then be forced to flie from all, to lie cold in the woods, feede vpon Acornes, rootes, and such trash, and be so hunted by you, that I can neither rest, eate, nor sleepe; but my tyred men must watch, and if a twig but breake, every one cryeth there commeth Captaine Smith: then must I fly I know not whether: and thus with miserable feare, end my miserable life, leauing my pleasures to such youths as you, which through your rash vnaduisednesse may quickly as miserably end, for want of that, you never know where to finde. Let this therefore assure you of our loues, and every yeare our friendly trade shall furnish you with Corne; and now also if you would come in friendly manner to see vs, and not thus with your guns and swords as to invade your foes." To this subtill discourse, the President thus replyed.
"Seeing you will not rightly conceiue of our words, we striue to make you know our thoughts by our deeds; the vow I made you of my loue, both my selfe and my men haue kept. As for your promise I find it euery day violated by some of your subiects: yet we finding your loue and kindnesse, our custome is so far from being vngratefull, that for your sake onely, we haue curbed our thirsting desire of revenge; els had they knowne as well the crueltie we vse to our enemies, as our true loue and courtesie to our friends. And I thinke your iudgement sufficient to conceiue, as well by the adventures we haue undertaken, as by the advantage we haue (by our Armes) of yours: that had we intended you any hurt, long ere this we could haue effected it. Your people comming to Iames Towne are entertained with their Bowes and  Arrowes without any exceptions; we esteeming it with you as it is with vs, to wear our armes as our apparell. As for the danger of our enemies, in such warres consist our chiefest pleasure: for your riches we haue no vse: as for the hiding your provision, or by your flying to the woods, we shall not so vnadvisedly starue as you conclude, your friendly care in that behalfe is necdlesse, for we haue a rule to finde beyond your knowledge."
Many other discourses they had, till at last they began to trade. But the King seeing his will would not be admitted as a law, our guard dispersed, nor our men disarmed, he (sighing) breathed his minde once more in this manner.
"Captaine Smith, I neuer use any Werowance so kindely as your selfe, yet from you I receiue the least kindnesse of any. Captaine Newport gaue me swords, copper, clothes, a bed, towels, or what I desired; euer taking what I offered him, and would send away his gunnes when I intreated him: none doth deny to lye at my feet, or refuse to doe what I desire, but onely you; of whom I can haue nothing but what you regard not, and yet you will haue whatsoeuer you demand. Captaine Newport you call father, and so you call me; but I see for all vs both you will doe what you list, and we must both seeke to content you. But if you intend so friendly as you say, send hence your armes, that I may beleeue you; for you see the loue I beare you, doth cause me thus nakedly to forget myselfe."
Smith seeing this Salvage but trifle the time to cut his throat, procured the salvages to breake the ice, that his Boate might come to fetch his corne and him; and gaue order for more men to come on shore, to surprise the King, with whom also he but trifled the time till his men were landed: and to keepe him from suspicion, entertained the time with this reply.
"Powhatan you must know, as I haue but one God, I honour but one King; and I liue not here as your subiect, but as your friend to pleasure you with what I can. By the gifts you bestow on me, you gaine more then by trade: yet would you visit mee as I doe you, you should know it is not our custome, to sell our curtesies as a vendible commodity. Bring all your countrey with you for your guard, I will not dislike it as being ouer iealous. But to content you, to morrow I will leaue my armes, and trust to your promise. I call you father indeed, and as a father you shall see I will loue you: but the small care you haue of such a childe caused my men perswade me to looke to myselfe."
By this time Powhatan hauing knowledge his men were ready whilest the ice was a breaking, with his Luggage women and children, fled. Yet to auoyd suspicion, left two or three of the women talking with the Captaine, whilest hee secretly ran away, and his men that secretly beset the house. Which being presently discouered to Captaine Smith, with his pistoll, sword, and target hee made such a passage among these naked Diuels; that at his first shoot, they next him tumbled one ouer another, and the rest quickly fled some one way some another: so that without any hurt, onely accompanied with Iohn Russell, hee obtained the corps du guard. When they perceiued him so well escaped, and with his eighteene men (for he had no more with him a shore) to the vttermost of their skill they sought excuses to dissemble the matter: and Powhatan to excuse his flight and the sudden comming of this multitude, sent our Captaine a great bracelet and a chaine of pearle, by an ancient Oratour that bespoke vs to this purpose, perceiuing euen then from our Pinnace, a Barge and men departing and comming vnto vs.
"Captaine Smith, our Werowance is fled fearing your gunnes, and knowing when the ice was broken there would come more men, sent these numbers but to guard his corne from stealing, that might happen without your knowledge: now though some bee hurt by your misprision, yet Powhatan is your friend and so will for euer continue. Now since the ice is open, he would haue you send away your corne, and if you would haue his company, send away also your gunnes, which so affrighteth his people, that they dare not come to you as he promised they should."
Then hauing prouided baskets for our men to carry our corne to the boats, they kindly offered their seruice to guard our Armes, that none should steale them. A great many they were of goodly well proportioned fellowes, as grim as Diuels; yet the very sight of cocking our matches, and being to let fly, a few wordes caused them to leaue their bowes and arrowes to our guard, and beare downe our corne on their backes; wee needed not importune them to make dispatch. But our Barges being left on the oase by the ebbe, caused vs stay till the next high-water, so that wee returned  againe to our old quarter. Powhatan and his Dutch-men brusting with desire to haue the head of Captaine Smith, for if they could but kill him, they thought all was theirs, neglected not any opportunity to effect his purpose. The Indians with all the merry sports they could devise, spent the time till night: then they all returned to Powhatan, who all this time was making ready his forces to surprise the house and him at supper. Notwithstanding the eternall all-seeing God did preuent him, and by a strange meanes. For Pocahontas his clearest iewell and daughter, in that darke night came through the irksome woods, and told our Captaine great cheare should be sent vs by and by: but Powhatan and all the power he could make, would after come kill vs all, if they that brought it could not kill vs with our owne weapons when we were at supper. Therefore if we would liue shee wished vs presently to be gone. Such things as she delighted in, he would haue giuen her: but with the teares running downe her cheekes, she said she durst not be seene to haue any: for if Powhatan should know it, she were but dead, and so shee ranne away by her selfe as she came. Within lesse then an houre came eight or ten lusty fellowes, with great platters of venison and other victuall, very importunate to haue vs put out our matches (whose smoke made them sicke) and sit down to our victuall. But the Captaine made them taste euery dish, which done he sent some of them backe to Powhatan, to bid him make haste for hee was prepared for his comming. As for them hee knew they came to betray him at his supper: but hee would prevent them and their other intended villanies: so that they might be gone. Not long after came more messengers, to see what newes; not long after them others. Thus wee spent the night as vigilantly as they, till it was high-water, yet seemed to the saluages as friendly as they to vs: and that we were so desirous to giue Powhatan content, as he requested, wee did leaue him Edward Brynton to kill him foule, and the Dutch-men to finish his house; thinking at our returne from Pamavnkee the frost would be gone, and then we might finde a better oportunity if necessity did occasion it, little dreaming yet of the Dutch-mens treachery, whose humor well suted this verse:
Is any free, that may not liue as freely as he list?
Let vs liue so, then we'are as free, and bruitish as thfc best.
 CHAP. IX.
How wee escaped surprising at Pamavnkee.
We had no sooner set sayle but Powhatan returned, and sent Adam and Francis (two stout Dutch-men) to Iames towne: who faining to Captaine Winne that all things were well, and that Captaine Smith had vse of their armes, wherefore they requested new (the which were giuen them) they told him their comming was for some extraordinary tooles, and shift of apparell; by which colourable excuse they obtained sixe or seauen more to their confederate, such expert theeues, that presently furnished them with a great many swords, pike-heads, peeces, shot, powder and such like: Saluages they had at hand to carry it away, and the next day they returned vnsuspected, leauing their confederates to follow, and in the interim to convay them such things as they could: for which seruice they should liue with Powhatan as his chiefe affected, free from those miseries that would happen the Colony. Samuel their other consort Powhatan kept for their pledge, whose diligence had prouided them three hundred of their kinde of hatchets; the rest fifty swords, eight peeces, and eight pikes. Brynton and Richard Salvage seeing the Dutchmen so diligent to accomodate the Saluages with weapons, attempted to haue gotten to Iames towne, but they were apprehended, and expected euer when to be put to death.
