WHISKY INSURRECTION—THREATENED FRENCH WAR—ROW WITH ENGLAND—WAR OF 1812-15—MEXICAN WAR—CIVIL WAR—ETC.
IN 1756 the proprietaries of Pennsylvania imposed an excise duty on all distilled spirits, but the law being very unpopular, was soon repealed. The people of this colony, like all the pioneers of America, put their faith deeply in religion, and a little "suthen for their stomach's sake," whisky being their vernacular beverage here, while rum held undisputed possession of New England. All agricultural products from this section were transported originally by pack-horses, and the transportation companies that were the forerunners of these long railroad trains that now go screaming over the hills and through the valleys, were men who had numbers of pack-horses, that were manned by a crew of two men, one on a lead- horse and one in the rear. A horse could carry four bushels of grain; made into whisky he could carry the equal of twenty-five bushels, thus was saved the labor of five horses out of six. Distilleries were therefore among the first necessities of the pioneers. To be caught by a neighbor with the bottle empty was unpardonable; it was an article of common family use.
In 1791, however, after the power to impose taxes, duties, imposts and excises had been delegated by the States to the federal government, congress established an excise duty or tax of fourpence per gallon on all distilled spirits. This law produced open insurrection in western Pennsylvania, where large quantities of whisky were annually manufactured.
The people of Washington, Fayette, Alleghany, and other counties viewed the law as an act of oppression. They stigmatized it as unjust, and as odious as those laws of England which led to the Revolutionary war, and they considered themselves justified in forcible opposition to its enforcement. But they did not discriminate between their duty and obligations as citizens of a free government, and their allegiance as subjects of the British crown.
The excise officers of the government were arrested by armed parties, who were painted and otherwise disguised. Some were tarred and feathered; others were conveyed into deep recesses of the woods, divested of their clothing, and firmly bound to trees. County meetings and conventions were assembled, inflammatory speeches were made, and denunciatory resolutions adopted. The dwellings, barns and distilleries of persons who spoke in favor of the law, or exhibited the least sympathy for the government which enacted it, were consumed by fire; and even Pittsburg, [p.169] which did not take an active part with the rebels, was threatened with total destruction.
In 1792 congress reduced the tax, but this did not satisfy the insurgents, the Monongahela whisky manufacturers, and the farmers who supplied them with grain. The country continued in a state of insurrection. After all mild and dissuasive measures had failed, in 1794, Washington being president, it was resolved to raise and equip an army for the purpose of quelling the insurrection. A force of 15,000 men was assembled, of regulars and volunteers, from the States of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland and New Jersey. Gov. Lee, of Virginia, had the chief command. Mifflin was governor of this State, and one of the commanders. All the governers and commanders were ordered to meet in Pittsburg, to hear complaints and take testimony, as the malcontents should be arrested and brought before them. Among the first to tender their services to the government were the Luzerne volunteers, Capt. Samuel Bowman; attached to a battalion of light infantry, under Maj. George Fisher. Capt. Bowman marched out September 1, 1794, reaching where is now Pittsburg, with fifty men. The Captain was an old officer of the army of the Revolution; brave and experienced, and in his company were some of his old soldiers. The following is the muster-roll:
Captain, Samuel Bowman; lieutenant, Ebenezer Parrish; ensign, Arnold Colt; sergeants, John Alden, Daniel Spencer, John Freeman; corporals, Archibald White, Oliver Parrish, Robert Lewis, Thompson Holliday; fifer, Peter Yarrington; drummer, John Wright; privates, Samuel Young, Solomon Daniels, John Cochran, Elihu Parrish, James Sitey, Thomas P. Miller, Peter Grubb, Arthur McGill, James Johnston, Joseph Headsdale, Daniel Alden, Simon Stevens, Warham Strong, David Landon, Gideon Underwood, Jeremiah Decker, James Robb, Sale Roberts, Partial Roberts, Rufus Drake, Benjamin Owens, John Earl, Charles Bowes, Curtis Grubb, Thomas Jeayne, Joseph Grimes, Jesse Tompkins, William Harris, Jesse Coleman, John Talliday and Cofrin Boldwell.
The gathered 15,000 troops spread terror among the "Tom the Tinker," as the whisky boys were called, and a general surrender soon followed, and "Johnny came marching home." In suppressing this rebellion no precious Luzerne blood was spilled, but is was quite evident to the "rebels" that "Barkis is willin'" so far as the people of the county were concerned. From beginning to end the campaign lasted three months.
French War, 1799.—France had materially helped the colonies in their struggle for independence, and in return France looked to the United States for aid and comfort in its grapple with Europe and its long war with its arch-enemy, England. Americans were content to let France do her own fighting, and even became so friendly with England as to excite the jealously of the Gauls. France therefore adopted measures openly inimical to American commerce; dismissed curtly the American minister at Paris, and licensed her ships of war to prey upon American merchantmen. The United States tried negotiations, and exhausted the means of pacification, and then openly prepared for war with France. In January, 1799, the American sloop-of-war "Retaliation" was captured by the French vessel "Insurgent" of forty guns. February following, the American frigate "Constellation," thirty-two gun;, Capt. Truxtun, met the "Insurgent," engaged her, and compelled her to strike her colors. In a few days after the same American vessel engaged the French frigate "Vengeance," of fifty-four guns; the fight was severe and lasted from 8 in the evening till 1 the next morning, when the second French vessel struck colors, but this was not seen in the dark by Capt. Truxtun, and the Frenchmen and vessel escaped, but with terrible loss.
The nation was now thoroughly aroused. President Adams requested Gen. Washington to again assume command of the army, and a call for troops was issued. In the call for volunteers Luzerne county as usual was prompt to hear and her men [p.170] turn out. In May, 1799, again the gallant Capt. Samuel Bowman, with seventy-five men, went to the front, and became attached to the Eleventh United States infantry, and marched to the Delaware and thence to Newburg, and were in the service until the latter part of the year 1800, when the war-cloud passed away happily, and the army was disbanded, immediately after Bonaparte became first consul of France.
Trouble with England.—In 1807 the British frigate "Leopard," without cause or notice, fired on the American frigate "Chesapeake." Other insults were given the American flag, and the frequency of these outrages began to portend war. Luzerne county was again to the fore. The Wyoming Blues, Capt. Joseph Slocum, Lieut. Isaac Bowman, Sergt. Benjamin Perry, in a letter breathing patriotism and war, tendered their services to President Jefferson. This tender must have mightily pleased the President, and in an autograph letter to Slocum, Bowman and Perry, he thanks them warmly. The letter concludes, after referring them to the State authorities: "I salute you with great respect, Th. Jefferson."
War of 1812.—After a long series of taunts and insults, the United States was stung to a declaration of war against England.
The "Wyoming Matross," a volunteer company in Kingston, commanded by Capt. Samuel Thomas, with promptness offered their services to the government, and were accepted April 13, 1813, marching from Kingston to the Eddy, at the mouth of Shoop's creek, in Plymouth, where they embarked, numbering thirty-one men, and proceeded to Danville; thence overland to Bedford, where Capt. Thomas recruited thirty-seven men, recruiting twenty-seven more men in Fayette county, and reached Erie with ninety-five men all told. The following were; the Luzerne county men: Captain, Samuel Thomas; first lieutenant, Phineas Underwood; second lieutenant, Ziba Hoyt; third lieutenant, Andrew Sheets; ensign, Edward Gilchrist; sergeants, John Carkhuff, Jacob Taylor, Absolom Roberts, Henry Jones, George W. Smith, John Bowman; corporals, Christopher Miner, Daniel Cochevour, Samuel Parrish, Ebenezer Freeman, John Blane; gunners, Stephen Evans, Isaac Hollister, John Prince, James Bird, Morris Crammer, Festus Freeman, James Devans; drummer, Alexander Lord; fifer, Araba Amsden; privates, Daniel Hoover, John Daniels, James W. Barnum, William Pace, James Bodfish, Godfrey Bowman, Benjamin Hall, Solomon Parker, Ezekiel Hall, Sylvanus Moore, Hallet Gallup.
This artillery company did fine execution in the cannonading at Presque Harbor, firing no less than thirty shots into the hull of the brig "Hunter," and also cut away much of the rigging and injured the "Queen Charlotte." Preparatory to Perry's notable victory on Lake Erie, he had called for volunteers from the land forces. Among those who offered their services were William Pace, Benjamin Hall, Godfrey Bowman and James Bird, of the "Matross" company. They were sent on board the "Niagara," and all distinguished themselves eminently. James Bird fought almost by the side of Commodore Perry, was wounded, but when told to go below, refused, and continued in the battle. The State presented each of these volunteers a medal; but here comes a most sad and painful story. James Bird never received his more than thrice-earned medal, but instead, was shot kneeling on his coffin—as a deserter.
News of the intended attack on New Orleans had reached the army on the lakes when Bird, fired solely with an ambition to be in the battle at New Orleans, one night when in command of the guards, marched off with several of his men to join Jackson's forces, was arrested at Pittsburg, brought back, court-martialed and shot. Poor fellow! shot for an excess of bravery and patriotism. In behalf of the memory of Commodore Perry, it is said that poor Bird was dead before he heard of the affair, or otherwise he would have saved him. Hon. Charles Miner. wrote and published a poem, telling graphically the pathetic story of James Bird.
The "Matross" company was in Col. Hill's regiment, and under Gen. Harrison; advanced from Erie to Cleveland and joined the main army September 27, [p.171] crossing into Canada, moving against Malden, which the enemy deserted, after burning the public buildings. Advancing toward Sandwich, the Americans found that place also deserted. Thence they crossed the Detroit river to attack Gen. Proctor, who, with several hundred British troops and a large body of Indians under the celebrated chief Tecumseh, was in possession of Detroit. Capt. Thomas' company was in the forward gunboats in the passage across the river, and, landing, planted the stars and stripes on the opposite bank. Proctor and his forces retreated, whom Gen. Harrison immediately pursued with the main body of his army, including the whole of the "Matross," except fourteen men, who were left with Capt. Thomas at Detroit. In the battle of the Thames the company was commanded by Lieut. Ziba Hoyt, and acquitted itself with credit, sustaining the reputation of Luzerne for good and true soldiers.
In addition to the company of Capt. Thomas, Luzerne furnished a number of volunteers for the companies of Capt. John Baldy, of Columbia, and Capt. Robert Gray, of Northumberland counties. Among these were Job Barton, William Hart, William Brown, Henry Harding, Luther Scott, W. C. Johnson, and about thirty others. These companies were attached to the Sixteenth regiment of infantry, known as the "Bloody Sixteenth." This regiment was commanded by Col. Cromwell Pearce. It was present at the engagements of Sackett's Harbor, Stony Creek, and of other places. At the battle of York, in Canada, when Gen. Pike was killed by the blowing up of the magazine, Col. Pearce, of this regiment, assumed the command of the army, and received the capitulation of the enemy. During the war there was a recruiting station established at Wilkes-Barre, and the names of Capts. Baldy, Gray and McChesney, of the infantry, and Helme of the cavalry are remembered. The infantry barracks were located on the bank of the river, opposite the residence of Col. R. B. Wright, and the cavalry barracks were located on Franklin street, on the site of the residence of the late Joshua Minor. At 4 o'clock A. M., the drums beat the reveille, and drill officers with new recruits daily paraded in the, streets. At short intervals one or more detachnaents were sent away to the regular army.
