History of Lawrence County Pennsylvania, 1887

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[p. 2]
Many of the best citizens of Lawrence county have repeatedly urged the News Company to issue a short, cheap history of the towns of Lawrence county, which would combine as well, a history of the city of New Castle and a short resume of the business men of the county at the present time, together with biographies of prominent citizens. After due consideration it was decided to attempt the work, and a reporter of the paper was detailed to gather the information and arrange the work for publication. To those who so kindly assisted him in his efforts he returns thanks. The book contains a short account of the founding of the county from Beaver and Mercer counties, the first officers of the county; an excellent article from the pen of Hon. John W. Wallace on the geological stratification of the county showing its resources; a history of New Castle down to the present time, with biographies of the officers of the city, with histories of the representative business houses of the present day. The history of the railroads, iron works, fire and police department, water works, churches, public buildings, etc., will be found in the book in their respective places. In presenting the book to the people of Lawrence county we have no apologies to make. But simply say that we have endeavored to give an accurate history of the towns of Lawrence county and the city of New Castle.



[p. 3]
The Land now forming Lawrence county was formerly a part of Beaver and Mercer counties, but after much agitation a new county was formed in the spring of 1849 by an act of the General Assembly, which was named Lawrence in honor of Commodore Lawrence, who uttered the heroic words "Don't Give Up The Ship." The people of New Castle were greatly rejoiced at the passage of the bill. The dividing line between Mercer and Beaver counties had run directly through the city of New Castle, and the matter of attending court at Beaver and Mercer had been a great inconvenience to them. Henry PEARSON was selected as surveyor by the State Commissioners, and he appointed Lot WATSON and Harry TIDBALL chain bearers, with Hon. Henry C. FALLS as axeman. Warner PEARSON, son of Henry PEARSON, then a lad of eleven years, accompanied the party in the survey, which occupied about five weeks. Representatives of Beaver and Mercer counties also accompanied the surveyor. The contract for the erection of the court house, jail, etc., was given to James MCCREARY and William HAMILTON in 1850 and the work was completed in 1852. The total cost of the buildings was about $35,000. The area of Lawrence county was about equivalent to a square of 19 miles, and would therefore contain 361 square miles or 231,040 acres. The population of the county at that time was by the United States census 21,079, with 132 colored people. The population of New Castle was 1,614. In 1860 the population of the county had increased a little over a thousand and the city numbered 1,882 inhabitants. In 1870 Lawrence county had a population of 27, 298, and the city of New Castle 6,164 inhabitants. The first general election held in the county took place in the fall of 1849, and the following were the officers chosen: Sheriff, David EMERY; Prothonotary and Clerk of Courts, James D. CLARKE; Treasurer, Joseph JUSTICE; Register and Recorder, James MCCLANE; Commissioners, John K. SWISHER, John RANDOPH and James OLIVER; County Auditors, Isaac P. ROSE, Wm. WORK and A. GALLOWAY; Coroner, John L. WARNOCK. Hon. James BREIDIN was President Judge of the county, and Hons. Jacob BEAR and Chas. WHIPPO Associates. The [p. 4] first election for judges took place October 14, 1851, and Hon. Daniel AGNEW, Ex-Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was elected President Judge, and Jno. REYNOLDS and Jas. HENRY Associates. The other President Judges of Lawrence county have been Hon. L. L. MCGUFFIN, Hon. Ebenezer MCJUNKIN, with Hon. James BREDIN Law Judge. The present incumbents are Hon. Aaron L. HAZEN, President Judge, who resides in Butler, and Hon. John MCMICHAEL, Law Judge, who resides here.

The Associate Judges have been Hons. Thomas POMEROY [three terms], Samuel VAN HORN, James MCCLANE, Samuel TAYLOR, [two terms], James P. AIKEN, Robert COCHRAN, who died in office and John MCCONNEL who was appointed to fill out his term. The Present Associate Judges are Hon. Robert J. FULKERSON AND Hon. T.W. WILLIAMSON, who took the oath of office in January, 1887.