Within two or three dayes we arriued at Pamavnkee, the King as many dayes entertained vs with feasting and much mirth. And the day appointed to beginne our trade, the President, Lieutenant Percie, Mr. West, Mr. Russell, Mr. Behethland, Mr. Crashaw, Mr. Powell, Mr. Ford, and some others to the number of fifteene, went vp to Opechancanoughs house a quarter of a mile from the riuer, where wee found nothing but a lame fellow and a boy: and all the houses round about of all things abandoned. Not long wee stayed ere the King arriued, and after him came diuerse of his people loaden with bowes and arrowes: but such pinching commodities, and those esteemed at such a value, as our Captaine began with the King after this manner.
"Opechancanough, the great loue you professe with your tongue, seemes meere deceit by your actions. Last yeere  you kindly fraughted our ship: but now you haue inuited mee to starue with hunger: you know my want, and I your plenty; of which by some meanes I must haue part: remember it is fit for Kings to keepe their promise. Here are my commodities, whereof take your choice, the rest I will proportion fit bargains for your people."
The King seemed kindly to accept his offer, and the better to colour his proiect, sold vs what they had to our owne content, promising the next day more company, better prouided. The Barges and Pinnace being committed to the charge of Mr. Phetiplace; the President with his old fifteene marched vp to the Kings house, where wee found foure or fiue men newly arriued, each with a great basket. Not long after came the King, who with a strained cheerfulnesse held vs with discourse what paines he had taken to keep his promise; till Mr. Russell brought vs in newes that we were all betrayed: for at least seuen hundred Saluages well armed, had inuironed the house, and beset the fields. The King coniecturing what Russell related, wee could well perceiue how the extremity of his feare bewrayed his intent: whereat some of our company seeming dismaied with the thought of such a multitude; the Captaine encouraged vs to this effect.
"Worthy Country-men, were the mischiefes of my seeming friends no more then the danger of these enemies, I little cared were they as many more: if you dare doe, but as I. But this is my torment, that if I escape them, our malicious Councell with their open mouthed Minions, will make me such a peace breaker (in their opinions in England) as will breake my necke. I could wish those here, that make these seeme Saints, and mean oppressor. But this is the worst of all, wherein I pray you aid mee with your opinions. Should wee beginne with them and surprise the King, we cannot keepe him and defend well our selues. If we should each kill our man, and so proceed with all in the house; the rest will all fly: then shall wee get no more then the bodies that are slaine, and so starue for victuall. As for their fury it is the least danger, for well you know, being alone assaulted with two or three hundred of them, I made them by the helpe of God compound to saue my life. And wee are sixteene, and they but seauen hundred at the most; and assure your selues, God will so assist vs, that if you dare stand but to discharge your pieces, the very smoke will bee sufficient  to affright them. Yet howsoeuer, let vs fight like men, and not die like sheepe: for by that meanes you know God hath oft deliuered mee, and so I trust will now. But first, I will deale with them, to bring it to passe we may fight for something, and draw them to it by conditions. If you like this motion, promise me you will be valiant."
The time not permitting any argument, all vowed to execute whatsoeuer hee attempted, or die: whereupon the Captaine in plaine tearmes told the King this.
"I see Opcchancanough your plot to murder me, but I feare it not. As yet your men and mine haue done no harme, but by our direction. Take therefore your Armes, you see mine, my body shall bee as naked as yours: the Isle in your riuer is a fit 'place, if you be contented: and the conquer-our (of vs two) shall be Lord and Master oucr all our men. If you haue not enough, take time to fetch more, and bring what number you will; so euery one bring a basket of corne, against all which I will stake the value in copper, you see I haue but fifteene, and our game shall be, the Conquerour take all."
The King being guarded with forty or fifty of his chiefe men, seemed kindly to appease Smiths suspicion of vnkindnesse, by a great present at the doore, they intreated him to receiue. This was to draw him out of the doore, where the bait was guarded with at least two hundred men, and thirty lying vnder a great tree (that lay thwart as a barricado) each his arrow nocked ready to shoot. The President commanded one to go see what kind of deceit this was, and to receiue the present; but he refused to doe it: yet the Gentlemen and all the rest were importunate to goe, but he would not permit them, being vexed at that Coward: and commanded Lieutenant Percie, Master West, and the rest to make good the house; Master Powell and Master Behethland he commanded to guard the doore, and in such a rage snatched the King by his long locke in the middest of his men, with his Pistoll readie bent against his breast. Thus he led the trembling King, neare dead with feare amongst all his people: who delivering the Captaine his Vambrace, Bow, and Arrowes, all his men were easily intreated to cast downe their Armes, little dreaming any durst in that manner haue vsed their King: who then to escape himselfe bestowed his presents in good sadnesse, and causing a great many of them come  before him vnarmed, holding the King by the hayre (as is sayd) he spake to them to this effect.
"I see (you Pamavnkees) the great desire you haue to kill me, and my long suffering your iniuries hath imboldened you to this presumption. The cause I haue forborne your insolencies, is the promise I made you (before the God I serue) to be your friend, till you giue me iust cause to be your enemy. If I keepe this vow, my God will keepe me, you cannot hurt me; if I breake it, he will destroy me. But if you shoot but one Arrow to shed one drop of bloud of any of my men, or steale the least of these Beads, or Copper, I spurne here before you with my foot; you shall see I will not cease revenge (if once I begin) so long as I can heare where to finde one of your Nation that will not deny the name of Pamavnk. I am not now at Rassaweak halfe drowned with myre, where you tooke me prisoner; yet then for keeping your promise and your good vsage and saving my life, I so affect you, that your denyals of your trechery, doe halfe perswade me to mistake my selfe. But if I be the marke you ayme at, here I stand, shoot he that dare. You promised to fraught my Ship ere I departed, and so you shall, or I meane to load her with your dead carcasses, yet if as friends you will come and trade, I once more promise not to trouble you, except you giue me the first occasion, and your King shall be free and be my friend, for I am not come to hurt him or any of you."
Vpon this away went their Bowes and Arrowes, and men, women, and children brought in their Commodities: two or three houres they so thronged about the President and so overwearied him, as he retyred himselfe to rest, leauing Mr Behethland and Mr Powell to receiue their presents, but some Salvages perceiuing him fast asleepe, and the guard somewhat carelesly dispersed, fortie or fiftie of their choise men each with a club, or an English sword in his hand began to enter the house with two or three hundred others, that pressed to second them. The noyse and hast they made in, did so shake the house they awoke him from his sleepe, and being halfe amazed with this suddaine sight, betooke him strait to his sword and Target; Mr Chrashaw and some others charged in like manner; whereat they quickly thronged faster backe then before forward. The house thus cleansed, the King and some of his auncients we kept yet with him, who with a long Oration, excused this intrusion. The rest of the day was spent with much kindnesse, the companie againe renewing their presents with their best provisions, and whatsoever he gaue them they seemed therewith well contented.
Now in the meane while since our departure, this hapned at our Fort. Master Scrivener having receiued Letters from England to make himselfe either Cæsar or nothing, he began to decline in his affection to Captaine Smith, that ever regarded him as himselfe, and was willing to crosse the surprising of Powhatan. Some certaine daies after the Presidents departure, he would needs goe visit the Isle of Hogs, and tooke with him Captaine Waldo (though the President had appointed him to be ready to second his occasions) with Mr Anthony Gosnoll and eight others; but so violent was the wind (that extreame frozen time) that the Boat sunke, but where or how none doth know. The Skiff was much over-loaden, and would scarce haue liued in that extreame tempest had she beene empty: but by no perswasion he could be diverted, though both Waldo and an hundred others doubted as it hapned. The Salvages were the first that found their bodies, which so much the more encouraged them to effect their proiects. To advertise the President of this heavie newes, none could be found would vndertake it, but the Iourney was often refused of all in the Port, vntill Master Richard Wyffin vndertooke alone the performance thereof.