In 1814, when the British threatened an attack on Baltimore, five companies of militia from Luzerne and adjoining counties marched under the command of Capts. Joseph Camp, Peter Hallock, Frederick Bailey, George Hidley and Jacob Bittenbender. The Wyoming Blues, a volunteer company, assembled at Wilkes-Barre, with the intention of accompanying the militia, but, some difficulty occurring, the company broke up in a row. Several of its officers and privates entered the ranks of the militia, while eight or ten men, with drums beating, marched toward the seat of war, under the colors of the Wyoming Blues. On the arrival of these companies at Danville, they received intelligence of the gallant defence of Fort Henry, and the repulsion of the British forces. They consequently received orders to return to their homes—an order welcome, doubtless, to men of families, but bringing disappointment to others who were anticipating the excitements of an active campaign.
Mexican War.—December 7, 1846, the Wyoming Artillerists, Capt. E. L. Dana, left Wilkes-Barre for the seat of war in Mexico; going to Pittsburg by canal, where they were mustered into service; a part of the First Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, to serve during the war. At this point First Lieut. Francis L. Bowman was elected major, and company "I" left Pittsburg, December 22 for New Orleans by steamboat, reaching there went into camp on Jackson's old battle ground, about seven miles below the city, remaining there until January 16, 1847, then sailed and were landed at the Island of Lobos (Wolf Island), which they reached February 1. The passage to this point was stormy and tedious. The island where they landed is about twelve miles from the Mexican coast, and 120 miles north of Vera Cruz. It is about one mile in circumference, and was covered with a thick growth of chaparral; and the water used by the troops for cooking was of a brackish character, being sea- water filtered through the sand.
[p.172] March 3 the company left Lobos and sailed for Anton Lizardo, nine miles below Vera Cruz, where they arrived two days after. On the 9th of March a landing was effected on the Mexican coast, at a point three miles south of Vera Cruz. The fleet had hardly swung to its cables when Gen. Worth's division, with wonderful celerity, filled the surf-boats, and, at a signal from the ship of the commander-in- chief, darted for the shore amid the enthusiastic cheers of the army and of our gallant tars. By 9 o'clock of the night of that day, 12,000 men had landed without firing a gun, and were marshaled within two miles of the city. The army commenced the next morning its march through the thick chaparral and sand-hills for the investment of Vera Cruz. The day was intensely hot, and many men were stricken down by coup de soleil. To add to their sufferings, they dare not drink of the water of the springs of the country; as a report was abroad that they were poisoned by the enemy. It was the fortune of the Wyoming Artillerists to receive the first fire of the Mexicans. Passing through the chaparral by a narrow path, along the base of a gentle declivity, the enemy poured their fire upon them, when the company was halted, and delivered their own with admirable coolness. The Greasers fled to the city. The company participated actively in the investment of the place and was engaged throughout the siege. The trenches were opened on the 22d, and after a terrible storm of iron had been blown on the city for a few days and nights, it surrendered to the American army on March 29, 1847.
In April the volunteer division left the city for the interior, under the command of Maj. Gen. Patterson. Having arrived at Plan del Rio, fifty miles from Vera Cruz, they found Gen. Twiggs with his division of regulars already there. The Mexicans, under Gen. Santa Ana, were strongly posted in the pass of Cerro Gordo. On the morning of April 18, the American army attacked the Mexican lines. The volunteer brigade formed the left wing, under the command of Gen. Pillow, to which the Wyoming Artillerists were attached. The brigade took a position within 200 yards of the Mexican batteries, which opened upon them a tremendous fire of grape. The Wyoming boys suffered but slightly; but the Second Tennessee regiment, occupying more elevated grounds, suffered severely, and Gen. Pillow himself was wounded. In twenty minutes the line of attack was completed, and the brigade moved forward toward the batteries. The Mexicans now displayed the white flag from their defences, for their left wing had been completely routed by the forces under Gens. Twiggs, Shields, Worth and Quitman. The fruits of this victory were 3,000 prisoners, 5,000 stand of arms, forty-three cannon, the money chest of the Mexican army, containing $20,000, and a free passage for the army into the interior of the enemy's country. In this action David R. Morrison, of the Wyoming company, was killed, and Corporal Kitchen wounded.
After the battle the volunteer force encamped three miles west of Jalapa, where they remained about three weeks. They were then ordered to Perote, a place about thirty-five miles west of Jalapa, on the main road to the capital. Here they took up their quarters in the celebrated castle of Perote, and formed its garrison. The period of their stay here was the most melancholy of the whole campaign, for the burial of the dead was the principal feature of their soldier life.
Here those ravages of the army, diarrhoea and typhus fever, broke out and made fearful havoc in their ranks. For many weeks was heard, almost constantly, the melancholy strains of the dead march accompanying their messmates to lonely and forgotten graves. It was a joyful day when they received orders to leave the gloomy castle and dreary plains of Perote. About the 2d of July they marched for the city of Puebla. On the night of the 4th, when the soldiers had taken to their blankets, the camp was alarmed by an attack on the pickets, which were driven in. Satisfied with this, the enemy retired.
Having reached El Pinal, or the Black Pass, Gen. Pillow anticipated a fight, for the enemy were posted there, prepared to dispute the passage. The Wyoming [p.173] boys formed part of the storming party, and behaved gallantly; but when the light troops had scaled the hights commanding the gorge, the Mexicans abandoned their position and fled.
On July 7 they approached the fine old city of Puebla. Here Gen. Scott by August 1 had concentrated about 11,000 men of all arms. On the 7th of that month the army left Puebla for the City of Mexico. The Wyoming company, with five others of the First Pennsylvania regiment, remained behind, constituting, with a company of United States artillery and one of cavalry, the garrison of Puebla. There were about 600 men under the command of Col. Childs, a brave and skillful officer. To this small force was entrusted the charge of 2,000 sick men, and an immense amount of government property. The population of the city was turbulent and warlike, and evinced an uncompromising hostility toward the Americans. The place now was besieged by the Mexicans, who harassed the garrison, day and night, with alarms and attacks. This continued for forty days; but our men, occupying strong and favorable positions, maintained their ground, and the enemy failed so far as not to succeed in driving in a single sentinel.
In this siege John Priest was killed in an engagement with guerrillas, outside the city walls. Luke Floyd, a brave old soldier, who, with Priest, was a member of the Wyoming company, was severely wounded.
The arrival of Gen. Lane with 3,000 men, on October 12, put an end to the siege. In this arrival there were four companies of the First Pennsylvania regiment, which had been left in the garrison at Perote. They had participated in the fight at Huamantla, under the command of Maj. F. L. Bowman, of Wilkes-Barre, who led them up in gallant style. His conduct on this occasion was highly spoken of by all who witnessed it. Not long after the raising of the siege the regiment, now united, left Puebla, and on December 7, 1847, arrived in the City of Mexico, where they remained about two weeks. They were then quartered at San Angel, seven miles from the city, until the treaty of peace in June, 1848.
They now returned to their country at New Orleans, and passing up the Mississippi and Ohio to Pittsburg, they were honorably discharged at that place, and mustered out of service by reason of the expiration of the term of enlistment, July 24, 1848.
The Columbia Guards, of Danville, Pa., constituting a portion of the Second regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers, was composed of volunteers from Luzerne county, under Edward E. Leclerc, of Wilkes-Barre, who was elected second lieutenant of the company. Among the names of privates who united with the Guards under Lieut. Leclerc, we are able to give those of Norman B. Mack, Peter Brobst, Abram B. Carley, Randolph Ball, George Garner, Oliver Helme, Joseph H. Stratton, William Kutz and William White.
Edward E. Leclerc was appointed regiment quartermaster, November 8, 1847, and a few days later became first lieutenant of his company.
Roster of the First Independent company, Capt. Robert Durkee, in Col. John Durkee's Connecticut regiment, at Morristown, August 8, 1777; enlisted September 17, 1776: Captain, Robert Durkee; lieutenants, James Wells, Asahel Buck; ensign, Herman Swift; sergeants, Thomas McClure, Peregrene Gardner, Thomas Baldwin, John Hutchinson; corporals, Edward Setter, Azel Hyde, Jeremiah Coleman, Benjamin Clark. Privates: Walter Baldwin, James Bagley, Eleazer Butler, Moses Brown, David Brown, Charles Bennett, William Buck, Jr., Asa Brown, James Brown, Jr., Waterman Baldwin, John Carey, Jesse Coleman, William Cornelius, Samuel Cole, William Davidson, Douglas Davison, William Dunn. Daniel Denton, Samuel Ensign, Nathaniel Evans, John Foster, Frederick Follet, Nathaniel Fry, James Frisby, Jr., Elisha Garret, James Gould, Titus Garret, Mumfred Gardner, Abraham Hamester, Israel Harding, Henry Harding, Thomas —, Stephen Harding, Oliver Harding, Richard Halstead, Thomas Hill, John Halstead, Benjamin [p.174] Harvey, Solomon Johnson, Asahel Jerome, John Kelly, Stephen Munson, Seth Marvin, Martin Nelson, Stephen Pettibone, Stephen Preston, Thomas Porter, Aaron Perkins, John Perkins, Ebenezer Phillips, Ashbel Robinson, Ira Stevens, Elisha Sills, Ebenezer Shiner, Asa Smith, Robert Sharer, Isaac Smith, Robert Sharer, Luke Swetland, Shadrach Sills, Samuel Tubbs, William Terry, John Tubbs, Ephraim Tyler, Edward Walker, Obadiah Walker, James Wells, Jr., Nathaniel Williams, Thomas Wilson.
Roster of the Second Independent company, Capt. Samuel Ransom, three-year- men; enlisted January 1, 1777: Captain, Samuel Ransom; lieutenant, Simon Spalding (captain, June 24, 1778); sergeant, Timothy Pierce (ensign, December 3, 1777, and lieutenant, January 17, 1778); lieutenant, John Jenkins; sergeants, Parker Wilson, Joseph Pasco. Privates: Caleb Atherton, Mason F. Alden, Samuel Billings, Isaac Benjamin, Oliver Bennett, Asahel Burnham, Rufus Bennett, Benjamin Clark, Gordon Church. Price Cooper, Josiah Corning, Benjamin Cole, Nathan Church, Daniel Franklin, Charles Gaylord, Ambrose Gaylord, Justin Gaylord, Benjamin Hempstead, Timothy Hopkins, William Kellog, Jesse Bezale, Jehial Billings, Lawrence Kinney, Daniel Lawrence, Nicholas Manswell, Elisha Mathewson, Constant Mathewson, William McClure, Thomas Neal, Asahel Nash, John O'Neal, Peter Osterhout, Amos Ormsburg, Thomas Packett, Ebenezer Roberts, Samuel Saucer, Asa Sawyer, Stephen Skiff, John Swift, Constant Searle, William Smith, Jr., Elisha Satterlee, Robert Spencer, John Vangordon, Thomas Williams, Caleb Warden, Richard Woodstock, Elija Walker, Zeber Williams.
The part taken in the Revolution by the people is given in the preceding account of the movements of the Connecticut settlers. They not only answered all possible demands made upon them by the colonial authorities, either in men or money, but bravely met the double troubles of the conflict with the Indians and the Pennsylvania proprietaries in the bitter struggle for the possession of the soil. In the darkest hours they resolved in town meetings most bravely. They were a band of heroes, isolated, as it were, from the world, weak in numbers, surrounded with the most appalling difficulties, and sometimes it almost seemed that not only the Indians and Pennsylvanians, but even the Connecticut authorities on one or two occasions seemed ready to pluck them much after the fashion of the others.