The following is a list of the persons who have held the office of Sheriff in Lawrence county since its organization: David EMERY, Andrew B. ALLEN, Robert GAILEY, Silas STEVENSON, Andrew B. ALLEN, Thomas MCCONNELL, David C. RHODES, James DAVIS (died in office and his brother William P. DAVIS was appointed by the court to serve out the unexpired time), James Harvey COOPER, William B. MILLER, Alexander RICHARDSON, Wm. F. DOUDS, and William G. WARNOCK the present incumbent.

The State Senators have been Hon. William FRANCIS, Hon. John FERGUSON, Hon. John W. WALLACE, in 1860, Hon. William McCLELLAND, in 1872, Hon. John W. WALLACE, in 1874, and Colonel Oscar L. JACKSON, in 1884-86.

Lawrence county became a separate representative district in 1871, and under that Act became entitled to two Representatives.

The first court held in the county convened in the First M.E. church in New Castle, on Monday, January 7th, 1850, with Hon. John BREDIN on the bench. D.B. KURTZ, Esq., a member of the bar of New Castle, is the only surviving attorney in the city who was admitted to practice at the bar at that time.

At the time of the organization of the county it was divided into thirteen townships. They were Pulaski, Washington, Slipperyrock, North Slipperyrock, Mahoning, Neshannock, North Beaver, Big Beaver, Little Beaver, Shenango, Wayne, Perry and North Sewickley. Pulaski, Washington, North Slipperyrock, Mahoning and Neshannock were a part of Mercer county and the remaining came from Beaver county. There have been many changes since 1849. North Slipperyrock has been divided and Washington and Scott townships formed out of the divisions. In 1855, Plaingrove township was formed from Scott and Washington townships. Union township was formed from Mahoning, Neshannock and Taylor townships. Taylor was the first new township formed. Hickory township was formed from Neshannock township in 1859.

The territory composing Lawrence county was once inhabited by the red man, and many relics of the Indian are still found in various parts of the county. Evidences that the pre-historic race, the "Mound Builders," once inhabited these parts are also to be found in the county. A mound [p. 5] was opened near Edenburg some years ago which contained skeletons, earthenware of curious design and different implements used by the "Mound Builders." As far back as 1770 missionaries came to this county and established a mission at or near Moravia.

The first white man who visited this section was Christopher GRIST, who is supposed to have arrived here on an exploring expedition in 1750. A Moravian missionary visited the territory comprising Lawrence county in 1758 for the purpose of founding a mission, but for some reason or other gave up the project. The Moravian missionaries after their settlement in the county in 1770, left for Ohio about the close of the century, and the first real white settlers in these parts was a party of forty-five persons who came from Allegheny county, intending to settle on the Mahoning river between Edenburg and Mahoningtown. Some dissatisfaction arose and but seventeen of the number remained in the county. Other settlements were made in the county between 1795 and 1800.

When this region was first settled the only means of getting around was by following Indian trails, which generally followed the larger streams. A complete trail was discovered up the Mahoning to Youngstown and to Pittsburgh.

The Erie Canal was completed through New Castle in 1833 and opened for business. The Ohio division, running south of New Castle, was completed in 1838. The canal was the only means of carrying freight and passengers until 1864 when the Erie and Pittsburgh (or Beaver Valley R.R.) was completed through the county, and opened to the general public. Lawrence county is now traversed by a number of railroads. Erie & Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago have about four miles of track, the Erie & Pittsburgh, twenty-six miles, the Ashtabula, Youngstown & Pittsburgh, ten miles; the Buffalo, New York & Philadelphia, twelve miles; the Western, about twenty-six miles and coal roads about ten, making in all about one hundred and ten miles of railroad.

The citizens of Lawrence county are an industrious, frugal class of people. During the war of the rebellion the patriotism of the people was put to the severest test, and nobly did they responded to the call for soldiers. For its size Lawrence was the banner county of the State in its aid to assist the Government in putting down the rebellion. The land is first-class for agricultural pursuits while the county abounds in minerals. The population by the last census is 33,312, of which New Castle has about 12,000.