In this Iourney he was incountred with many dangers and difficulties in all parts as he passed. As for that night he lodged with Powhatan, perceiuing such preparation for warre, not finding the President there: he did assure himselfe some mischiefe was intended. Pocahontas hid him for a time, and sent them who pursued him the cleane contrary way to seeke him; but by her meanes and extraordinary bribes and much trouble in three dayes travell, at length he found vs in the middest of these turmoyles. This unhappy newes the President swore him to conceale from the company, and so dissembling his sorrow with the best countenances he could, when the night approached went safely aboord with all his Souldiers; leauing Opechancanough at libertie, according to his promise, the better to haue Powhatan in his retnrne.
Now so extreamely Powhatan had threatned the death of his men, if they did not by some meanes kill Captaine Smith:  that the next day they appointed all the country should come to trade vnarmed: yet vnwilling to be trecherous, but that they were constrained, hating fighting with him almost as ill as hanging, such feare they had of bad successe. The next morning the Sunne had not long appeared, but the fields appeared covered with people and Baskets, to tempt vs on shore: but nothing was to be had without his presence, nor they would not indure the sight of a gun. When the President saw them begin to depart, being vnwilling to loose such a bootie, he so well contrived the Pinnace, and his Barges, with Ambuscadoes, as onely with Lieutenant Percie, Mr. West, and Mr. Russell, with their Armes went on shore; others he appointed vnarmed to receiue what they brought. The Salvages flocked before him in heapes, and the banke serving as a trench for a retreat, he drew them fayre open to his Ambuscado's. For he not being to be perswaded to goe visit their King, the King knowing the most of them vnarmed, came to visit him with two or three hundred men, in the forme of two halfe Moones; and with some twentie men, and many women loaden with painted Baskets. But when they approached somewhat neare vs, their women and children fled. For when they had environed and beset the fields in this manner, they thought their purpose sure, yet so trembled with feare as they were scarce able to nock their Arrowes: Smith standing with his three men ready bent, beholding them till they were within danger of our Ambuscado's, who vpon the word discovered themselues, and he retyred to the Barge. Which the Salvages no sooner perceived, then away they fled, esteeming their heeles for their best advantage.
That night we sent Mr. Chrashaw, and Mr. Ford to Iames towne to Cap. Winne. In the way betweene Werowocomoco and the Fort they met foure or fiue of the Dutch-mens Confederates going to Powhatan: the which to excuse those Gentlemens suspicion of their running to the Salvages, returned to the Fort and there continued.
The Salvages hearing our Barge goe downe the river in the night, were so terribly affrayde, that we sent for more men (we having so much threatned their ruine, and the rasing of their houses, boats, and wires) that the next day the King sent our Captaine a chayne of Pearls, to alter his purpose and stay his men: promising though they wanted themselues, to fraught our ship and bring it aboord to avoyd suspition. So that fiue or six dayes after, from all parts of the Country within ten or twelue myles in the extreame frost and snow, they brought vs provision on their naked backes.
Yet notwithstanding this kindnesse and trade, had their art and poyson beene sufficient, the President with Mr. West, and some others had beene poysoned; it made them sicke, but expelled itselfe. Wecuttanow, a stout young fellow, knowing he was suspected for bringing this present of poyson, with fortie or fiftie of his chiefe companions (seeing the President but with a few men at Potavncak) so proudly braued it, as though he expected to incounter a revenge.—Which the President perceiuing in the midst of his company, did not onely beate, but spurned him like a dogge, as scorning to doe him any worse mischiefe. Wherevpon all of them fled into the woods, thinking they had done a great matter to haue so well escaped; and the townesmen remaining presently fraughted our Barge to be rid of our companies, framing many excuses to excuse Wecuttanow, (being sonne to their chiefe King, but Powhatan) and told vs if we would shew them him that brought the poyson, they would deliver him to vs to punish as we pleased. Men may thinke it strange there should be such a stirre for a little corne, but had it beene gold with more ease wee might haue got it; and had it wanted, the whole Colony had starued. We may be thought very patient to endure all those iniuries, yet onely with fearing them wee got what they had. Whereas if we had taken revenge, then by their losse, we should haue lost our selues. We searched also the Countries of Youghtanund and Mattapanient, where the people imparted that little they had with such complaints and tears from the eyes of women and children, as he had beene too cruell to haue beene a Christian, that would not haue beene satisfied and moved with compassion. But had this hapned in October, November, and December, when that vnhappie discovery of Monocan was made, we might haue fraughted a ship of fortie tuns, and twise as much might haue beene had from the Rivers of Rapahanock, Patawomek, and Pawtuxunt.
The maine occasion of our thus temporizing with them was, to part friends as we did, to giue the lesse cause of suspition to Powhatan to fly, by whom we now returned with a purpose to haue surprised him and his provision. For effecting whereof (when we came against the Towne) the  President sent Mr Wyffin and Mr Coe ashore to discover and make way for his intended project. But they found that those damned Dutch-men had caused Powhatan to abandon his new house and Werowocomoco, and to carry away all his corne and provision: and the people they found so ill affected, that they were in great doubt how to escape with their liues. So the President finding his intent frustrated, and that there was nothing now to be had, and therefore an vnfit time to revenge their abuses, sent Master Michael Phittiplace by Land to Iames towne, whether we sayled with all the speed we could; wee having in this Iourney (for 251. Copper, and 501. of Iron and Beads) enough to keepe 46 men six weekes, and every man for his reward a moneths provision extraordinary (no trade being allowed but for the store) we got neare 2001 waight of deere suet, and delivered to the Cape Merchant 479 Bushels of Corne.
Those temporizing proceedings to some may seeme too charitable, to such a daily daring trecherous people: to others not pleasing, that we washed not the ground with their blouds, nor shewed such strange inventions in mangling, murdering, ransacking, and destroying (as did the Spanyards) the simple bodies of such ignorant soules; nor delightfull, because not stuffed with Relations of heapes and mynes of gold and silver, nor such rare commodities, as the Portugals and Spanyards found in the East and West Indies. The want whereof hath begot vs (that were the first vndertakers) no lesse scorne and contempt, then the noble conquests and valiant adventures beautified with it, prayse and honour. Too much I confesse the world cannot attribute to their ever memorable merit: and to cleare vs from the blind worlds ignorant censure, these few words may suffice any reasonable vnderstanding.
It was the Spanyards good hap to happen in those parts where were infinite numbers of people, who had manured the ground with that providence, it affoorded victualls at times. And time had brought them to that perfection, they had the vse of gold and silver and the most of such commodities as those Countries affoorded: so that, what the Spanyard got was chiefely the spoyle and pillage of those Countrey people, and not the labours of their owne hand. But had those fruitfull Countries beene as salvage, as barbarous, as ill peopled, as little planted, laboured, and manured, as Virginia: [221 their proper labours it is likely would haue produced as small profit as ours. But had Virginia been peopled, planted, manured, and adorned with such store of precious Iewels, and rich commodities as was the Indies: then had we not gotten and done as much as by their examples might be expected from vs, the world might then haue traduced vs and our merits, and haue made shame and infamy our recompense and reward.
But we chanced in a Land even as God made it, where we found onely an idle, improvident, scattered people, ignorant of the knowledge of gold or silver, or any commodities, and carelesse of any thing but from hand to mouth, except bables of no worth; nothing to encourage vs but what accidentally we found Nature afforded. Which ere we could bring to recompence our paines, defray our charges, and satisfie our Adventurers; we were to discover the Countrey, subdue the people, bring them to be tractable, civill, and industrious, and teach them trades, that the fruits of their labours might make vs some recompence, or plant such Colonies of our owne, that must first make prouision how to liue of them selues, ere they can bring to perfection the commodities of the Country: which doubtlesse will be as commodious for England as the west Indies for Spaine, if it be rightly managed: notwithstanding all our home-bred opinions, that will argue the contrary, as formerly some haue done against the Spanyards and Portugalls. But to conclude, against all rumor of opinion, I onely say this, for those that the three first yeares began this Plantation; notwithstanding all their factions, mutinies, and miseries, so gently corrected, and well prevented: pervse the the Spanish Decades: the Relations of Master Hackluit, and tell me how many ever with such small meanes as a Barge of 22 tuns, sometimes with seauen, eight, or nine, or but at most, twelue or sixteene men, did euer discover so many fayre and navigable Rivers, subject so many severall Kings, people, and Nations, to obedience, and contribution with so little bloudshed.