Civil War.—The progress of mankind in the great highway of civilization, as anomalous as it may seem, has, as Buckle says, been largely propelled forward in its course, first by the invention of gunpowder and then by the different inventions in guns to use that powder in the awful work of destroying men's lives. The glories of peace and the peaceful arts, letters and science advanced, as it seems, not by piety and prayers, but by the horrors of the bloody battle-field. Some philosophers have long held that man was a dreadfully lazy animal, given to dawdling and filth, in which, unless impelled by hunger or cold, he would sink in final rottenness; as we may figure the great oak trees would only send one straight root into the soil, if it were not for the storms that would soon come and lay it prone upon the ground. Is national life here again like that of the individual? Is it a common necessity that those terrible travails of the ages must come to our race that they may be compelled to grow strong and heroic in order to live at all? All lands and times have had their sword-storms—storm-swept with fire and sword, the people butchered, made captives and slaves; and much of the world's printed history as we get it is but the awful record of war and the unspeakable agonies of nations. Theoretically the great man is he who creates or invents something promotive of the good of his follow-man—"he who makes two blades of grass grow where only one would grow before"—but practically it is the great captains who make the great red gaps of war, who win victories, who slay and conquer the enemy the most successfully. To destroy the enemy in wholesale and detail, this is the great and honored hero; [p.174] not the patient nurse that binds up the wounds, and ministers to the dying; the benefactors of mankind, it seems, amounts to precious little compared to the Napoleons of destruction. War is a kind of school for half-civilized men. It picks up the rural clod, arrays him in a bright uniform, places him in the close crowded camp, where for the first time he mingles with men of the world and daily the ignorant lout becomes more and more of a cosmopolitan; he sees something of the world that is all new to him; is the butt end of practical jokes that fairly send him spinning along the highway of education—real education; and mayhap he is fired by what he sees with a great ambition and he becomes a phenomenal man-slayer and then the band begins to play "See the conquering hero comes." And to crown all, on walls of palace and hovel may be seen flaming chromos, with this adorable creature riding at the head of the shouting multitude that strew the road with flowers. When he has whipped all creation what is more natural than that all creation should crown and adore him? The uniform is the soldier's open sesame to glory.
One of the greatest industries of the race has been that of cultivating and encouraging excellence in the art of human slaughter. Teaching youths to sigh for the glorious day when they can trig themselves out in a uniform and in lock-step march to the dreadful, ear-splitting fife and snare drum. Even our great government, "of the people, for the people and by the people," has provided for military schools, where a scholarship is a great prize in the lottery of life.
We talk about our civilization, our churches and our universal schools, but we think evidently most earnestly about war and its fadeless glories. The fact is war is barbarous—brutal in inception and unspeakably cruel in execution; it is the pollution of life and steeps the very soul in filth. Physical bravery is not the highest possible order that man can reach. Man can hardly hope to regain the old Spartan standard of stoicism and indifference to pain and death. In fact the bravest army that ever went out to slay in the matter of simple courage has never equaled any ordinary cocking-main, or a prize dog fight. Only death-bravery can be with the order of animal life incapable of reflection. Man alone may possess a moral courage sublime, and there is little else in life in the way of courage that counts for aught.
To a man of even tolerable intelligence the ridiculous attitude of the leading nations of the old world, that have simply made themselves vast military encampments, each one under the horrid pretext that he is simply preparing himself to guard against the invasion of his neighbors, would be comical were it not all quite so serious to the poor, overburdened people. There men and women are encouraged to breed children for powder food; educate all boys for the army, and when at the proper age, without any other ceremony, every young man is a soldier. Many of the young men to-day of Germany have come to this country and are good and industrious citizens who have fled from Fatherland to escape the military service; they have, however, left millions behind—all could not flee—and the great boast now among the nations of that kind is the number and efficiency of their respective armies. Their emperors, czars, kings, queens and princelings are the scabs of civilization—nothing more than night birds and bloodsucking vampires; a large contingent of them imbeciles and madmen—all scrofulous mentally and physically, and their great standing armies are eating up the unpaid-for substance of the people, and millions and millions are starving. Russia, the great military empire, is exploiting to-day the greatest famine among its people that the world has ever known. More than 20,000,000 are perishing of famine, and apparently but one man in all that great empire has strength of mind enough to realize the cause of this awful condition of the people. The anarchist with his fuse says it is all the cruel czar's fault and is ready to throw at him his bomb; the American minister to that country thinks it is the thoughtless improvidence of the people and the failure of crops, while Tolstoi tells the truth, namely—taxed to death. In 1848 the failure of the potato crop in Ireland and the famine and starvation following were universally esteemed as cause [p.178] and effect, and Americans were then, as they are now, sending to Russia ships filled with corn. As usual the most of this charity fell into the hands of the undeserving —the same as is now going on in Russia—but to the little portion that found its way to those for whom it was given, it was the boon of life. The fact is in Russia to-day, as in Ireland in 1848, there was food and plenty in store, but the people had not the wherewith to purchase. They had been simply taxed out of their earnings until they had nothing to eat and nothing to buy with. Bad governments in this age alone can produce the starving millions of its people. It is only the fault of the people ever that they suffer, in so far as they tolerate and uphold their vile and rotten governments. Governments can only ruin their people by the power of the tax machine, and this is nearly always done in the name of protecting their empires and peoples from the invasions of their neighboring nations. War, actual or anticipated, is the one pretext for taxing to death the people. It has been so in all time. Here is the secret of the decay and death of nations. Taxing to kill the hated foreigner when they inevitably kill their own subjects in the end.
The cause that brought the fearful baptism of blood and fire to our nation certainly can not now be even intelligently discussed. Even the facts of record, the simple annals, are mostly yet matters of grave dispute. One of President Lincoln's wittiest jokes was that by which he proved that Jeff Davis had 3,000,000 of men under arms. He said he knew there were in the Union army 1,000,000 soldiers in the field; that the official reports of his commanders invariably observed that the enemy had three to one in every engagement; therefore, if he had 1,000,000 Davis must have 3,000,000.
As gleaned from official records of both sides—records that are not absolutely, but substantially correct—the following summary may be kept in mind by the students of American history when they study the chapter of our Civil war:
The seceding States in 1861 had, in round numbers, a population of 8,000,000, about 4,000,000 of which were slaves. The non-seceding States had a population of 24,000,000. This gave the Union side about three to one of the whole population. The confederate States had a seaboard from the Potomac to the mouth of the Rio Grande in Texas, and, having no navy, they were exposed as much to attacks by sea as by land.
During the war 600 confederate vessels stood sentinel along the confederate coast. The South had neither navy yards nor shops for the manufacture of cannon and small arms, and in the first battles her soldiers were often armed with shot-guns.
There were enlisted in the federal army during the war 2,778,304 soldiers, which was about twelve per cent. of her population; while, according to federal statistics, the enrollment in the confederate army was 690,000, which was about seventeen per cent. of the population. The confederates, on the estimates made by Gen. Wright, agent for the collection of confederate statistics, deny that they ever had 690,000 enrolled, as the Army of the Confederacy, "absent and present, "was as follows for each year: January, 1862, 318,011; January, 1863, 465,584; January, 1864, 472,781; January, 1865, 439,675. (Vol. IV, "Battles and Leaders," p. 768.)
Taking the federal enlistment at 2,778,304, and the number of federals on the pay roll May 1, 1865, at 1,000,516, there would be about thirty-seven per cent. of the enlistment present. This would give on the same basis about 222,000 confederates under arms. This would preserve the ratio of 600,000 to 2,778,304 enlistments, and the general ratio of population, 8,000,000 to 24,000,000. The difference between the confederate reports of January 1, 1865—439,675—and the number paroled after the surrender—174,000-is accounted for by the heavy losses of the confederates by death and desertion between January 1, 1865, and the date of parole.
The first gun was fired April 12, 1861; the last April 9, 1865, three days less than four years from the rising of the curtain on the greatest tragedy in the tide of time and ringing it down; putting out the lights, and dismissing to their homes the [p.179] 2,000,000 of sun-burned and the battle-scarred actors. The "boys" from the North had fattened many a new-made Southern graveyard. Never were such wide-spread angry passions so deeply stirred before; never was such a mad, pell-mell rush into the very jaws of death. The fires of discord blazed athwart the heavens and aching hearts gathered around the hearthstones of millions of homes; then came the sad, but too late, reflections of the joys of peace.
The life of a generation has come and gone since the hour that Fort Sumter was fired on, and the results to the two contending sections as now developed are curious figures to study. The North is now represented in the pension rolls by considerably more than 800,000 applicants for government bounty; the South had nothing to give as pensions to a soul. The destruction of slavery has been the greatest boon that it was possible for the South to receive. The rapid development of communities, States, factories, railroads and splendid cities in those States is the most amazing fact in our history. From smoking ruins and utter desolation has risen the most marvelous progress ever witnessed. The sons and daughters, reared in wealth, and lolling out a butterfly existence upon the proceeds of slave labor, found themselves confronted with the solemn problem of struggling with bare hands for existence. And, not wasting a moment in idle despair, they went to work, and with a most wonderful self-reliance have carved their paths to extraordinary prosperity, and the end is not yet. The next hundred years can give no token yet of the strides of those once rebellious States, who in a mad hour staked all upon a cast of the die and lost all. The land that was fertilized with blood and ashes is now the blooming garden; and the people, whose good finally came from such ill winds, are happy in the enforced knowledge that the abolition of slavery and the preservation of the Union, the two very things that sent them headlong in their folly, are the supreme blessings they now enjoy. And further, those living, if any, who were instrumental in precipitating a war for a separation of the Union, fully realize now they could have had no calamity befall them at all equal to that of success in their dreadful enterprise.
In many respects our Civil war has had no parallel in all history: Its vastness. Its duration. Its number of indecisive battles. The loss of life. Its money cost. The ebb and flow of victory and defeat.
These are the surface facts. The broken hearts, ruined homes, the widespread demoralization among the people, are mostly the unknown quantities now.
When the proclamation of the president was issued calling for 75,000 troops to defend the national capital and suppress the Rebellion, the patriotism of the people in Luzerne county found vent otherwise than in words. Several military companies at once offered their services to the government. The Wyoming Light Dragoons, the Wyoming Yagers (a German company), the Jackson Rifles (a company of Irishmen) and the White Haven Yagers were among the earliest to depart in response to the call. The recruiting of other companies for future exigencies was immediately commenced, and it was at once evident that, whatever had been the previous differences of opinion among the people in this country, when the time for action came patriotism triumphed over every other feeling; and here as elsewhere in the loyal North people of all parties vied with each other in their efforts to promote measures for the defence of the country in its hour of peril.
The first war meeting was held at the courthouse in Wilkes-Barre, on Friday, April 26, 1861. At this meeting Hon. H. B. Wright presided, and patriotic speeches made by several of the most prominent citizens. There were no politics here then for men to wrangle over. One universal purpose prevailed. "Go to war!" [p.180] was the watch cry and men stepped up to the enrolling officer in squads, platoons, companies, regiments and brigades.
Eighth Regiment was organized for the three months' service. Companies C, D, F, G were from this county. A company of cavalry at Wilkes-Barre, Capts. Hoyt and Brisbane had been commanders, was filled by new recruits and became Company C. Company F had been an artillery company of the same place, under Capt. Emley, who became colonel of the regiment. Company G had been an organization known as the Wyoming Yagers; this joined with a Pittston company.