The present officers of the county are: - President Judge, Hon. Aaron L. HAZEN; Law Judge, Hon. John MCMICHAEL; Associate Judges, Hon. Robert J. FULKERSON and Hon. T.W. WILLIAMSON; Sheriff, William G. WARNOCK; Deputy Sheriffs, Charles L. WARNOCK and W.F. DOUDS; Detective, Stephen B. MARSHALL; Prothonotary, D.I. CAMPBELL; County Commissioners, Robert MEHARD, J.M. LONG AND George B. GIBSON; County Treasurer, Martin HARTMAN; Auditors, R.M. ECKLES, Jesse LOCKE and J.M. STERLING; Register and Recorder, Wm. F. LEATHERS; District Attorney, S.L. MCCRACKEN; County Surveyor, R.H. MCCONAHY. [p. 6] County School Superintendent, Prof. J. R. SHERRARD; Members of Assembly, Hon. Silas STEVENSON and Hon. Henry EDWARDS.

The following article from the pen of Hon. John W. WALLACE, of New Castle on "The Resources and Industries of Lawrence County", will be read with interest:-

Considerable time has been given to the collection of the following facts which I shall present, and are as reliable as can be obtained after a careful examination of data touching our mining and manufacturing interests.

The bill creating a county to be called Lawrence out of the northern part of Beaver and the southern part of Mercer, passed both Houses in March and was signed by the Governor on the 5th day of April, 1849. Lawrence is in the middle of the tier of counties adjoining the eastern border of the State of Ohio. It is small in area, being about 19 miles square, containing about 360 square miles or 230,000 acres.


The territory has good drainage south through the Beaver river and its tributaries, to-wit: The Mahoning river on its western border; the Shenango and Neshannock through the central portion and the Slipperyrock and Connoquenessing on the eastern side.


The soil is warm and dry and for grazing and farming purposes is of a superior quality. The northern portion is covered with the "drift" which contains the Devonian and Silurian limestones, together with felspar and gneiss, which weather down and keep the land in excellent condition for the production of wheat, corn, oats and grass. The southern half is almost entirely overlaid with the ferriferous limestone, which being disintegrated by the rains and the frosts, repair the crop waste in a great measure. The bluegrass of the limestone soil produces a fine quality of wool. The staple is quite equal to that grown in the county of Washington. The county is noted for the variety and quality of its fruit. Large quantities of apples are shipped annually to the city of New York, and have acquired a reputation for quality beyond those of any county in the State. Good, wholesome water abounds throughout its territory. The health of the people is above average; zymotic diseases do not prevail to any marked extent, and as a rule do not assume a malignant type.


Shortly after its organization the county subscribed $350,000 to two railroads which were never completed, and during the war issued besides $340,000 bounty bonds. After the close of the war when an audit was made, it was found that the indebtedness of the county consisting of railroad and bounty bonds and coupons due and debt for construction of Court House and prison, amounted to $1,000,000. Since that time the entire debt has been paid, and the county to-day does not owe one dollar. [p. 7] The city of New Castle has a small debt for the construction of her city buildings, but which is being rapidly liquidated.


The territory of the county is embraced in the lower coal measure of the carboniferous formation. The geological strata dip from the north southward about ten degrees west of south, at the rate of from ten to fifteen feet per mile. For instance, the dip of the ferriferous limestone, which has an average thickness of fifteen feet, and consequently is very conspicuous and becomes a great topographical finger board, can be traced from the hills along the Mahoning, and from the hill tops in the mouth of the Beaver it passes underneath the bed of the Ohio river. it will be seen then that the southern part of the county, which is spoken of as the lowest, is in fact geologically the highest, and the high grounds up north of the county, are geologically the lowest.

From the ferriferous limestone up to the Brush creek coal on the high hills along the Slipperyrock, in Perry township, according to Professor White, is a distance of 312 feet, and there are in many places 50 feet of covering above the coal, making a distance of 302 feet from the limestone up to the highest point in Perry township; and from the limestone on the top of the hills in Mahoning township, down to the bed of the Mahoning river near Quakertown, the distance is given at 390 feet, making an exposure of strata in Lawrence county equal to a vertical section of 752 feet.