And if in the search of those Countries we had hapned where wealth had beene, we had as surely had it as obedience and contribution, but if we haue overskipped it, we will not enuie them that shall find it: yet can we not but lament, it was our fortunes to end when we had but onely learned how to begin, and found the right course how to proceed.
By Richard Wyffin, William Phittiplace, Ieffrey Abbot, and Anas Todktill.
 CHAP. X.
How the Salvages became subiect to the English.
When the Ships departed, all the provision of the Store (but that the President had gotten) was so rotten with the last Summers rayne, and eaten with Rats and Wormes, as the Hogges would scarcely eate it. Yet it was the Souldiers dyet till our returnes, so that we found nothing done, but our victuals spent, and the most part of our tooles, and a good part of our Armes conveyed to the Salvages. But now casting vp the Store, and finding sufficient till the next harvest, the feare of starving was abandoned, and the company divided into tens, fifteens, or as the businesse required; six houres each day was spent in worke, the rest in Pastime and merry exercises, but the vntowardnesse of the greatest number caused the President advise as followeth.
"Countrymen, the long experience of our late miseries, I hope is sufficient to perswade every one to a present correction of himselfe, and thinke not that either my pains, nor the Adventurers purses, will ever maintaine you in idlenesse and sloath. I speake not this to you all, for divers of you I know deserue both honour and reward, better then is yet here to be had: but the greater part must be more industrious, or starue, how euer you haue beene heretofore tollerated by the authoritie of the Councell, from that I haue often commanded you. You see now that power resteth wholly in my selfe: you must obey this now for a Law, that he that will not worke shall not eate (except by sicknesse he be disabled:) for the labours of thirtie or fortie honest and industrious men shall not be consumed to maintaine an hundred and fiftie idle loyterers. And though you presume the authoritie here is but a shadow, and that I dare not touch the liues of any but my owue must answer it: the Letters patents shall each weeke be read to you, whose Contents will tell you the contrary.— I would wish you therefore without contempt seeke to obserue these orders set downe, for there are now no more Councellers to protect you, nor curbe my endevours. Therefore he that offendeth, let him assuredly expect his due punishment."
 He made also a Table, as a publicke memoriall of every mans deserts, to incourage the good, and with shame to spurre on the rest to amendment. By this many became very industrious, yet more by punishment performed their businesse, for all were so tasked, that there was no excuse could prevaile to deceiue him: yet the Dutch-mens consorts so closely convayed them powder, shot, swords, and tooles, that though we could find the defect, we could not finde by whom, till it was too late.
All this time the Dutch men remaining with Powhatan, (who kindly entertained them to instruct the Salvages the vse of our Armes) and their consorts not following them as they expected; to know the cause, they sent Francis their companion, a stout young fellow, disguised like a Salvage, to the Glasse-house, a place in the woods neare a myle from Iames Towne; where was their Rendezvous for all their vnsuspected villany. Fortie men they procured to lie in Ambuscado for Captaine Smith, who no sooner heard of this Dutch-man, but he sent to apprehend him (but he was gone) yet to crosse his returne to Powhotan, the Captaine presently dispatched 20. shot after him, himselfe returning from the Glasse-house alone. By the way he incountred the King of Paspahegh, a most strong stout Salvage, whose perswasions not being able to perswade him to his Ambush, seeing him onely armed but with a faucheon, attempted to haue shot him, but the President prevented his shooting by grapling with him, and the Salvages as well prevented him for drawing his faucheon, and perforce bore him into the River to haue drowned him. Long they strugled in the water, till the President got such a hold on his throat, he had neare strangled the King; but having drawne his faucheon to cut off his head, seeing how pitifully he begged his life, he led him prisoner to Iames Towne and put him in chaynes.
The Dutch-man ere long was also brought in, whose villany though all this time it was suspected, yet he fayned such a formall excuse, that for want of language Captaine Winne vnderstood him not rightly, and for their dealings with Powhatan, that to saue their liues they were constrained to accommodate his armes, of whom he extreamely complained to haue detained them perforce, and that he made this escape with the hazard of his life, and meant not to haue returned, but was onely walking into the woods to gather  Walnuts. Yet for all this faire tale, there was so small appearance of truth, and the plaine confession of Paspahegh of his trechery, he went by the heeles. Smith purposing to re-gaine the Dutch-men by the saving his life. The poore Salvage did his best by his daily messengers to Powhatan, but all returned that the Dutch-men would not returne, neither did Powhatan stay them; and to bring them fiftie myles on his mens backes they were not able. Daily this Kings wiues, children, and people came to visit him with presents, which he liberally bestowed to make his peace. Much trust they had in the Presidents promise: but the King finding his guard negligent, though fettered yet escaped. Captaine Winne thinking to pursue him found such troupes of Salvages to hinder his passage, as they exchanged many vollies of shot for flights of Arrowes: Captaine Smith hearing of this in returning to the Fort, tooke two Salvages prisoners, called Kemps and Tussore, the two most exact villaines in all the Country. With these he sent Captaine Winne and fiftie choise men, and Lieutenant Percie, to haue regained the King, and revenged this iniury, and so had done, if they had followed his directions, and beene advised with those two villaines, that would haue betrayed both King and kindred for a peece of Copper, but he trifling away the night, the Salvages the next morning by the rising of the Sunne, braved him to come ashore to fight, a good time both sides let fly at other, but we heard of no hurt, onely they tooke two Canowes, burnt the Kings house, and so returned to Iames towne.
The President fearing those Bravado's would but incourage the Salvages, began againe himselfe to try his conclusions, whereby six or seauen were slaine, as many made prisoners. He burnt their houses, tooke their Boats, with all their fishing wires, and planted some of them at Iames towne for his ownc vse, and now resolved not to cease till he had revenged himselfe of all them had iniured him. But in his iourney passing by Paspahegh towards Chickahamania, the Salvages did their best to draw him to their Ambuscadoes; but seeing him regardlesly passe their Country, all shewed themselues in their bravest manner. To try their valours he could not but let fly, and ere he could land, they no sooner knew him, but they threw downe their antics and desired peace. Their Orator was a lustie young fellow called Okaning, whose worthy discoure deserveth to be remembred. And thus it was:
"Captaine Smith, my Master is here present in the company, thinking it Capt. Winne, and not you, (of him he intended to haue beene revenged) having never offended him. If he hath offended you in escaping your imprisonment, the fishes swim, the foules fly, and the very beasts striue to escape the snare and line. Then blame not him being a man. He would intreat you remember, you being a prisoner, what paines he tooke to saue your life. If since he hath iniured you he was compelled to it: but howsoeuer, you haue revenged it with our too great losse. We perceiue and well know you intend to destroy vs, that are here to intreat and desire your friendship, and to enioy our houses and plant our fields, of whose fruit you shall participate: otherwise you will haue the worse by our absence; for we can plant any where, though with more labour, and we know you cannot liue if you want our harvest, and that reliefe we bring you. If you promise vs peace, we will beleeue you; if you proceed in revenge we will abandon the Country."
Vpon these tearmes the President promised them peace, till they did vs iniury, vpon condition they should bring in provision. Thus all departed good friends, and so continued till Smith left the Countrey.
Arriving at Iames Towne, complaint was made to the President, that the Chickahamanians, who all this while continued trade and seemed our friends, by colour thereof were the onely theeues. And amongst other things a Pistoll being stolne and the theefe fled, there was apprehended two proper young fcllowes, that were brothers, knowne to be his confederates. Now to regaine this Pistoll, the one was imprisoned, the other was sent to returne the Pistoll againe within twelue houres, or his brother to be hanged. Yet the President pittying the poore naked Salvage in the dungeon, sent him victuall and some Char-coale for afire: ere midnight his brother returned with the Pistoll, but the poore Salvage in the dungeon was so smoothered with the smoake he had made and so pittiously burnt, that wee found him dead. The other most lamentably bewayled his death, and broke forth into such bitter agonies, that the President to quiet him, told him that if hereafter they would not steale, he would make him aliue againe: but he little thought he could be recovered.—  Yet we doing our best with Aqua vitæ and Vineger, it pleased God to restore him againe to life, but so drunke and affrighted, that he seemed Lunaticke, the which as much tormented and grieued the other, as before to see him dead.— Of which maladie vpon promise of their good behavour, the President promised to recover him: and so caused him to be layd by a fire to sleepe, who in the morning having well slept, had recovered his perfect senses, And then being dressed of his burning, and each a peece of Copper giuen them, they went away so well contented, that this was spread among all the Salvages for a miracle, that Captaine Smith could make a man aliue that was dead.