The companies proceeded at once to Camp Curtin, where the regiment was organized on April 22, 1861, seven days after the president's proclamation calling for 75,000 men was issued. On the day of its organization the regiment was ordered to the vicinity of Chambersburg, where it was attached to the Third brigade, First division. June 7 it went to Greenville, and soon afterward to the vicinity of Williamsport, where it was posted to guard the forts of the Potomac. While here Lieut.- Col. Bowman crossed the river alone to reconnoitre, and was made prisoner by rebel scouts. Soon after the Union forces advanced into Virginia. Two companies of this regiment were detailed as an escort for Capt. Doubleday's battery on its march to Martinsburg. On July 6 the regiment joined the brigade at Martinsburg; on the 17th it participated in a flank movement toward Charleston, and was stationed at Keyes Ford during the night of the 20th. It returned about this time, via Harper's Ferry and Hagerstown, to Harrisburg, where it was disbanded.
The field and staff officers of the regiment were: A. H. Emley, Wilkes-Barre, colonel; Samuel Bowman. Wilkes-Barre, lieutenant colonel; Joseph Phillips, Pittston, major; Joseph Wright, Wilkes-Barre, adjutant; B. Dilley, quartermaster; Benjamin H. Throop, surgeon; H. Carey Parry, assistant surgeon; T. P. Hunt, chaplain.
Company C.—Officers: William Brisbane, captain; Joseph Wright, first lieutenant; John B. Conyagham, second lieutenant; Lyman R. Nicholson, first sergeant William J. Fell, second sergeant; Beriah S. Bowers, third sergeant; William C. Rohn, fourth sergeant; Treat B. Camp, first corporal; Samuel B. Hibler, second corporal; Albert M. Bailey, third corporal; Edwin S. Osborne, fourth corporal; Thomas J. Schleppy and Joseph W. Collings, musicians.
Company D.—Officers: Jacob Bertels, captain; Richard Fitzgerald, first lieutenant; Patrick Lenihan, second lieutenant; Michael Reily, first-sergeant; John C. Reily, second sergeant; Michael Giligan, third sergeant; Joseph P. Byrne, fourth sergeant; Daniel McBride, first corporal; Daniel Shoolin, second corporal; Thomas Devaney, third corporal; John Ryan, fourth corporal; Bartholomew Lynch and John Batterton, musicians.
Company F.—Officers: Edwin W. Finch, captain; Butler Dilley, Isaiah M. Leach, lieutenants; Alpheus C. Montague, Charles B. Metzgar, Charles B. Stout; Oliver A. Parsons, sergeants; Benjamin F. Louder, John J. McDermott, William K. Rowntree and Paschal L. Hoover, corporals.
Company G.—Officers: George N. Richard, captain; John N. Treffeisen and Gustavus E. Hahn, lieutenants; George W. Smith, Joseph Harold, Christopher Walther, Jacob Goeby, sergeants; Christian Treffeisen, Andreas Haussan, Henry Katzenbacher, John Marr, corporals.
Eleventh Regiment, ninety days, organized April 26,1861. May 27 it was ordered to guard the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore railroad. June 18 went to Baltimore, thence to Chambersburg and to Hagerstown. July 2 crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, and was in the battle of Falling Water, where three men of Company E (James Morgan, Daniel R. Stiles and Nelson Headen) were wounded. Then went to Martinsburg and Bunker Hill, and on July 17 to Charlestown. As the term of their enlistment was about to expire, Gen. Patterson had the Eleventh paraded and requested the men to remain some days beyond this term. He asked them to signify their willingness to do so by bringing their arms to a shoulder at the word. [p.181] When the order was given every musket was shouldered. By arrangement the regiment was re-mustered for three years after its muster out and allowed to retain its number.
The field and staff officers of the Eleventh regiment were as follows: Colonel, Phaon Jarrett; lieutenant-colonel, Richard Coulter; major, William D. Earnest; adjutant, F. Asbury Awl; quartermaster, William H. Hay; surgeon, William T. Babb; assistant surgeon, H. B. Buchler.
Company E of this regiment was recruited at Pittston; mustered in April 21, 1861.
Officers: John B. Johnson, captain; John B. Fish, first lieutenant; Thomas De Ketta, second lieutenant; William E. Sees, first sergeant; Samuel Hodgdon, second sergeant; William C. Blair, third sergeant; Francis C. Woodhouse, fourth sergeant; Jacob Fell, first corporal; George Cleaver, second corporal; Cornelius Vanscoy, third corporal; Charles F. Stewart, fourth corporal.
The Fifteenth Regiment was organized at Camp Curtin May 1, 1861. May 9 the regiment went to Camp Johnston, near Lancaster, where the men were well drilled and disciplined. June 3 they moved to near Chambersburg, and were assigned to Gen. Negley's brigade of Gen. Keim's division. June 16 the regiment with its brigade marched to the vicinity of Hagerstown. On July 2 it crossed the Potomac with the army and Negley's brigade, which followed a road that diverged from the main line of march, threw forward Company I with a company from another regiment as skirmishers. These suddenly came upon a battalion of Ashby's cavalry, disguised as Union troops, and before they suspected their true character, Lieut. John B. Hutchinson and a portion of Company I were made prisoners, the first sergeant having been shot. They had even obeyed an order from Ashby to let down the fence between them, mistaking the cavalry for friends. Pursuit without cavalry, was unavailing, and these men were hurried to Richmond, and thence through the south to New Orleans, where they were kept till that city fell into the possession of the federal troops, when they were sent to Salisbury and soon afterward exchanged. Six of their number, however, had died from exposure and hardship. On the 3d the regiment reached Martinsburg, where it remained till the 15th; then marched successively to Bunker Hill, Charleston, Hagerstown and Carlisle, where it encamped on the 27th, and was mustered out on August 7.
Colonel, Richard A. Oakford; lieutenant-colonel, Thomas Biddle; major, Stephen N. Bradford; adjutant, John R. Lynch; quartermaster, Jacob Rice; surgeon, A. P. Meylert; assistant surgeon, R. H. Little.
Companies B and C were from Pittston and D and G from Wilkes-Barre.
Company B.—Officers: Anthony Brown, captain: Andreas Frey, first lieutenant; George Dick, second lieutenant; Henry Teufel, first sergeant; Charles Aicher, second sergeant; Joseph Kaiser, third sergeant; Leo Steur, fourth sergeant; Albert Feist, first corporal; Joseph Steur, second corporal; John Kolb, third corporal; Herman Kaspar, fourth corporal.
Company C.—Officers: Christian Robinson, captain; Frederick Weichel and Charles Robinson, first lieutenants; William Steim and John R. Jones, second lieutenants.
Company D.—Officers: Solomon Strumer, captain; Daniel Dobra, Jacob C. Hohn, lieutenants; Marcus Bishop, John Gebhart, George Schaffer, Nicholas Smith, sergeants.
Company G.—Officers: Thomas Mazorerrs, captain; Thomas A. Nichols, Alexander Phillips, lieutenants; John Eskings, Richard W. Jackson, George Z. Killhorn, Davis Garbet, sergeants.
Twenty-eighth Regiment was raised by John W. Geary, of Mexican war fame. He became colonel and finally promoted to major-general; elected governor of the State in 1867 and 1870. There were fifteen companies in this regiment, of which [p.182] Companies A and N were from Luzerne county. July 27, 1861, the Colonel with ten companies moved rapidly to Harper's Ferry, leaving the other five companies to follow when filled.
August 13 the regiment moved to Point of Rocks, and engaged in picket duty along twenty-five miles of the frontier, on the Potomac. The disloyalty of the inhabitants was such that a picket post was required every 400 yards, and the utmost watchfulness was necessary to prevent treasonable communications. In the latter part of September the rebels attacked Point of Rocks, but were repulsed. In October the Colonel with a part of the regiment crossed into Virginia to seize and carry away a quantity of wheat, and when about to return they were attacked by a large force and a spirited fight ensued. The enemy were repulsed with considerable loss. In the latter part of the same month the command went forward to participate in the action at Ball's Bluff. During three months the regiment was on duty along the Potomac, and had frequent skirmishes with the enemy. In the latter part of February, 1862, it crossed to Harper's Ferry, drove the enemy from Bolivar Heights, crossed the Shenandoah and drove the rebels from London Heights; thed pushed forward to Lovellsville, Waterford and Leesburg, which Gen. A. P. Hill abandoned on the approach of Col. Geary's force, and which was occupied by the Union troops. From Leesburg the command advanced to Snickerville, Upperville, Ashby's Gap, Rectortown, Piedmont, Markham and Front Royal. Returning to Snickerville the force was joined by a portion of the Twenty-eighth that had been left at Leesburg. They then marched successively, fighting occasionally, to Philemont, Middlebury, White Plains, Thoronghfare Gap, Greenwich, Catlett's Station, Warrentown, and White Plains; and for some time, till about May lst, guarded and repaired the Manassas railroad.
April 25 Col. Geary was commissioned brigadier-general of volunteers, and was succeeded as colonel by Lieut.-Col. De Korponay. Maj. Tyndall was made lieutenant-colonel, and he was succeeded by Capt. Ario Pardee, Jr. The Twenty- eighth was soon afterward, or about May 17, attached to the command of Gen. Geary, and its subsequent history is so closely connected with that of his brigade that to give it fully would require a history of all the movements of that brigade. It was attached to the corps of Gen. Banks at the time of the retreat from Virginia, and was engaged in the battle of Antietam. It also took part in the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg.
In September, 1864, the Eleventh and Twelfth corps were ordered to join the Army of the Cumberland. From this time forward the Twenty-eighth was attached to the army of Gen. Sherman, and participated in many battles, which can not even be enumerated here for want of space. In November, 1864, with the rest of Sherman's army, it made the famous "march to the sea." After doing duty about a month in Savannah, it started across the Carolinas, which was the severest Part of the march from Atlanta. The surrender of Lee and Johnston concluded the fighting of the war and the regiment was mustered out of the service on July 18, 1865. During its service of four years it lost about as many men as were originally on its muster roll. It is said that it was as often engaged as any regiment in the service but that it never permitted any kind of property belonging to it to fall into the hands of the enemy. One major-general and three brigadiers were furnished by it; among the latter was Ario Pardee, Jr.
The term of enlistment of this regiment was three years. All the members of Company N remaining in the service until October 28, 1862, were transferred at that date to Company C of the One Hundred and Forty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers. The first date given in the following roll is that of muster-in, and as the year is 1861, except in case of recruits, it need not be repeated. The regimental officers and men of Company A, where not otherwise mentioned, were mustered out with the regiment, July 18, 1865:
[p.183] Field and Staff Officers.—Colonels: John W. Geary, June 28; promoted brigadier-general United States Volunteers April 25, 1862; wounded at Bolivar, Cedar Mountain and Chancellorsville; promoted major-general January 12, 1865. Gabriel De Korponay, June 28; promoted from lieutenant-colonel to colonel April 25, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate March 26, 1863. Thomas J. Ahl, July 11; promoted from captain Company H to colonel March 15,1863; resigned March 18, 1864. John Flynn, July 1; wounded at Gettysburg July 3, 1863, and at North Edisto river, S. C., February 12, 1865; promoted lieutenant-colonel December 12, 1863; to colonel June 9, 1864; brevet brigadier-general May 13, 1865; discharged November 3, 1865; veteran.
Lieutenant-colonels: Hector Tyndale, June 28; promoted lieutenant-colonel April 25, 1862; wounded at Antietam, September 17, 1862; promoted brigadier- general volunteers November 29, 1862; discharged March 18, 1863. James Fitzpatrick, June 28; promoted major March 27, 1864; lieutenant-colonel August 9, 1864; wounded at Antietam September 17, 1862; at Mill Creek Gap, May 8, 1864. Majors: Ario Pardee, Jr., June 28; promoted major November 1, 1861; lieutenant-colonel One Hundred and Forty-seventh regiment October 9, 1862. William Raphail, July 3; promoted major July 1, 1862; resigned January 15, 1863. Robert Warden, July 28; promoted major April 25, 1862; died at Winchester, Va., June 30, 1862. Lans'd F. Chapman, July 6; promoted major January 22, 1863; killed at Chancellorsville May 3, 1863. Jacob D. Arner, July 6; promoted major June 1, 1865.