For much of the data upon which the following statements are made touching the mineral resources of the county, I am indebted to Professor I.C. WHITE, Assistant Geologist of the State. Within the 752 perpendicular feet of strata exposed in the county, there are thirteen separate or individual veins of coal. These veins are correlated in the following order, counting from the highest geological elevation down, to wit: Brush Creek, Freeport upper, Freeport Lower, Darlington, Kittaning, Scrubgrass, Clarion, Brookville, Tionesta, Mercer Upper, Mercer Lower, Quakertown and Sharon.

Different geological altitudes contain different coals. The Darlington is the most valuable and also the most persistent, extending over half of the county. The other veins are less persistent, and in many cases have a few high points which catch the Brush creek; they also have workable veins of Freeport Lower, Darlington, Kittanning and Mercer Upper; Big Beaver has Freeport Upper, 6 feet; Freeport Lower, 4 feet, and Darlington 3 feet. Little Beaver contains Freeport Lower, 4 feet good coal. Darlington 2 feet 9 inches, and Kittanning 2 feet. North beaver embraces the Freeport Lower, Darlington, Kittanning, Clarion, Brookville and Tionesta. Slipperyrock, Shenango, Taylor and Union have Darlington, Kittanning, Clarion and Tionesta. Hickory, Scott, Plaingrove and Washington embrace Darlington, Kittanning, Scrubgrass, Clarion, Brookville, Tionesta and Mercer Upper. Neshannock and Ma- [p. 8] honing have the Darlington, Kittanning, Clarion and Brookville, and Mahoning has the Quakertown. Pulaski and Wilmington are geologically low, and contain Tionesta, Mercer Upper, Mercer Lower and a small area of the Sharon coal.

The county is rich in iron ore. The most extensive and valuable beds are the calcareous or blue ore, and Hematite or sesqui-oxide. The calcareous ore is found in the shales between the Piedmont and Connoquenessing sandstones. It varies in thickness from a few inches to three feet. It is a 40 per cent, ore, and makes cold short metal. The Hematite or sesqui-oxide is a very valuable vein, and is found immediately upon the ferriferous limestone. It is a 45 per cent ore and makes a red short iron, and is usually from 1 to 4 feet in thickness. In many places, however, where the limestone is worn away, large pots are found. In Shenango township for example on the David HOUK farm, there was a pot 22 feet in thickness, from which 50,000 tons were mined. The county contains millions of tons of iron ore.

The Freeport and Mercer limestones exist in many places, but the most distinguished stratum is the ferriferous bed, which is from 10 to 25 feet in thickness and extends over two-thirds of the county. It is practically inexhaustible. Fire and brick clays of good quality are found between the upper and lower sandstones on No. XII. The Tionesta rock furnishes first-class building stone, which resists erosion by frosts and rains remarkably well. It is the same white, compact sandstone from which the excellent window glass is manufactured by the glass manufacturers.

Oil has been obtained from several localities. A number of wells along the Mahoning river have yielded ten barrels a day. Several wells on the Slipperyrock have produced considerable quantities; the Lawrence well produced at least 40,000 barrels. The oil obtained is valuable for lubricating purposes, bringing from $3 to $4 per barrel when other oils were selling for less than one dollar.


Having referred to the mineral resources of the county, which, in quantity and variety, are not surpassed by the same extent of territory in any part of the state we shall now call your attention to our railroad facilities. New Castle has become a very important railroad centre. From this city lines of railways are in operation running north, south, east and west, and are in lively competition for the carrying trade of the city and county.

New Castle has direct communication with the great Pennsylvania system of railroads, and the Vanderbuilt roads, Baltimore & Ohio, New York, Lake Erie & Western, Buffalo, New York and Philadelphia railways, all centering in this place, giving New Castle competing lines in every direction.