Another ingenuous Salvage of Powhatans, having gotten a great bag of Powder, and the backe of an Armour, at Werowocomoco amongst a many of his companions, to shew his extraordinary skill, he did dry it on the backe as he had seene the Souldiers at Iames Towne. But he dryed it so long, they peeping over it to see his skill, it tooke fire, and blew him to death, and one or two more, and the rest so scorched, they had little pleasure to meddle any more with powder.
These and many other such pretty Accidents, so amazed and affrighted both Powhatan, and all his people, that from all parts with presents they desired peace; returning many stolne things which we never demanded nor thought of; and after that, those that were taken stealing, both Powhatan and his people haue sent them backe to Iames towne, to receiue their punishment; and all the Countrey became absolute as free for vs, as for themselues.
 CHAP. XI.
What was done in three moneths having Victualls. The Store devoured by Rats, how we liued three moneths of such naturall fruits as the Country affoorded.
Now we so quietly followed our businesse, that in three moneths wee made three or foure Last of Tarre, Pitch, and Sope ashes; produced a tryall of Glasse; made a Well in the Fort of excellent sweet water, which till then was wanting; built some twentie houses; recovered our Church; provided Nets and Wires for fishing; and to stop the disorders of our disorderly theeues, and the Salvages built a Blockhouse in the neck of our Isle, kept by a Garrison to entertaine the Saluages trade, and none to passe nor repasse Saluage nor Christian without the presidents order. Thirtie or forty Acres of ground we digged and planted. Of three sowes in eighteene moneths, increased 60, and od Pigs. And neare 500. chickings, brought vp themselues without hauing any meate giuen them: but the Hogs were transported to Hog-Isle: where also we built a block-house with a garison to giue vs notice of any shipping, and for their exercise they made Clapbord and waynscot, and cut downe trees. We built also a fort for a retreat neere a conuenient Riuer vpon a high commanding hill, very hard to be assalted and easie to be defended, but ere it was finished this defect caused a stay.
In searching our casked corne, we found it halfe rotten, and the rest so consumed with so many thousands of Rats that increased so fast, but theire originall was from the ships, as we knew not how to keepe that little we had. This did driue vs all to our wits end, for there was nothing in the country but what nature afforded. Vntil this time Kemps and Tassore were fettered prisoners, and did double taske and taught vs how to order and plant our fields: whom now for want of victuall we set at liberty, but so well they liked our companies they did not desire to goe from vs. And to expresse their loues for 16. dayes continuance, the Countrie people brought vs (when least) 100. a day, of Squirrils, Turkyes, Deere and other wilde beasts: But this want of corne occasioned the end of all our works, it being worke sufficient  to provide victuall. 60. or 80. with Ensigne Laxon was sent downe the riuer to liue vpon Oysters, and 20. with lieutenant Percy to try for fishing at Poynt Comfort: but in six weekes they would not agree once to cast out the net, he being sick and burnt sore with Gunpouder. Master West with as many went vp the falls, but nothing could be found but a few Acornes; of that in store euery man had their equall proportion. Till this present, by the hazard and indeuours of some thirtie or fortie, this whole Colony had ever beene fed. We had more Sturgeon, then could be deuoured by Dog and Man, of which the industrious by drying and pounding, mingled with Caviare, Sorell and other wholesome hearbes would make bread and good meate: others would gather as much Tockwhogh roots, in a day as would make them bread a weeke, so that of those wilde fruits, and what we caught, we liued very well in regard of such a diet. But such was the strange condition of some 150, that had they not beene forced nolens, volens, perforce to gather and prepare their victuall they would all haue starued, or haue eaten one another. Of those wild fruits the Salvages often brought vs, and for that, the President would not fullfill the vnreasonable desire, of those distracted Gluttonous Loyterers, to sell not only out [our] kettles, hows, tooles, and Iron, nay swords, pieces, and the very Ordnance and bowses, might they haue prevayled to haue beene but Idle; for those Saluage fruites, they would haue had imparted all to the Saluages, especially for one basket of Corne they heard of to be at Powhatans, fifty myles from our Fort. Though he bought, neere halfe of it to satisfie their humors, yet to haue had the other halfe, they would haue sould their soules, though not sufficient to haue kept them a weeke. Thousands were there exclamations, suggestions and deuises, to force him to those base inventions to haue made it an occasion to abandon the Country. Want perforce constrained him to indure their exclaiming follies, till he found out the author, one Dyer a most crafty fellow and his ancient Maligner, whom he worthily punished, and with the rest he argued the case in this manner.
"Fellow souldiers, I did little thinke any so false to report, or so many to be so simple to be perswaded, that I either intend to starue you, or that Powhatan at this present hath corne for himselfe, much lesse for you; or that I would not  haue it, if I knew where it were to be had. Neither did I thinke any so malitious as now I see a great many; yet it shal not so passionate me, but I will doe my best for my most maligner. But dreame no longer of this vaine hope from Powhatan, not that I will longer forbeare to force you, from your Idlenesse, and punish you if you rayle. But if I finde any more runners for Newfoundland with the Pinnace, let him assuredly looke to ariue at the Gallows. You cannot deny but that by the hazard of my life many a time I haue saued yours, when (might your owne wills haue preuailed) you would haue starued: and will doe still whether I will or noe; But I protest by that God that made me, since necessitie hath not power to force you to gather for your selues those fruites the earth doth yeeld, you shall not onely gather for your selues, but those that are sicke. As yet I neuer had more from the store then the worst of you: and all my English extraordinay prouision that I haue, you shall see me diuide it amongst the sicke. And this Saluage trash you so scornfully repine at; being put in your mouthes your stomackes can disgest, if you would haue better you should haue brought it; and therefore I will take a course you shall prouide what is to be had. The sick shall not starue, but equally share of all our labours; and he that gathereth not every day as much as I doe, the next day shall be set beyond the riuer, and be banished from the Fort as a drone, till he amend his conditions or starue." Bnt some would say with Seneca.
I know those things thou sayst are true good Nurse.
But fury forceth me to follow worse.
My minde is hurried headlong vp and downe.
Desiring better counsell, yet finds none.
This order many murmured was very cruell, but it caused the most part so well bestirre themselues, that of 200. (except they were drowned) there died not past seuen: as for Captaine Winne and Master Leigh they were dead ere this want hapned, and the rest dyed not for want of such as proserued the rest. Many were billetted amongst the Saluages, whereby we knew all their passages, fields and habitations, how to gather and vse their fruits as well as themselues; for they did know we had such a commanding power at Iames towne they durst not wrong vs of a pin.
So well those poore Salvages vsed vs that were thus billetted, that diuers of the Souldiers ran away to search Kemps  and Tassore our old prisoners. Glad were these Salvages to haue such an opportunity to testifie their loue vnto vs, for in stead of entertaining them, and such things as they had stollen, with all their great Offers, and promises they made them how to reuenge their iniuryes vpon Captaine Smith; Kemps first made himselfe sport, in shewing his countrie men (by them) how he was vsed, feeding them with this law, who would not work must not eat, till they were neere starued indeede, continually threatning to beat them to death: neither could they get from him, till hee and his consorts brought them perforce to our Captaine, that so well contented, him and punished them, as many others that intended also to follow them, were rather contented to labour at home, then aduenture to liue idly amongst the Salvages; (of whom there was more hope to make better Christians and good subiects, then the one halfe of those that counterfeited themselues both.) For so affraide was al those kings and the better sort of the people to displease vs, that some of the baser sort that we haue extreamely hurt and punished for their villanies would hire vs, we should not tell it to their kings, or countrymen, who would also punish them, and yet returne them to Iames towne to content the President for a testimony of their loues.