Adjutants: Samuel Goodman, October 15; promoted to adjutant November 13, 1861; discharged August 3, 1864; brevet captain, major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel, March 13, 1865. Henry Cheesman, July 11; promoted adjutant July 28, 1864; discharged February 8, 1865. William S. Witham, July 2; promoted adjutant June 1, 1865.
Quartermasters: Benjamin F. Lee, June 28; resigned September 10, 1862, to accept commission as captain and A. C. S. John F. Nicholson, June 28; promoted from commission sergeant to quartermaster September 10, 1862; brevet captain, major and lieutenant-colonel March 13, 1862.
Surgeons: H. Ernest Goodman, July 23; transferred to United States Volunteers as assistant surgeon, to date February 26, 1864; brevet colonel and surgeon-in-chief Army of Georgia. William Altman, December 17, 1862; promoted surgeon May 8, 1864.
Assistant surgeons: Samuel Logan, June 28; resigned October 3, 1862. William M. Dorland, August 1, 1862; resigned November 27, 1862. John H. Mullin, October 15, 1862; resigned April 17, 1863. William F. Smith, June 3, 1863; promoted surgeon December 23, 1864, and transferred to Seventy-third. Abin H. Light, May 23,1864.
Company A.—Mustered in June 28, 1861. Officers: Ario Pardee, Jr., captain, promoted major Twenty-eighth regiment, November 1, 1861; James Fitzpatrick, promoted captain, January 1, 1862, major, March 27, 1862; James Silliman, promoted from corporal to first sergeant July 1, 1861, second lieutenant January 1, 1862, first lieutenant July 1, 1862, captain August 16, 1864; George Marr, promoted first sergeant July 12, 1863, first lieutenant October 1, 1864; Second Lieutenant John Garman resigned and Isaac B. Robinson promoted to the place, January 1, 1862, killed July 20, 1864, at Peach Tree creek, Ga.; William Airey promoted corporal January 1, 1863. sergeant July 12, 1863, first sergeant October 1, 1864, second lieutenant June 1, 1865.
Company N.—Officers: Captain—John Craig, Angust 30. First lieutenants— Patrick J. Hughes, August 20, resigned December 16, 1861, Calvin Pardee, August 30, promoted from second to first lieutenant December 20, 1861. Second lieutenants—Hugh Hyndman, August 30, promoted from corporal to second lieutenant [p.184] December 20, 1861, died February 14, 1862; Nicholas Glace, August 20 promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant February 17, 1862. Sergeants— David Bryan, August 20, promoted sergeant February 16, 1862; John Kindland, August 20, reduced January 1, 1862; John H. Kentz, August 26; Alexander Youngst, August 20; Samuel Henry, August 30, promoted from corporal to sergeant February 14, 1862. Corporals—John Grubb, John Lindsey, Owen McGovern, John O'Connor, Alfred Reiley and William T. West, Augnst 20; Emmett Sayres, August 30, promoted to corporal January 1, 1862.
The Thirty-sixth and Forty-first Regiments (Seventh and Twelfth Reserves).— The Seventh Reserve regiment was organized on June 26, 1861, and Elisha B. Harvey, of Wilkes-Barre, was made colonel; Joseph Totten, of Mechanicsburg, lieutenant-colonel, and Chauncey A. Lyman, of Lock Haven, major.
The regiment was ordered to Washington on July 21, and on the 27th was mustered into the service of the United States. On August 2 it went forward to the rendezvous of the Pennsylvania reserves, and was assigned to the brigade of Gen. George G. Meade. From this time till October it was engaged in drilling and picket duty. In the latter month it joined the Army of the Potomac. From this time till March, 1863, but little service beyond drill was seen. When the army moved forward to the peninsula in April the Seventh was retained, with other troops, for the defence of Washington. In June they went forward to the front and became a part of the Fifth corps, under Gen. Fitz John Porter. On June 26 the battle of Mechanicsville, in which the Seventh was engaged, was fought. The next day the battle of Gaines' Mill, in which the Seventh also participated, took place. Then followed some marching and skirmishing, in which the regiment was engaged till the end of the "seven days" fighting. It then marched "by devious ways" to the vicinity of Groveton, where on August 29 and 30, 1862, the Seventh was engaged. Its next battle was at South Mountain, where it made an impetuous charge, in which Col. Bolinger was severely wounded. At the battle of Antietam it was actively engaged and lost heavily. After this battle it moved to the Potomac, and thence, in the latter part of October, to Warrenton Va. Thence, in the latter part of November, to the vicinity of Fredericksburg where on December 11 it was desperately engaged. At this battle it made its most brilliant record; a gallant charge on the corps of Longstreet, in which it captured more than 100 prisoners and a battle-flag—the only one taken in this action. The losses of the regiment in this action were heavy.
During the winter following, the Seventh remained in its camp near Belle Plain, with the exception of a short time spent on what is known as the "mud march." In February, 1863, it was transferred from the field to the department of Washington, where it remained, in the discharge mostly of provost and guard duty, during more than a year. In this time several changes were made among the field officers, and Capt. L. G. Speese was promoted to the position of major.
In the latter part of April it again took the field, and joined the army at about the commencement of the Wilderness campaign. In the course of the first action in which the Seventh was engaged, a large portion of the regiment was, by one of the casualties of war, captured, and the men were sent to the prison pen at Andersonville, Ga., where they were starved during nearly eight months. Out of about 250 privates who were taken, sixty-seven died in this prison, and many others afterward by reason of their hardships and exposure there. The surrender of the rebel armies to Grant and Sherman opened their prison doors.
Company F, of the regiment, whose achievements and sufferings have just been recounted, was recruited in Luzerne county. Below are the records of that company as published by the State. The time of service was three years. The date of muster-in was June 13, 1861.
Company F.—Officers: Captains, Le Grand B. Speese, promoted major July [p.187] 25, 1863. John Robinson, promoted sergeant July 26, 1861; first sergeant November 12, 1861; second lieutenant August 1, 1862; first lieutenant March 1, 1863; captain July 20, 1863; brevet-major March 13, 1865; mustered out with company June 16, 1864. First lieutenants: Charles W. Garretson, resigned August 11, 1862. James S. Robinson, promoted sergeant July 26, 1861; sergeant-major April 1, 1862; second lieutenant March 1, 1863; first lieutenant July 20, 1863; mustered out with company June 16, 1863. Second lieutenants: Charles A. Lane, resigned July 9, 1862. John B. Laycock, promoted sergeant July 26, 1861; first sergeant October 15, 1862; second lieutenant July 20, 1863; brevet first lieutenant March 13, 1865; captured May 5, 1864; discharged March 12, 1865. First sergeants: Levi G. McCauley, promoted first lieutenant Company C, January 1, 1862.
Forty-sixth Regiment, in which was Company I, a Luzerne company, with the following officers:
Company I.—Captains: Richard Fitzgerald, October 31, 1861; discharged February 15, 1862. Patrick Griffith, September 16, 1861; promoted major August 1, 1863. John Care, October 31, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant to captain August 17, 1863; resigned June 10, 1864. Joseph Matchett, August 17, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant of Company C to captain July 17, 1864. First lieutenants: George W. Boyd, September 17, 1861; promoted adjutant September 17, 1861. John H. Knipe, August 24, 1862; promoted from private Company B August 5,1863; died of wounds received at Resaca, Ga., May 15, 1864. Robert Young, October 31, 1861; promoted from sergeant to lieutenant January 15, 1863, to first lieutenant November 12, 1864; mustered out May 15, 1865, by order of the war department. Second lieutenants: John Auglun, October 31, 1861; discharged February 15, 1862. Samuel Chambers, October 13, 1861; resigned January 22, 1863. Peter Van Kirk, July 27, 1864; promoted to sergeant October 10, 1862; to second lieutenant July 27, 1864. First sergeants: Lewis C. Eakman, July 14, 1863; drafted; promoted to corporal September 10, 1863; to sergeant September 1, 1864; to first sergeant June 8, 1865, commissioned first lieutenant July 15, 1865; not mustered.
Fifteenth Regiment, in which was Company I of this county, with following officers: Captains: Samuel F. Bossard, resigned January 28, 1863. James H. Levan promoted from sergeant Company C to captain, November 26, 1864. First lieutenants: William Reynolds, mustered out September 29, 1864. Edward A. Wilbur, promoted from private to sergeant and then lieutenant, December 4, 1864. Second lieutenants: Alfred J. Huntzinger, promoted captain Company K, September 17, 1862. Richard Rahn, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant, September 17, 1862. John Dennison, promoted from private by regular grades to lieutenant, September 30, 1864; not mustered.
This regiment saw as much and hard service, both in the Army of Potomac and in the West in and around Vicksburg, as any regiment in the service.
Fifty-second Regiment.—Companies A, H and I were Luzerne men, Company F, composed of men from this and Bradford counties, and Company K, from Luzerne and Schuylkill counties.
A call was issued by the president in July, 1861, for sixteen regiments, and under this call authority was granted by Gov. Curtin, August 1, 1861, to John C. Dodge, Jr., to recruit this regiment. He was appointed colonel; Henry M. Hoyt, lieutenant-colonel, and John B. Conyngham, of Luzerne county, major.
November 8, 1861, the regiment proceeded to Washington. It remained there, engaged in drill and camp duty, till March 28, 1862, when it was ordered to take the field. During this time it furnished ten volunteers for gunboat service at the West, most of whom were subsequently killed by an explosion.
It marched to Alexandria, and thence went by transports to Newport News, where it debarked; and soon afterward it encamped near Yorktown, where the siege [p.188] was in progress. As the regiment marched to take possession of the deserted works on May 4, a torpedo exploded under Company F, killing one man and wounding six others.
From Yorktown it moved forward with its brigade to Williamsburg, where it arrived just in time to support Hancock in his gallant charge, which resulted in driving the enemy from the field. The regiment arrived with its brigade at the Chickahominy on May 20. On the 24th it went on a reconnaissance toward Richmond, which lasted four days, and in the course of which a lively engagement occurred. In this reconnaissance a company of sharpshooters which had been selected from the regiment did excellent service.
The regiment was engaged in the battle of Fair Oaks, which occurred on May 31, and out of 249 lost 125 killed and wounded, and four prisoners. Among the wounded officers were Capts. Davis, Lennard and Chamberlain, and Lieuts. Weidensaul and Carskaden.
While the battle at Gaines' Mill was in progress, the Fifty-second, with other regiments of the brigade, was guarding the bridge across the Chickahominy; the men were often standing waist deep in the water of the swamp, and this duty continued during several consecutive days. Soon afterward the regiment retired with the army to Harrison's Landing, and on August 20 to Yorktown, where circumstances detained the brigade to which it was attached while a large part of the army went to the support of Gen. Pope. While occupying the fortifications at Yorktown the men were drilled in heavy artillery tactics.