With such a showing of mineral wealth and advantages of railroad facilities the question might be pertinently asked: "What has been done?" We answer our people have not been idle. [p. 9]

For twenty years, coal has been mined in several localities to a considerable extent and shipped chiefly to the lake. At the present time, the Penn Coal Co., composed of gentlemen of this city, are mining the Darlington coal in Neshannock, and are shipping about 150 tons per day and employ from 65 to 85 miners. The New Castle Railroad and Mining Co., composed also of New Castle men, and managed by Mr. George PEARSON, are operating in the same locality, and have about the same number of hands and the shipments about the same. Several smaller operations are conducted in Neshannock, and take out in the aggregate a considerable quantity, but we have not the data to fix the amount. Scott & Co., embracing Scott, Crawford and Hoyt have been carrying on mining operations in Big Beaver for a number of years, a portion of their coal lands are across the line in Beaver county. This company, managed b Mr. L.S. HOYT, is shipping over 300 tons daily, and employ 150 hands. The Clinton Coal Co., managed by Albert G. HARBISON, are also mining the Darlington coal, and ship from 225 to 250 tons per day and work from 80 to 100 miners and hands. Lee & Patterson are mining the same coal and engage about the same number of miners. The mining operations on Major John DAVIDSON's farm during the past year have been suspended. Several parties are mining in Shenango, the Darlington coal, of an excellent quality, a portion of which is handled by Mr. BURTON and Messrs. MCMILLIN of this city. Travers & Son employ a number of men at their mines near Parkston. Their's is the Kittanning coal, not so easily ignited, but a good, durable coal. The same is mined in Neshannock by J.J. COOK.

The Hametite or sesqui-oxide iron ore, is mined largely in Shenango, Wayne and Slipperyrock. The ore is brought to New Castle, or shipped up the valley of the Mahoning.

A company of Youngstown gentlemen three or four years ago constructed a railway from Chewton to the mines in Shenango at a cost of $40,000, and have taken out a large quantity of ore. In many of the mines the ore is 4 to 10 feet thick and in one deposit the ore was 22 feet in thickness, from which 50,000 tons were taken out. A number of smaller mines are being operated in Wayne and Slipperyrock.

What the coke of Fayette, Westmoreland and Blair is to Pittsburgh and the surrounding country, so the limestone of Lawrence is to Pittsburgh and the Mahoning and Shenango Valleys. The limestone is practically inexhausible. It is of a superior quality, yielding on analysis 93 1/2 per cent of carbonate lime. Mr. Benjamin CROWTHER, of Pittsburgh, informs me that Pittsburgh alone consumes over 400,000 tons per annum, and that it can be delivered in that city from Lawrence at rates from 15 to 20 cents per ton less than from any other locality. The trade of limestone is assuming large proportions and increasing rapidly.

Marquis and Johnston are mining and shipping from their mines in the vicinity of New Castle 1,000 tons daily. During 1882 they took out of their mines 224,830 tons. They employ 210 miners. The Lawrence Lime Co., composed of the same gentlemen and the Carnaegie Brothers of Pittsburgh, are mining 200 tons daily from their mines in Mahoning.

The Croton Lime Co., Pearson Brothers, of New Castle, and Pierce [p. 10] Brothers, of Sharpsville, take out 60,000 tons per annum, and employ from 40 to 60 hands.

Isabella Limestone Co. mine in Wayne, on the Pittsburgh & Western road, 60,000 tons per annum and require 50 miners.

Kirkland, Fisher & Co. employ thirty men and have a contract to deliver in Pittsburgh 100 tons per day. This company are also operating two iron jacket limestone kilns for making merchant lime. Hunter & Lafferty have a contract for 100 tons daily, and employ the same number of men, and have two iron jacket lime kilns. Negleys are operating in Wayne, and have a contract for the delivery of 100 tons per day. Each of these companies expects to increase its production soon to 2000 to 300 tons daily. The following companies and parties operating in limestone in Lawrence, to whom I have written for statistics, but as yet have not reported, to-wit: Erskenes & Co., Youngstown, O.; Himrod Furnace Co, Youngtown; Carbon Limestone Co., Youngstown; Briar Hill Iron Co., Youngstown; Griest & Graham, Lowellville, Ohio; the Andrew's mines at Moravia, and John MCALLASTER, Moravia. John K. SHINN & Co., have five iron jacket lime kilns and four stone lime kilns at Wampum, which yield 120,000 bushels of merchant lime annually. Making a reasonable estimate f the seven mines not reported at a total of 600 tons daily, the grand total of limestone mined per annum in this county would not be less than 700,000 tons - not including that taken out for merchant lime.