Master Sicklemore well returned from Chawwonoke; but found little hope and lesse certaintie of them were left by Sir Walter Raleigh. The riuer, he saw was not great, the people few, the countrey most over growne with pynes, where there did grow here and there straglingly Pemminaw, we call silke grasse. But by the riuer the ground was good, and exceeding furtill;
Master Nathanael Powell and Anas Todkill were also by the Quiyoughqnohanocks conducted to the Mangoags to search them there: but nothing could they learne but they were all dead. This honest proper good promise-keeping king, of all the rest did euer best affect vs, and though to his false Gods he was very zealous, yet he would confesse our God as much exceeded his as our Gunns did his Bow and Arrowes, often sending our President many presents, to pray to his God for raine or his corne would perish, for his Gods were angry. Three dayes iourney they conducted them through the woods, into a high country towards the Southwest: where they saw here and there a little corne field, by some little spring or smal brooke, but no riuer they could see: the people in all respects like the rest, except their language: they liue most vpon rootes, fruites and wilde beasts; and trade with them towards the sea and the fatter countryes for dryed fish and corne, for skins.
All this time to recouer the Dutch-men and one Bentley another fugitiue, we imployed one William Volday, a Zwitzar by birth, with Pardons and promises to regaine them.— Little we then suspected this double villaine of any villany; who plainly taught vs, in the most trust was the greatest treason; for this wicked hypocrite, by the seeming hate he bore to the lewd conditions of his cursed country men, (hauing this opportunity by his imployment to regaine them) conuayed them euery thing they desired to effect their proiects, to distroy the Colony, with much deuotion they expected the Spaniard, to whom they intended good seruice, or any other, that would but carry them from vs. But to begin with the first oportunity; they seeing necessitie thus inforced vs to disperse our selues, importuned Powhatan to lend them but his forces, and they would not onely distroy our Hoggs, fire our towne, and betray our Pinnace; but bring to his seruice and subiection the most of our company. With this plot they had acquainted many Discontents, and many were agreed to their Deuilish practise. But one Thomas Douse, and Thomas Mallard (whose christian hearts relented at such an vnchristian act) voluntarily reuealed it to Captaine Smith, who caused them to conceals it, perswading Douse and Mallard to proceed in their confedracie: onely to bring the irreclamable Dutch men and the inconstant Salvages in such a manner amongst such Ambuscado's as he had prepared, that not many of them should returne from our Peninsula. But this brute comming to the eares of the impatient multitude they so importuned the President to cut off those Dutch-men, as amongst many that offred to cut their throats before the face of Powhatan, the first was Lieutenant Percy, and Mr. Iohn Cuderington, two Gentlemen of as bold resolute spirits as could possibly be found. But the President had occasion of other imploiment for them, and gaue way to Master Wyffin and Sarieant Ieffrey Abbot, to goe and stab them or shoot them. But the Dutch men made such excuses, accusing Volday whom they supposed had reuealed their proicct, as Abbot would not, yet Wyffing would, perceiuing it but deceit. The  King vnderstanding of this their imployment, sent presently his messengers to Captaine Smith to signifie it was not his fault to detaine them nor hinder his men from executing his command: nor did he nor would he maintaine them, or any to occasion his displeasure.
But whilst this businesse was in hand, Arriued one Captaine Argall, and Master Thomas Sedan, sent by Master Cornelius to truck with the Colony, and fish for Sturgeon, with a ship well furnished, with wine and much other good provision. Though it was not sent vs, our necessities was such as inforced vs to take it. He brought vs newes of a great supply and preparation for the Lord La Ware, with letters that much taxed our President for his heard dealing with the Salvages, and not returning the shippes fraughted. Notwithstanding we kept this ship tell the fleete arriued. True it is Argall lost his voyage, but we reuictualled him, and sent him for England, with a true relation of the causes of our defailments, and how impossible it was to returne that wealth they expected, or obserue there instructions to indure the Salvages insolencies, or doe any thing to any purpose, except they would send vs men and meanes that could produce that they so much desired: otherwises all they did was lost, and could not but come to confusion. The villany of Volday we still dissembled. Adam vpon his pardon came home but Samuell still stayed with Powhatan to heare further of their estates by this supply. Now all their plots Smith so well vnderstood, they were his best advantages to secure vs from any trechery, could be done by them or the Salvages: which with facility he could revenge when he would, because all those countryes more feared him then Powhatan, and hee had such parties with all his bordering neighbours: and many of the rest for loue or feare would haue done any thing he would haue them, vpon any commotion, though these fugitiues had done all they could to perswade Powhatan, King Iames would kill Smith, for vsing him and his people so vnkindly.
By this you may see for all those crosses, trecheries, and dissentions, how he wrestled and overcame (without bloudshed) all that hapned: also what good was done; how few dyed; what food the Country naturally affoordeth; what small cause there is men should starue, or be murthered by the Salvages, that haue discretion to manage them with courage and Industrie. The two first yeares, though by his adven- tures, he had oft brought the Salvages to a tractable trade, yet you see how the envious authoritie ever crossed him, and frustrated his best endevours. But it wrought in him that experience and estimation amongst the Salvages, as otherwise it had bin impossible, he had ever effected that he did. Notwithstanding the many miserable, yet generous and worthy adventures, he had oft and long endured in the wide world, yet in this case he was againe to learne his Lecture by experience. Which with thus much adoe having obtained, it was his ill chance to end, when he had but onely learned how to begin. And though he left those vnknowne difficulties (made easy and familiar) to his vnlawfull successors, (who onely by liuing in Iames Towne, presumed to know more then all the world could direct them:) Now though they had all his Souldiers, with a tripple power, and twice tripple better meanes; by what they haue done in his absence, the world may see what they would haue done in his presence, had he not prevented their indiscretions: it doth iustly proue, what cause he had to send them for England, and that he was neither factious, mutinous, nor dishonest. But they haue made it more plaine since his returne for England; having his absolute authoritie freely in their power, with all the advantages and opportunitie that his labours had effected. As I am sorry their actions haue made it so manifest, so I am vnwilling to say what reason doth compell me, but onely to make apparent the truth, least I should seeme partiall, reasonlesse, and malicious.
The Arrivall of the third Supply.
To redresse those jarres and ill proceedings, the Treasurer, Councell, and Company of Virginia, not finding that returne, and profit they expected; and them ingaged there, not hauing meanes to subsist of themselues, made meanes to his Maiestie, to call in their Commission, and take a new in their owne names, as in their owne publication, 1610. you may reade at large. Having thus annihilated the old by vertue of a Commission made to the right Honourable, Sir Thomas  West, Lord de la Warre, to be Generall of Virginia; Sir Thomas Gates, his Lieutenant; Sir George Somers, Admirall; Sir Thomas Dale, high Marshall; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, Generall of the Horse; and so all other offices to many other worthy Gentlemen, for their liues: (though not any of them had ever beene in Virginia, except Captaine Newport, who was also by Patent made vice-Admirall:) those noble Gentlemen drew in such greatt summes of money, that they sent Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captaine Newport with nine shippes, and fiue hundred people, who had each of them a Commission, who first arrived to call in the old, without the knowledge or consent of them, that had endured all those former dangers to beat the path, not any regard had at all of them. All things being ready, because those three Captaines could not agree for place, it was concluded they should goe all in one ship, so all their three Commissions were in that Ship with them called the Sea-Venture. They set sayle from England in May 1609. A small Catch perished at Sea, in a Hericano: the Admimll with an hundred and fiftie men, with the two Knights, and their new Commission, their Bils of Loading, with all manner of directions, and the most part of their provision arrived not. With the other seauen Ships as Captaines arrived Ratliffe, whose right name (as is sayd) was Sicklemore, Martin, and Archer with Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Captaine Moone, Captaine King, Captaine Davis, and divers Gentlemen of good meanes, and great parentage. But the first, as they had beene troublesome at Sea, began againe to marre all ashore: for though (as is said) they were formerly sent for England, yet now returning againe, graced by the titles of Captaines of the passengers, seeing the Admirall wanting, and great probabilitie of her losse, strengthened themselues with those new Companies, so exclaiming against Captaine Smith, that they mortally hated him ere ever they saw him. Who vnderstanding by his Scouts the arrivall of such a Fleete, little dreaming of any such supply, supposed them Spanyards. But he quickly so determined and ordered our affaires, as we little feared their Arrivall, nor the successe of our incounter; nor were the Salvages any way negligent for the most part, to ayd and assist vs with their best power. Had it so beene we had beene happy; for we would not haue trusted them but as our foes, where receiuing them as our Countreymen and friends, they did what they could to murther our President, to surprise the Store, the Fort, and our lodgings, to vsurpe the government, and make vs all their servants and slaues, till they could consume vs and our remembrance; and rather indeed to supplant vs then supply vs, as master William Box an honest Gentleman in this voyage thus relateth.