In December the Fifty-second, with other troops, went to Beaufort, and thence, in the latter part of January, 1863, to Port Royal, S. C. From there in April, 1863, it went on a transport up the North Edisto, to cooperate in an attack on the city of Charleston. The attack failed, and the regiment, after drifting among the Sea islands some days, and passing an uncomfortable night at sea, landed at Beaufort. On July 11 it moved to Folly island, and on the 9th went up the Stone river with another regiment to make a diversion in favor of the attack on Morris island. It landed at James island at midnight, and in the morning attacked and drove in the pickets and cavalry of the enemy. The rebel force on the island was reinforced, and on the 16th an attack was made by the enemy. On the night of the 17th the island was evacuated, and the Fifty-second returned to Folly island. The regiment participated in the siege of Fort Wagner during the perilous forty or fifty days that it lasted, when preparations were made for the final assault. It was formed ready to pass the fort and attack Fort Gregg, when intelligence was received that the works and the island were evacuated. During the operations against this fort the regiment suffered severely, but no exact record of its casualties can be given.
In December many of the men in the regiment re-enlisted, and were granted a veteran furlough. When they returned the regiment was recruited to the maximum and newly armed and equipped. It remained at Hilton Head till May 20, 1864, during which time it made occasional expeditions among the Sea islands.
On the morning of July 4 the duty of surprising, and taking Fort Johnson in the badly-planned attempt on the rebel works at Charleston harbor was assigned to the Fifty-second. Accordingly, just at daybreak, 125 men, under the command of Col. Hoyt, landed, took a two-gun battery, rushed forward, scaled the parapet of the fort and entered the works. Failing to receive the support which they expected, they were overpowered by superior numbers and made prisoners. Seven of the assaulting party were killed and sixteen wounded. Of the balance, who were made prisoners, upward of fifty died at Andersonville and Columbia, and the officers, after a period of confinement at Macon, were transferred to Charleston and placed under the fire of the Union batteries on Morris island. During the summer and autumn of 1864 the balance of the regiment was on Morris island, where the men did duty as heavy artillery.
[p.189] During the winter of 1864-5 they were engaged in picketing the harbor in boats, a duty that was anything but enviable by reason of the exposures and hardships which it involved. February 18, 1865, a boat crew under the command of Maj. Hennesy rowed across the harbor and landed near Fort Sumter. All was silent, and as the party cautiously entered the ruins they were not challenged. The fort was deserted, and they unfurled over it the flag of the regiment. The party at once proceeded to the city, which they entered before the last of the rebel soldiers had evacuated it.
The regiment joined the army of Gen. Sherman as it marched north after crossing Georgia, and was with him when the rebel Gen. Johnston surrendered. A week later it returned to Harrisburg, where, on July 12, 1865, it was mustered out the service.
The Fifty-second was composed of men who entered the service for three years. Those who remained in the regiment to the close of the war were mustered out July 12, 1865, except members of Company A, who were mustered out three days later.
Field and Staff Officers.—Colonels: John C. Dodge, Jr., August 1, 1861; resigned November 5, 1863. Henry M. Hoyt, August 14, 1861; promoted from lieutenant- colonel to colonel January 9, 1864; brevet brigadier-general March 13, 1865; mustered out November 5, 1864.
Lieutenant-Colonels: John B. Conyngham, September 28, 1861; promoted from major to lieutenant-colonel January 9, 1864; colonel June 3, 1865. John A. Hennessey, December 2; promoted from captain Company K to major January 5, 1865; lieutenant-colonel June 3, 1865; brevet colonel and brigadier-general March 13, 1865.
Majors: Thomas B. Jayne, October 11, 1861; proraoted from captain Company B to major January 9, 1864; mustered out November 5, 1864. George R. Lennard, August 16, 1861; promoted from captain Company A to major July 9, 1865.
Adjutants: Nathaniel Pierson, August 15, 1861; promoted to captain Company G May 19, 1863. George H. Sterling, October 11, 1861; promoted from sergeant- major to adjutant May 19, 1863; transferred to Company K October 10, 1864. Henry A. Mott, October 2, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant Company K to adjutant September 1, 1864; captain Company K December 6, 1864; not mustered.
Quartermasters: Charles F. Dodge, resigned July 4, 1863; Charles P. Ross, promoted from sergeant to lieutenant to regiment quartermaster August 10, 1863; mustered out February 25, 1865; John W. Gilchrist, promoted from lieutenant Company A February 26, 1865; commissioned captain Company A March 1, 1865; not mustered.
Surgeons: William S. Wood, resigned April 20, 1863; J. B. Crawford, resigned May 30, 1864; John Flowers, promoted from assistant March 23, 1865.
Company A.—Officers: Captain: George R. Lennard, resigned September 20, 1862; re-commissioned March 30, 1863; promoted major July 9, 1865. First lieutenants: Edwin W. Faich, resigned July 21, 1862. John W. Gilchrist, promoted from second to first lieutenant July 21, 1862, and to regiment quartermaster February 26, 1865. Second lieutenants: Reuben H. Waters, promoted from sergeant July 21, 1862, to first lieutenant November 4, 1864, not mustered, discharged by special order February 1, 1865. Phillip G. Killian, promoted from sergeant July 3, 1865.
Company H.—Officers: Captains: Erwin R. Peckens. August 22, 1861; resigned April 28, 1863. John B. Fish, August 31, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant to captain July 1, 1863; mustered out January 27, 1865. C. C. Brattenberg, November 4, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant June 3, 1864; first lieutenant June 3, 1865; captain June 24, 1865; veteran. First lieutenant: James G. Stevens, September 19, 1861, promoted from second to first lientenant November 13, 1863; captured July 3, 1864; died at Blakley, Luzerne county, Pa., [p.190] April 7, 1865. Second lieutenant: David Wigton, November 4, 1861; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant November 13, 1863; resigned March 23, 1864.
Company I.—Officers: Captains: Beaton Smith, August 22, 1861; resigned May 11, 1863. Henry H. Jenks, August 22, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant to captain November 1, 1863; absent, on detached duty, at muster out. First lieutenants: Frederick Fuller, August 22, 1861; promoted from second to first lieutenant November 1, 1863; transferred to signal corps January 11, 1862. Thomas Evans, September 23, 1861; promoted from corporal to sergeant February 5, 1862; first sergeant September 2, 1862; first lieutenant March 25, 1864; captured July 3, 1864; mustered out May 6, 1865. Second lieutenant: Edward W. Smith, September 23, 1861; promoted from corporal to sergeant December 6, 1861; first sergeant November 6, 1863; second lieutenant October 24, 1864; commissioned first lieutenant June 8, 1865; not mustered. First sergeants: Frank Early, September 23, 1861; promoted from private to first sergeant November 1, 1864; commissioned second lieutenant June 8, 1865; not mustered; veteran. Benjamin F. Jones, September 23, 1861; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862.
Fifty-third Regiment.—Of the field and staff wore Luzerne men, and Company F was from this county. Officers of this company are as follows: Captains: Horace P. Moody, October 12, 1861; resigned September 17, 1862. Walter L. Hopkins, October 12, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant September 17, 1862; discharged January 16, 1863. Theodore Hatfield, October 12, 1861; promoted from sergeant to first lieutenant September 18, 1862; to captain February 21, 1863; discharged March 18, 1864. John J. Whitney, October 12, 1861; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant September 6, 1862; to first lieutenant January 30, 1863; to captain April 23, 1864; killed at Spottsylvania May 18, 1864. James Patton, October 12, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to first lieutenant May 20, 1864; to captain June 6, 1864; mustered out October 6, 1864. Isaac A. Howell, October 12, 1861; promoted from sergeant to first sergeant; to first lieutenant June 6, 1864; to captain November 2, 1864; discharged March 18, 1865; veteran. Nathan N. Montayne, October 12, 1861; promoted from private to sergeant; to first sergeant June 6, 1864; to first lieutenant November 2, 1864; to captain April 16, 1865; mustered out with company June 30, 1865; veteran. First lieutenant: Lester Race, October 12, 1861; promoted corporal; sergeant March 16, 1864; first sergeant November 2, 1864; first lieutenant April 16, 1865; veteran. Second lieutenant: Martin W. Anthony, October 12, 1861; resigned September 6, 1862. First sergeant: George W. Thompson, October 12, 1861; promoted from private to sergeant; first sergeant April 17, 1865; commissioned second lieutenant June 1, 1865.
Fifty-sixth Regiment.—Of this command was Company G from this county, officered as follows: Captains: Joseph K. Helmbold, September 8, 1862; resigned March 15, 1863. David J. Dickson, December 3, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant October 11, 1862; to first lieutenant October 26, 1862; to captain August 16, 1863; mustered out March 7, 1865. James N. Davenport, December 5, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to first lieutenant August 4, 1864; captain June 4,1865, veteran. First lieutenants: Daniel Dobra, resigned October 24, 1862. John W. Fike, December 5, 1861; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant October 26, 1862; first lieutenant August 16, 1863; died October 18, 1863. Henry C. Titman, promoted from sergeant to first lieutenant December 6, 1863; killed at Wilderness May 5, 1864. Thomas W. Edwards, January 1, 1864; promoted from first sergeant to first lieutenant June 4, 1865; veteran. Second lieutenants: Henry J. Bashore, February 15, 1862; resigned September 28, 1862. Edward Phillips, January 1, 1864; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant June 9 1865; veteran. First sergeants: William Briggs, January 1, 1864; promoted to sergeant January 1, 1865; to first sergeant June 9, 1865; veteran. John L. Blessing, December 19, 1861; discharged by special order April 16, 1862.
[p.191] Fifty-seventh.—Company A of this regiment was mostly from Luzerne county. Company officers as follows: Captains: Peter Sides, December 4, 1861; promoted lieutenant-colonel September 15, 1862. Jerome R. Lyons, December 4, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant to captain September 15, 1862; discharged October 4, 1864, for wounds received in action. Henry H. Hinds, December 4, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to first lieutenant January 7, 1863; captain May 15, 1865; discharged May 15, 1865. James M. Darling, September 15, 1861; dismissed June 15, 1864. Daniel W. Gore. First lieutenants: Edison J. Rice, December 4, 1861; wounded at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862; promoted from second to first lieutenant September 15, 1862; to captain Company E February 28, 1863. Franklin V. Shaw; veteran. Second lieutenants: Jeremiah C. Green, December 4, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant January 7, 1863; wounded at Gettysburg; killed at Spottsylvania Court-house May 12, 1864. George L. Arney, December 4, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant April 16, 1865; veteran.
Sixty-first Regiment.—Some of the field and staff officers of this command were of Luzerne county, as well as the whole of Company D, with the following officers: Captains: Butler-Dilley, resigned August 23, 1862; William W. Ellis, promoted from first lieutenant to captain July 23, 1862; transferred to V. R. C. January 2, 1864. David J. Taylor, promoted from second to first lieutenant July 23, 1862; captain March 25, 1864; killed at Cedar Creek, Va., October 19, 1864. Oliver A. Parsons, promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant April 19, 1864; first lieutenant October 1, 1864; captain November 30, 1864; major May 14, 1865; wounded at Spottsylvania Court-house May 12, 1864; veteran. Sylvester D. Rhoads, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant December 1, 1864; first lieutenant January 6, 1865; captain June 3, 1865; veteran. First lieutenants: Smith D. Dean, promoted second lieutenant July 23, 1862; first lieutenant April 19, 1864; discharged August 10, 1864. Charles M. Cyphers, promoted from first sergeant to first lieutenant December 15, 1864; captain Company F January 6, 1865; veteran. William Lathrop, promoted sergeant-major; second lieutenant January 8, 1865; first lieutenant June 2, 1865; veteran. Second lieutenant: Samuel C. Fell, promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant June 6, 1865; veteran.