The Tionesta sandstone extends through the southern half of the county, and is quarried and shipped to Pittsburgh, and as far east as New Jersey and New York. It is a superior stone for building purposes, hardens on exposure and resists the disintegrating action of frosts and rains better than any sandstone known. The quarries afford considerable tonnage to the railroads.


New Castle has within its city limits six large blast furnaces - four in operation. The Neshannock furnace, owned by Crawford Iron and Steel Co, composed of A.L. CRAWFORD, R.W. CUNNINGHAM, and Wm. PATTERSON, made an output in January, 1887, of 4,444 tons of metal. The two furnaces owned by the Etna Iron Works Co., composed of P.L. KIMBERLY and others, and the Raney & Berger furnace each produce about an equal amount, making in all about 15,000 tons monthly, or annually a production of 180,000 tons. It requires about five tons of ore, limestone, coke, etc., to make one ton of metal, which would make a tonnage brought in of 900,000 tons, to which add the 180,000 tons of metal to be shipped away, would make a railway tonnage of 1,080,000 tons furnished by these four furnaces. One of the other two furnaces is undergoing repairs, preparatory to going into blast. The other is a new furnace not yet blown in.

The Etna Iron Works make 6,000 tons of finished bar iron and 120,000 kegs of nails per annum, employing 300 hands. Pay roll of mill and furnaces, $25,000 per month.

The Sheet Mill of P.L. KIMBERLY has been making 700 tons of finished [p. 11] sheet iron per month, or 8,400 tons per year, and gives employment to 250 men.

James P. WITHEROW's extensive works for manufacturing boilers, WHITEWELL's hot blast stoves, blast furnace engines, and all kinds of furnace and mill machinery, under the management of Henry S. PELL, employ 300 men in their shops here, and pay out an average annually of $150,000. The shipments amount to a tonnage of 7,000 tons of blast furnace and sheet plant manufactured products. Mr. WITHEROW is at present engaged in the construction of blast furnaces at Troy, New York, Saxon, Pa., Bellefonte, Pa., Pulaski Co., Va., Birmingham, Alabama, Sheffield, Ala., South Pittsburgh, Tenn., and Colebroke, Pa. He is also constructing steel plants at Danville, Pa., Sharpsburg, Pa., West Wareham, Massachusetts, and Hammond, Ind. Four hundred men more are employed in putting up and superintending the respective plants and furnaces in the several localities named.

The Steel Wire and Wire Nail Works are a new enterprise. These extensive plants were erected during 1886 by the New Castle Wire Nail Co., composed of Wm. PATTERSON, R.W. CUNNINGHAM, John STEVENSON, Jr., Rufus PETERSON AND J.P.H. CUNNINGHAM. The business is under the efficient management of John STEVENSON, Jr. The plants are constructed o brick in the most substantial manner, and are considered among the best of the kind in the United States. Thirty nail machines are now in operation and twenty-five more to be put up. The nail works at present are running on single turn and are making per day 150 kegs of nails. When all the machines are in operation the capacity will be 400 kegs daily. All sizes of nails are made from three-eighths to ten inches in length and varying thickness according to the purpose intended. When running full will employ about 200 hands. The annual value of product should be about $400,000 a year. Steel nails are fast obtaining popularity and the time will soon come when they will entirely supersede the common nail. The wire works are double the capacity of the nail works.

A large paper mill on the Neshannock is doing a good business. The production amounts to three tons daily.