In the tayle of a Hericano wee were separated from the Admirall, which although it was but the remainder of that Storme, there is seldome any such in England, or these Northerne parts of Europe. Some lost their Masts, some their Sayles blowne from their Yards; the Seas so over-raking our Ships, much of our prouision was spoyled, our Fleete separated, and our men sicke, and many dyed, and in this miserable estate we arriued in Virginia.
But in this Storme,
Whan ratling Thunder ran along the Clouds;
Did not the Saylers poore, and Masters proud
A terror feele as strucke with feare of God?
Did not their trembling ioynts then dread his rod?
Least for foule deeds and black mouth'd blasphemies,
The rufull time be come that vengeance cryes.
To a thousand mischiefes those lewd Captaines led this lewd company, wherein were many vnruly Gallants, packed thither by their friends to escape ill destinies, and those would dispose and determine of the government, sometimes to one, the next day to another; to day the old Commission must rule, to morrow the new, the next day neither, in fine they would rule all, or ruine all: yet in charitie we must endure them thus to destroy vs, or by correcting their follies, haue brought the worlds censure vpon vs to be guiltie of their blouds. Happie had we beene had they never arrived, and we for ever abandoned, and as we were left to our fortunes: for on earth for the number was never more confusion, or misery, then their factions occasioned.
The President seeing the desire those Braues had to rule; seeing how his authoritie was so vnexpectedly changed, would willingly haue left all, and haue returned for England. But seeing there was small hope this new Commission would arriue, longer he would not suffer those factious spirits to proceede. It would be too tedious, too strange, and almost incredible; should I particularly relate the infinite dangers, plots, and practices, he daily escaped amongst this factious  crew; the chiefe whereof he quickly layd by the heeles, till his leasure better served to doe them iustice: and to take away all occasions of further mischiefe, Master Percie, had his request granted to returne for England, being very sicke; and Mr West with an hundred and twentie of the best he could chuse, he sent to the Falles; Martin with neare as many to Nandsamund, with their due proportions of all provisions according to their numbers.
Now the Presidents yeare being neare expired, he made Captaine Martin President to follow the order for the election of a President every yeare: but he knowing his owne insufficiency, and the companies vntowardnesse and little regard of him, within three houres after resigned it againe to Captaine Smith, and at Nandsamund thus proceeded. The people being contributers vsed him kindly; yet such was his iealous feare, in the midst of their mirth, he did surprise this poore naked King, with his Monuments, houses, and the Isle he inhabited, and there fortified himselfe; but so apparantly distracted with feare, as imboldened the Salvages to assault him, kill his men, release their King, gather and carry away a thousand bushels of Come, he not once offering to intercept them: but sent to the President then at the Falles for thirtie good shot; which from Iames Towne immediately was sent him. But he so well imployed them they did iust nothing, but returned complaining of his tendernesse: yet he came away with them to Iames Towne, leauing his company to their fortunes.
Here I cannot omit the courage of George Forrest, that had seauenteene Arrowes sticking in him, and one shot through him, yet liued sixe or seauen dayes, as if he had small hurt, then for want of Chirugery dyed.
Master West hauing seated his men by the Falles, presently returned to reuisit Iames Towne: the President followed him to see that company seated; met him by the way, wondering at his so quicke returne; and found his company planted so inconsiderately, in a place not onely subiect to the rivers invndation, but round invironed with many intolerable inconueniences.
For remedie whereof he presently sent to Powhatan to sell him the place called Powhatan, promising to defend him against the Monacans. And these should be his Conditions (with his people) to resigne him the Fort and houses, and all that Countrey for a proportion of Copper; that all stealing offenders should be sent him, there to receiue their punishment; that every house as a Custome should pay him a Bushell of Corne for an inch square of Copper, and a proportion of Pocones, as a yearely tribute to King Iames for their protection, as a dutie; what else they could spare to barter at their best discretions.
But both this excellent place and those good Conditions did those furies refuse, contemning both him, his kinde care and authoritie. So much they depended on the Lord Generals new Commission, as they regarded none: the worst they could doe to shew their spights they did; supposing all the Monacans Country, gold; and none should come there but whom they pleased. I doe more then wonder to thinke how onely with fiue men, he either durst or would adventure as he did, (knowing how greedie they were of his bloud) to land amongst them, and commit to imprisonment all the Chieftaines of those mutinies, till by their multitudes being an hundred and twentie they forced him to retyre: yet in that interim he surprised one of their Boates, wherewith he returned to their ship; where in deed was their prouision, which also he tooke, and well it chanced he found the Marriners so tractable and constant, or there had beene small possibilitie he had ever escaped. There were divers other of better reason and experience, that from their first landing, hearing the generall good report of his old Souldiers, and seeing with their eyes his actions so well mannaged with discretion, as Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Cap. Moone, Captaine Fitz James, Master William Powell, Master Partridge, Master White, and divers others, when they perceiued the malice of Ratliffe and Archer, and their faction, left their companies, and ever rested his faithfull friends. But the worst was that the poore Salvages, that daily brought in their contribution to the President, that disorderly company so tormented those poore soules, by stealing their corne, robbing their gardens, beating them, breaking their houses and keeping some prisoners; that they daily complained to Captaine Smith, he had brought them for Protectors, worse enemies then the Monacans themselues: which though till then, for his loue they had endured, they desired pardon if hereafter they defended themselues; since he would not correct them, as they had long expected he would. So much they importuned  him to punish their misdemeanors, as they offered (if he would leade them) to fight for him against them. But having spent nine dayes in seeking to reclaime them; shewing them how much they did abuse themselues with these great guilded hopes of the South Sea Mines, commodities, or victories, they so madly conceived; then seeing nothing would prevaile, he set sayle for Iames Towne,
Thus oft we see from small greene wounds, and from a little griefe,
A greater sore and sicknesse growes, then will admit reliefe.
For thus themselues they did beguile, and with the rest play'd theefe.
Now no sooner was the Ship vnder sayle, but the Salvages assaulted those hundred and twentie in their Fort, finding some stragling abroad in the woods: they slew many, and so affrighted the rest, as their prisoners escaped, and they safely retyred, with the swords and cloakes of those they had slaine. But ere wee had sayled halfe a league, our ship grounding, gaue vs once more libertie to summon them to a parley; where we found them all so strangely amazed with this poore silly assault of twelue Saluages, that they submitted themselues vpon any tearmes to the Presidents mercy; who presently put by the heeles sixe or seauen of the chiefe offenders: the rest he seated gallantly at Powhatan, in that Salvage Fort, readie built, and prettily fortified with poles and barkes of trees, sufficient to haue defended them from all the Salvages in Virginia, dry houses for lodgings and neere two hundred accres of ground ready to be planted, and no place we knew so strong, so pleasant and delightfull in Virginia for which we called it Non-such. The Salvages also hee presently appeased, redeliuering to either party their former losses. Thus all were friends.
New officers appointed to command, and the President againe ready to depart, at that instant arriued Captaine West, whose gentle nature (by the perswasions and compassion of those mutinous prisoners, alledging they had onely done this for his honor) was so much abused, that to regaine their old hopes, new turboyles did arise. For they a-shore being possessed of all there victuall, munition, and euery thing, grew to that height in their former factions, as the President left them to their fortunes: they returned againe to the open ayre at Wests Fort, abandoning Non-such, and he to Iames towne with his best expedition, but this hapned him in that Iourney.