Sixty-fourth was represented from this county by Company M, with the following officers: Captains: Alfred Dart, October 30, 1861; resigned December 4, 1862. Alfred Dart, Jr., October 30, 1861; promoted from second lieutenant March 1, 1863; discharged September 19, 1864. John C. Harper, September 6, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant, Company B, to captain December 13, 1864; to brevet major March 13, 1865; killed at Hatcher's Run, Va., February 6, 1865. Samuel N. King, November 15, 1864; promoted first lieutenant January 8, 1865; captain March 7, 1865. First lieutenants: Henry S. King, October 18, 1861; promoted quartermaster August 18, 1862. Duncan C. Phillips, September 9, 1862; promoted captain Company F November 21, 1863. William R. Herring, October 30, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant March 1, 1863; to first lieutenant May 20, 1864; discharged September 3, 1864. Charles E. Nugent. January 1, 1864; promoted from first sergeant, Company L, to first lieutenant March 9, 1865; brevet captain March 13, 1865; killed in action March 31, 1865; veteran. Peter M. Burke, January 1, 1864; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant March 9, 1865; first lieutenant June 3, 1865.
Seventy-fourth, of which was Company A, Luzerne men, with the following officers: Captains: Samuel T. Pealer, March 13, 1865; discharged May 8, 1865. John W. Beishline, March 13, 1865; promoted from first lieutenant to captain July 1, 1865. First lieutenant: John F. Miller, March 13, 1865; promoted from second to first lieutenant July 1, 1865. Second lieutenant: John Beikler, September 6, 1861; promoted from sergeant Company K to second lieutenant July 2, 1865. First sergeant: William Saunders, March 4, 1865.
[p.192] Seventy-sixth had Company H of this county. Officers: Captains: Arthur Hamilton, October 26, 1861: killed at Pocotaligo, S. C., October 22, 1863. Charles Knerr, October 26, 1861; wounded at Fort Wagner, S. C., July 11, 1863; promoted from first lieutenant to captain October 23, 1862; major January 1, 1865. Samuel W. Holler, October 26, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant February 14, 1864; first lieutenant September 5, 1864; captain January 3, 1865. First lieutenants; William Miller, October 26, 1861; promoted from second to first lieutenant, October 23, 1862; killed at Fort Wagner, S. C., July 11, 1862. William F. Bloss, October 26, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant October 23, 1862; to first lieutenant December 3, 1863; died at Hampton, Va., August 4, 1864, of wounds received at Petersburg, July 26, 1864. Second lieutenant: David Davis, October 26, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant April 24, 1865; first lieutenant July 1, 1865; not mustered; veteran. First sergeant: Peter Houser, February 1, 1864; commissioned first lieutenant June 1, 1865; not mustered; absent, sick, at muster out; veteran.
Eighty-first Regiment, Company K and part of H recruited in Luzerne County. Officers Company H: Captains: Thomas C. Harkness, September 18, 1861; wounded at Charles City Cross Roads, June 30, 1862, and at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; promoted major April 7, 1863; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 1863. Thomas C. Williams, promoted from first sergeant to second lieutentant July 1, 1863; to first lieutenant July 1, 1863; to captain May 1, 1864; discharged September 21, 1864, for wounds received in action. First lieutenants: John C. McLaughlin, September 18, 1861; wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862; promoted to captain Company A May 1, 1863. William J. Williams, promoted from sergeant May 1, 1864; discharged October 12, 1864; veteran. Second lieutenant: Thomas Morton, September 18, 1861; commissioned first lieutenant November 14, 1862; captain April 17, 1863; not mustered; discharged June 12, 1863. First sergeant: Aaron Henry, wounded at Charles City Cross Roads, June 30, 1862, and at Bristoe Station, Va., 1863; discharged.
Company K.—Officers: Captains: Charles E. Foster, August 27, 1861; resigned July 9, 1862. Cyrus W. Straw, October 27, 1861; promoted from first lieutenant May 1, 1863; discharged June 20, 1863. James McKinley, October 27, 1861; promoted from corporal to second lieutenant September 1, 1863; to captain April 22, 1864; resigned June 4, 1865. First lieutenants: Alonzo E. Bennett, October 27, 1861; promoted from first sergeant July 13, 1863; transferred to veteran reserve corps October 12, 1863. Peter Dougherty, October 27, 1861; promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant October 3, 1864; to first lieutenant October 30, 1864; discharged April 16, 1865; veteran. Second lieutenants: William Belford, October 27, 1861; discharged May 7, 1863. Emanuel C. Hoover, October 27, 1861; promoted from sergeant June 6, 1864; killed at Ream's Station, Va., August 25, 1864; veteran. Washington Setzer, October 27, 1861; promoted from first sergeant February 18, 1865; resigned May 27, 1865; veteran. John Graham, September 24, 1861; promoted from first sergeant Company B June 16, 1865; veteran. First sergeant, Alexander Kocher, October 27, 1861; promoted to sergeant November 1, 1864; wounded April 7, 1865; absent at muster out; veteran.
Ninety-second Regiment.—Company D from this county and parts of Companies K and L. Officers of Company D as follows: Captains: Jacob Bertles; resigned August 7, 1862. Michael O'Reilly, promoted from first lieutenant August 8, 1862. First lieutenants: George Smith, promoted from second lieutenant September 8, 1862; captain Company L September 1, 1863. Christopher Walthers, promoted second lieutenant from Company L May 30, 1864. Second lieutenants: Louis Praetorius, resigned October 31, 1862. David R. P. Barry, October 24, 1861; promoted from sergeant Company M May 22, 1863; resigned July 24, 1864. Frederick Smith, promoted from first sergeant May 19, 1865; veteran. First sergeant; Jacob Hassler, promoted from sergeant May 20, 1865; veteran.
[p.193] Ninety-sixth Regiment.—Part of Company E of this command from this county. Officers as follows: Captain: James Russell, September 23, 1861; mustered out with company October 21, 1864. First lieutenant: John S. Oberrender, September 23, 1861; discharged September 22, 1864. Second lieutenants: John F. Robbins, September 23, 1861; resigned January 27, 1863. Thomas H. Reed, September 23, 1861; promoted from sergeant March 10, 1863; discharged September 27, 1863. Charles C. Russell, September 23, 1861; promoted from first sergeant September 28, 1864; transferred to Company E, Ninety-fifth Pennsylvania, October 18, 1864.
One Hundred and Thirty-second Regiment (nine months men) of which were Companies I and K of this county. The colonel was Richard A. Oakford; the lieutenant- colonel Vincent M. Wilcox, both of this county. The regiment went into the battle of Antietam as fresh troops and most gallantly acquitted itself; thirty killed and 114 wounded. Among the killed was Col. Oakford. The regiment moved to Harper's Ferry after the battle, participated in two reconnoissances while encamped on Bolivar Heights, and moved with the army toward Fredericksburg on the last of October. From Falmouth, where it first encamped, it went to Belle Plain, and after a month returned to Falmouth. In the battle of Fredericksburg it was actively engaged and participated in a charge on Mary's Heights, where it displayed a coolness and bravery that would have done honor to veterans. Out of 340 men who went into action, the regiment lost 140.
At the battle of Chancellorsville, though the term of a portion of the men had expired, all took part in the action. On the third day of the battle the regiment made a gallant bayonet charge in which a number of prisoners were taken. Its loss in this action was about fifty. It was relieved from duty on the expiration of the term of service, and was mustered out on May 11, 1863. It is said two-thirds of the men entered the service again.
Colonels: Richard A. Oakford, August 21, 1862; killed at Antietam, Md., September 17, 1862. Vincent M. Wilcox, August 26, 1862; promoted from lieutenant- colonel September 18, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate January 14, 1863. Charles Albright, August 21, 1862; promoted from major to lieutenant-colonel, September 18, 1862; colonel, January 24, 1863.
Lieutenant-colonel: Joseph E. Shreve, August 15, 1862; promoted from captain Company A to major September 18, 1862; to lieutenant-colonel January 24, 1863.
Company I.—Officers. Captains: James Archibald, Jr., August 18, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate January 7, 1863. Philip S. Hall, August 18, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant January 14, 1863; wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 4, 1863; absent at muster out. First lieutenants: Robert R. Miller, August 18, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate December 19, 1862. Benjamin Gardner, promoted from sergeant January 14, 1863. Second lieutenant: Michael Houser, promoted from private January 14, 1863.
Company K.—Officers: Captains: Richard Stillwell, August 18, 1862; discharged May 31, 1863, for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862. Jacob B. Floyd, August 18, 1862; promoted from first lieutenant March 31, 1863. First lieutenant: Noah B. Jay, promoted from second lieutenant March 31, 1863. Second lieutenant: Sylvester Ward, promoted from sergeant to first sergeant December 25, 1862; and lieutenant March 31. 1863. First sergeant: Francis Orchard, promoted from sergeant, March 31, 1863.
One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Regiment.—(Nine months) Company B recruited in this and Tioga counties. Its officers were as follows:
Captain: William N. Monies, August 2, 1862. First lieutenants: Nelson Doty, discharged on surgeon's certificate March 31, 1863. Frederick J. Amsden, August 26, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant April 1, 1863. Second-lieutenant: David Edwards, promoted from first sergeant April 1, 1863.
One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment.—Company K was from Luzerne county, as was Maj. John Bradley.
[p.194] Company K.—Officers: Captains: Charles H. Flagg, September 1, 1862; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, 1863; Joshua W. Howell, August 30, 1862; promoted from corporal to captain May 1, 1864. First lieutenant: Jeremiah Hoffman, September 1, 1862; commissioned captain July 4, 1863; not mustered; discharged November 21, for wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. John W. Dissinger, September 2, 1862; promoted from sergeant September 21, 1864. Second lieutenant: Cyrus K. Campbell, September 1, 1862; commissioned first lieutenant July 4, 1863; not mustered; discharged March 9, 1863, for wounds received at Fredericksburg, Va., December 13, 1862.
One Hundred and Forty-third Regiment was, except Companies H and K, a Luzerne county regiment. Organized October 18, 1862. Colonel, Edmund L. Dana; lieutenant-colonel, George E. Hoyt; major, John D. Musser. Col. Dana was a veteran of the Mexican war, and his appointment was made without his knowledge. Soon after organization they moved to Harrisburg and to Washington. In February, 1863, went to Belle Plain, thence on the Rappahannock, below Fredericksburg. Next to Pollock's Run, where it was under fire while fighting was going on in Chancellorsville. On its way to the latter place was under fire on May 3 and 4. Went into camp on 8th at Falmouth. This command was in the first to reach Gettysburg, where it took up position July 1. Col. Dana soon was in command of a brigade, and Col. Musser of the regiment. The position the regiment held at Gettysburg was a most severe one, sustaining, repeated charges of the enemy, and was finally compelled to fall back. Among the killed in the three days' fighting here were Lieutenants Lee, D. Grover, Lyman R. Nicholson and Charles D. Betzinberger. Late in 1863 the regiment received 365 recruits. Lieut.-Col. Hoyt died in June, 1863, succeeded by Maj. Musser; Capt. Charles M. Conyngham became major. Early in May the regiment was sent to the Wilderness, and there Col. Dana was wounded and taken prisoner; Lieut.-Col. Musser was killed; Lieut. Michael Keenan was mortally wounded; Capts. Gordon and Little and Lieut. Kauff were taken prisoners. The regiment was in a severe action at Laurel Hill. Lieut. Charles H. Keelly was killed, and Maj. Conyngham wounded. The regiment was in the battle of Hanover Junction, crossed the James and marched for Petersburg on June 16. On the 18th, in a general advance on the enemy's works, Lieut. E. L. Griffin was mortally wounded. Col. Dana returned from imprisonment about the middle of September and took command. October 1 the regiment was in the expedition on the Vaughn road, and soon quartered in Fort Howard, until the movement on Hatcher's Run. It was with its division in a charge on the enemy, and in skirmishing. Early in December was on the Weldon raid, and succeeded in effecting the destruction of about twenty miles of the railroads and its fixtures, as well as rebel stores and other property. On the return of the corps from this raid the One Hundred and Forty-third was a portion of the rear guard, and was frequently attacked by the enemy's pursuing column. This was the last active service of the regiment during that year.