Vulcan Brass and Iron Foundry Co., composed of Mann, Watson & Plant, manufacture rolling mill and blast furnace castings, rolls of large size, car wheels, etc., and employ from 20 to 25 machinists and workmen. There are three large machine works, two operated by R.W. & J.P.H. CUNNINGHAM. One shop is almost entirely engaged in making the Bryson turbine water wheel, the other does the ordinary machine work, such as grist and saw mill machinery. The works give employment to 30 or 35 machinists and laborers.

J.R. SHAW & Son do a large business of manufacturing engines and mill machinery. They engage 25 workmen.

The city contains 4 foundries - J.R. SHAW & Son, R.W. CUNNINGHAM & Co., New Castle Plow Works and Baldwin and Graham. The first three make stoves, plows and do most all kinds of work, and employ a number of men. Baldwin and Graham, late of Pittsburgh, have extensive works and are engaged exclusively in stoves, which are shipped to all parts of [p. 12] the United States. They furnish employment to from 80 to 90 moulders.

The city has also three large glass factories. The Croton Glass Works, conducted by Mr. HENRY and other New Castle capitalists, the Union Glass Works, by Messrs. HOLTON & JONES, and the Shenango Glass Works by Knox, Fultz & Co. The glass is made from the Tionesta sandstone and is of such superior quality as to command a ready market. They are all of the same capacity 10 pot furnaces. In the aggregate they make in a ten months' run 126,000 boxes of glass, worth about $300,000, and give employment to 240 men.

Four roller flouring mills, latest improvements, merchant work, to wit: Raney & Gordon, Raney & Co., J.C. WILSON & Co. and Pearson Capacity each from 100 to 150 barrels.

Five large planing mills and door, sash and bracket factories - C.M. CRAWFORD & Co., Stevenson, Craig & Co., J.L. HAMILTON, J.H. PRESTON and J.J. GOURLEY. Each consumes about 400 car loads of lumber annually and employ from 20 to 30 hands.

Two breweries Chris KOCH and Adam TRESER; capacity of each about the same, each makes 3,500 barrels of beer.

A number of smaller industries are here - keg factories, gunsmiths, three carriage factories - one operated by Mr. RUMMEL does a large business steam laundry, shirt factory, fire brick kilns. Messrs. MARQUIS & JOHNSTON have an establishment for grinding fire clay, for laying cement, grinding rock sand, etc.

A number of industries are found throughout the county, to-wit: - Several merchant flouring mills, the Wampum Cement Works, Wampum, conducted by a company, and is a growing business. This cement is of an excellent quality, made by the same process as the English Portland cement. The production per annum is twenty-five thousand barrels each of 400 pounds. The work requires the services of from 50 to 60 men. Moravia, spoke and handle factory. In Pulaski, Reno Brothers have a chemical plant factory. This paint is shipped principally to the New England States. James F. SCOTT & Co have a planing mill and door and sash factory; Mr. FIELDS a stave factory. All do considerable business.

Natural gas brought from the western part of Butler county is used as fuel in all the manufacturing establishments in the city, as well as for domestic purposes.

When we sum up the results of our mining operations, and the products of our extensive and various manufacturing industries, the magnitude of the tonnage is a matter of surprise even to ourselves. When we take a survey of the facts it is easily understood why it is that the railroad men are pushing their lines to this point - till New Castle has become an important railroad centre, and our valleys have become literally covered with steel rails.

New Castle has a population of about 14,000 - is provided with water and gas, has good banking facilities, is well supplied with excellent hotels, and no town in Pennsylvania or Ohio of 20,000 can present such fine blocks of business houses.

The valleys of the Beaver, Mahoning and Shenango are the richest in the State. No portion of those valleys is so well cultivated and so pro- [p. 13] ductive as that surrounding our city, which gives us the benefit of a good market.

No point will compare with this in the variety, quantity and quality of its mineral resources. These superior advantages will soon make New Castle a great manufacturing centre, and as certainly make her the leading city of these prosperous valleys.

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Updated 22 Feb 2000, 08:50