 Sleeping in his Boate, (for the ship was returned two daies before) accidentallie, one fired his powder-bag, which tore the flesh from his body and thighes, nine or ten inches square in a most pittifull manner; but to quench the tormenting fire, frying him in his cloaths he leaped over-boord into the deepe river, where ere they could recouer him hee was neare drowned. In this estate without either Chirurgian, or Chirurgery he was to goe neere an hundred myles. Arriving at Iames towne, causing all things to be prepared for peace or warres to obtaine prouision, whilest those things were providing, Rattiffe, Archer, and the rest of their Confederates, being to come to their trials; their guiltie consciences, fearing a iust reward for their deserts, seeing the President vnable to stand, and neere bereft of his senses by reason of his torment, they had plotted to haue murdered him in his bed. But his heart did faile him that should haue giuen fire to that mercilesse Pistoll. So not finding that course to be the best, they ioyned together to vsurpe the government, thereby to escape their punishment. The President had notice of their proiects, the which to withstand, though his old souldiers importuned him but permit them to take their heads that would resist his command, yet he would not suffer them, but sent for the Masters of the ships, and tooke order with them for his returne for England. Seeing there was neither Chirurgian, nor Chirurgery in the Fort to cure his hurt, and the ships to depart the next day, his Commission to be suppressed he knew not why, himselfe and Souldiers to be rewarded he knew not how, and a new commission granted they knew not to whom, the which disabled that authority he had, as made them presume so oft to those mutinies as they did: besides so grievous were his wounds, and so cruell his torments (few expecting he could liue) nor was he able to follow his busines to regaine what they had lost, suppresse those factions, and range the countries for provision as he intended; and well he knew in those affaires his owne actions and presence was as requisite as his directions, which now could not be, he went presently abroad, resoluing there to appoint them governours, and to take orders for the mutiners, but he could finde none hee thought fit for it would accept it. In the meane time, seeing him gone, they perswaded Master Percy to stay, who was then to goe for England, and be their President. Within lesse then an houre was this mutation  begun and concluded. For when the Company vnderstood Smith would leaue them, and saw the rest in Armes called Presidents and Councellors, diuers began to fawne on those new commanders, that now bent all their wits to get him resigne them his Commission: who after much adoe and many bitter repulses; that their confusion (which he tould them was at their elbowes) should not be attributed to him, for leauing the Colony without a Commission, he was not vnwilling they should steale it, but never would he giue it to such as they.
And thus, Strange violent forces drew vs on vnwilling.
Reason perswading 'gainst our loues rebelling.
We saw and knew the better, ah curse accurst!
That notwithstanding we imbrace the worst.
But had that vnhappie blast not hapned, he would quickly haue qualified the heate of those humors, and factions, had the ships but once left them and vs to our fortunes; and haue made that provision from among the Salvages, as we neither feared Spanyard, Salvage, nor famine; nor would haue left Virginia nor our lawful! authoritie, but at as deare a price as we had bought it, and payd for it. What shall I say but thus, we left him, that in all his proceedings, made Iustice his first guide, and experience his second, even hating basenesse, sloath, pride, and indignitie, more then any dangers; that neuer allowed more for himselfe, then his souldiers with him; that vpon no danger would send them where he would not lead them himselfe; that would never see vs want, what he either had, or could by any meanes get vs; that would rather want then borrow, or starue then not pay; that loued action more then words, and hated falshood and coveteousnesse worse then death; whose adventures were our liues, and whose losse our deaths.
Leaving vs thus with three ships, seaven boats, commodities readie to trade, the harvest newly gathered, ten weekes provision in the store, foure hundred nintie and od persons, twentie-foure Peeces of Ordnance, three hundred Muskets, Snaphances, and Firelockes, Shot, Powder, and Match sufficient, Curats, Pikes, Swords, and Morrios, more then men; the Salvages, their language, and habitations well knowne to an hundred well trayned and expert Souldiers; Nets for fishing; Tooles of all sorts to worke; apparell, to supply our wants; six Mares and a Horse; fine or sixe hundred Swine; as many Hennes and Chickens; some Goats; some sheepe; what was brought or bred there remained. But they regarding nothing but from hand to mouth, did consume that wee had, tooke care for nothing, but to perfect some colourable complaints against Captaine Smith. For effecting whereof three weekes longer they stayed the Ships, till they could produce them. That time and charge might much better haue beene spent, but it suted well with the rest of their discretions.
Besides Iames towne that was strongly Pallizadoed, containing some fiftie or sixtie houses, he left fiue or sixe other severall Forts and Plantations: though they were not so sumptuous as our successors expected, they were better then they provided any for vs. All this time we had but one Carpenter in the Countrey, and three others that could doe little, but desired to be learners: two Blacksmiths; two saylers, and those we write labourers were for most part footmen, and such as they that were Adventurers brought to attend them, or such as they could perswade to goe with them, that neuer did know what a dayes worke was, except the Dutch-men and Poles, and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore Gentlemen, Tradsmen, Serving-men, libertines, and such like, ten times more fit to spoyle a Commonwealth, then either begin one, or but helpe to maintaine one. For when neither the feare of God, nor the law, nor shame, nor displeasure of their friends could rule them here, there is small hope ever to bring one in twentie of them ever to be good there. Notwithstanding, I confesse divers amongst them, had better mindes and grew much more industrious then was expected: yet ten good workemen would haue done more substantiall worke in a day, then ten of them in a weeke. Therefore men may rather wonder how we could doe so much, then vse vs so badly, because we did no more, but leaue those examples to make others beware, and the fruits of all, we know not for whom.
But to see the justice of God vpon these Dutch-men; Valdo before spoke of, made a shift to get for England, where perswading the Merchants what rich Mines he had found, and great service he would doe them, was very well rewarded, and returned with Lord La Warre: but being found a meere Impostor, he dyed most miserably. Adam and Francis his two consorts were fled againe to Powhatan, to whom  they promised at the arrivall of my Lord, what wonders they would doe, would he suffer them but to goe to him. But the King seeing they would be gone, replyed; You that would haue betrayed Captaine Smith to mee, will certainely betray me to this great Lord for your peace: so caused his men to beat out their braines.
To conclude, the greatest honour that ever belonged to the greatest Monarkes, was the enlarging their Dominions, and erecting Common-weales. Yet howsoever any of them haue attributed to themselues, the Conquerors of the world: there is more of the world never heard of them, then ever any of them all had in subiection: for the Medes, Persians, and Assyrians, never Conquered all Asia, nor the Grecians but part of Europe and Asia. The Romans indeed had a great part of both, as well as Affrica: but as for all the Northerne parts of Europe and Asia, the interior Southern and Westerne parts of Affrica, all America and Terra incognita, they were all ignorant: nor is our knowledge yet but superficiall. That their beginnings, ending, and limitations were proportioned by the Almightie is most evident: but to consider of what small meanes many of them haue begun is wonderfull. For some write that even Rome her selfe, during the Raigne of Romulus, exceeded not the number of a thousand houses.— And Carthage grew so great a Potentate, that at first was but incirculed in the throngs of a Bulls skinne, as to fight with Rome for the Empire of the world. Yea Venice at this time the admiration of the earth, was at first but a Marish, inhabited by poore Fishermen. And likewise Ninivie, Thebes, Babylon, Delus, Troy, Athens, Mycena and Sparta, grew from small beginnings to be most famous States, though now they retaine little more then a naked name. Now this our yong Common-wealth in Virginia, as you haue read once consisted but of 38 persons, and in two yeares increased but to 200. yet by this small meanes so highly was approved the Plantation in Virginia, as how many Lords, with worthy Knights, and braue Gentlemen pretended to see it, and some did, and now after the expence of fifteene yeares more, and such massie summes of men and money, grow they disanimated? If we truely consider our Proceedings with the Spanyards, and the rest, we haue no reason to despayre, for with so small charge, they never had either greater Discoveries, with such certaine tryals of more severall Commodities, then in this short time hath beene returned from Virginia, and by much lesse meanes. New England was brought out of obscuritie, and affoorded fraught for neare 200 sayle of ships where there is now erected a braue Plantation. For the happines of Summer Isles, they are no lesse then either and yet those haue had a far lesse, and a more difficult beginning then either Rome, Carthage, or Venice.
Written by Richard Pots, Clarke of the Councell, William Tankard, and G. P.