Early in February, 1865, the regiment participated in a movement against the enemy at Hatcher's Run, where the rebels and the Union troops were alternately driven. Capt. Gaylord was killed in this fight, and the regiment suffered greatly. Soon after this, with three other regiments in the same brigade, went north. It was placed on duty at the rendezvous on Hart island, in the East river, New York, and remained there during the remainder of its term of service; mustered out on June 12, 1865, and on its return to Wilkes-Barre was received with those marks of esteem to which its severe and efficient service in the field entitled it.
Col. Dana had suffered severely during his imprisonment, and was one of fifty imprisoned officers who were placed under the fire of the Union artillery at the city of Charleston. After his return, though holding the rank of a colonel, he was, during a long time, kept in command of his brigade. The officers of that brigade, [p.197] drew up and subscribed a memorial to the war department protesting against such injustice, and asking that he be promoted. This paper, from some cause, never reached the department, but on the facts of the case becoming known through other channels, he was brevetted a brigadier-general, and retained in the service on special duty till the following August.
Field and Staff Officers.—Colonel: Edmund L. Dana, November 18, 1862; wounded and captured at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; brevet brigadier-general, July 26, 1865; discharged August 18, 1865.
Lieutenant-colonels: George E. Hoyt, September 6, 1862; promoted from captain Company D November 8, 1862; died at Kingston, Pa., June 1, 1863; John D. Musser, October 1, 1862; promoted from first lieutenant Company K to major November 8, 1862; to lieutenant colonel June 2, 1863; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864; George N. Richard, August 27, 1862; promoted from captain Company C June 8, 1865.
Majors: C. M. Conyngham, August 26, 1862; promoted from captain Company A September 1, 1863; discharged July 26, for wounds received at Spottsylvania Courthouse May 12, 1864. Chester K. Hughes, October 18, 1862; promoted from captain Company I October 27, 1864; brevet lieutenant-colonel and colonel March 13. 1865.
Adjutants: John Jones, Jr., December 18, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate September 12, 1863. F. M. Shoemaker, October 31, 1863; discharged on surgeon's certificate, September 7, 1864. Charles H. Campbell, September 8, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant Company F, December 18, 1864.
Quartermasters: Milton Dana, November 18, 1862; promoted to captain and assistant quartermaster U. S. Volunteers May 17, 1865; mustered out May 19, 1866. William D. Warfel, September 6, 1862; promoted from private Company E to quartermaster-sergeant October 1, 1863; quartermaster June 5, 1865.
Surgeons: Francis C. Reamer, September 16, 1862; resigned February 3, 1865. C. E. Humphrey, May 25, 1863; promoted from assistant surgeon One Hundred and Forty-second Pennsylvania Volunteers March 22, 1865.
Assistant surgeons: James Fulton, August 20, 1862; transferred from One Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Volunteers November 18, 1862; discharged April 8, 1864. David L. Scott, September 18, 1862; discharged April 8, 1864. I. C. Hogendobler, April 27, 1864; promoted to assistant surgeon U. S. Volunteers September 7, 1864; brevet major; mustered out December 8, 1865. Edward Brobst, December 27, 1864.
Chaplain: Solomon W. Weiss. November 28, 1862; resigned April 30, 1863.
Sergeant-majors: Jacob W. Burke, September 6, 1862; promoted from sergeant Company D May 16, 1865. Patrick De Lacy, August 26, 1862; promoted from sergeant Company A October 6, 1864; second lieutenant Company D May 24, 1865. John M. Conner, August 27, 1862; promoted from first sergeant Company C December 1, 1863; first lieutenant Company B September 18, 1864. Wesley M. Cooper, August 15, 1862; promoted from sergeant Company K; transferred to Company K December 1, 1863. Alonzo S. Holden, August 26, 1862; promoted from sergeant Company A January 1, 1863; transferred to Company A July 1, 1863.
Quartermaster-sergeant: Elhannan W. Wert, September 6, 1862; promoted from private Company E to commissary sergeant July 17, 1864; to quartermaster sergeant June 6, 1865.
Commissary sergeants: Augustus Atherton, August 26, 1862; promoted from private Company B June 7, 1865. Myron S. Town, September 6, 1862; promoted from private Company H April 20, 1864; to quartermaster Forty-fifth U. S. C. T. July 21, 1864; mustered out November 4, 1865.
Hospital steward: Josiah L. Lewis, September 6, 1862; promoted from private Company E October 1, 1863.
[p.198] Company A.—Officers: Captains: C. M. Conyngham, promoted major September 1, 1863. Oliver K. Moore, promoted from first lieutenant September 16, 1863; resigned January 24, 1864. Charles C. Plotze, promoted from second to first lieutenant September 16, 1863; captain February 1, 1864. First lieutenants: Charles H. Riley, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant February 5, 1864; to first lieutenant February 5, 1864, killed at Wilderness, Va., May 10, 1864. Barton M. Stotler, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant April 21, 1864; first lieu- tenant September 25, 1864. First sergeants: Lee D. Groover, commissioned second lieutenant June 2, 1863; not mustered; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. William H. Bennett, promoted from corporal December 25, 1862; commissioned second lieutenant June 1, 1865; not mustered.
Company B.—Officers: Captains: Joseph H. Sornberger, discharged February 1, 1863. William G. Graham, promoted from first lieutenant February 4, 1863; discharged October 26, 1863. Jacob M. Lingfelter, promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant July 1, 1863; to first lieutenant February 9, 1864; to captain February 29, 1864. First lieutenants: Asher M. Fell, promoted from second lieutenant February 4, 1863; discharged December 3, 1863. Edward P. McCreery, September 6, 1862; promoted from sergeant Company I February 28, 1864; discharged May 5, 1864. John M. Connor, August 27, 1862; promoted from sergeant-major September 18, 1864. Second lieutenants: Paul R. Barrager, promoted from sergeant to first sergeant August 15, 1863; second lieutenant February 15, 1864; discharged July 29, 1864. Martin Chandler, promoted from corporal to sergeant October 6, 1863; first sergeant June 3, 1864; second lieutenant September 25, 1864.
Company C.—Officers: Captain: George N. Reichard, promoted to lieutenant- colonel June 8, 1865. First lieutenants—Charles B. Stout, discharged on surgeon's certificate November 7, 1864. Rufus W. Marcy, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant September 25, 1864; to first lieutenant November 28, 1864. Second lieutenants: John C. Cropp, killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. Max Burkhart, promoted from sergeant December 3, 1864.
Company D.—Officers: Captains: George E. Hoyt, promoted lieutenant-colonel November 8, 1862. Asher Gaylord, promoted from second lieutenant November 3, 1862; killed at Hatcher's Run, Va., February 7, 1865. Milton T. Bailey, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant February 12, 1864; captain May 20, 1865; prisoner from August 21, 1864, to February 22, 1865. First lieutenants: James A. Raub, resigned December 28, 1862. Hiram H. Travis, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant November 3, 1862; first lieutenant August 22, 1863; resigned December 29, 1863. George A. Reese, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant September 20, 1863; firstlieutenant January 22, 1864; discharged March 30, 1865. Wilbur F. Rice, promoted from first sergeant May 24, 1865; prisoner from July 1 to September 29, 1863. Second lieutenant: Patrick De Lacy, August 26, 1862; promoted from sergeant-major May 24, 1865. First sergeant: George N. Foster, promoted from sergeant May 22, 1865.
Company E.—Officers: Captain: M. Lewis Blain. First lieutenants: Zebulon M. Ward, resigned January 14, 1863. Ezra S. Griffin, promoted from second lieutenant January 30, 1863; died July 11, 1864, of wounds. H. N. Greenslitt, promoted from first sergeant to second lieutenant December 13, 1864; first lieutenant April 4, 1864. Second lieutenants: William La France, promoted from first sergeant February 2, 1862; commissioned first lieutenant July 27, 1864; not mustered; discharged November 16, 1864. Levi B. Tompkins, promoted from sergeant April 4, 1865. First sergeant: David C. Sterling, promoted from sergeant December 31, 1864.
Company F.—Officers: Captains: Henry M. Gordon, September 13, 1862; promoted from first lieutenant May 8, 1865. William A. Tubbs, September 13, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate April 15, 1864. First lieutenant: Robert P. [p.199] Crockett, September 13, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant June 23, 1864. Second lieutenants: Nathaniel J. M. Heck, September 13, 1862; promoted to sergeant December 1, 1862; to first sergeant; second lieutenant December 17, 1864. Charles H. Campbell, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant July 1, 1864; adjutant December 13, 1864. First sergeants: Hiram Campbell, promoted from corporal to sergeant February 28, 1863; first sergeant, December 17, 1864; David P. Good, died at Wind Mill Point, Va., June 7, 1863.
Company G.-Officers: Captains: Edward W. Wendell, November 16, 1862; discharged November l9, 1863. Daniel J. Morton, September 18, 1862, promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant March 15, 1864; captain September 25, 1864. First lieutenant: George Collings, October 10, 1862; promoted from second lieutenant November 1, 1863; commissioned captain November 20, 1863; not mustered; discharged August 8, 1864. L. R. Nicholson, September 18, 1862; died July 13 of wounds received at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Second lieutenants: Alfred Groff, September 18, 1862; promoted from sergeant November 1, 1863; discharged May 8, 1864. Frank H. Montonye, September 18, 1862; promoted from private to sergeant June 22, 1863; first sergeant; second lieutenant December 2, 1864.
Company L—Officers: Captains: Chester K. Hughes, October 18, 1862; promoted major October 27, 1864; Harlow Potter, September 20, 1862; promoted from corporal to sergeant December 1, 1863; from first sergeant to first lieutenant January 2, 1865; captain April 15, 1865. First lieutenants: Thomas Davenport, September 20, 1862; discharged on surgeon's certificate October 21, 1864. William H. Blain, September 20, 1862; promoted from private to corporal November 1, 1863; sergeant February 29, 1864; first sergeant April 15, 1865. Second lieutenants: Samuel F. McKee, October 18, 1862; promoted adjutant One Hundred and Forty- seventh Pennsylvania December 6, 1862. C. W. Betzenberger, September 20, 1862; promoted from sergeant January 1, 1863; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 1, 1863. Jairus Kauff, September 20, 1862; promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant September 1, 1863; commissioned captain October 15, 1864; not mustered; captured; died at Columbia, S. C., October 31, 1864.
Bucktail brigade.—There were several men in the Bucktail regiment—the One Hundred and Forty-ninth-from Luzerne county.
One Hundred and Sixty-third Regiment contained several squads recruited from Luzerne.
One Hundred and Seventy-seventh Regiment also had a number of Luzerne men, though no one separate command or company.
One Hundred and Seventy-eighth Regiment.—In this command was Company C, drafted new from Luzerne county. The regiment was organized in December, 1862. From which date it may be seen that drafting in this county occurred in the early part of the war.
One Hundred and Ninety-fourth Regiment (100 days' men) was partly obtained from Luzerne; organized July 24, 1864.