Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink.
THE MILITARY EXPEDITION OF MAJOR GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN
AGAINST THE SIX NATIONS OF INDIANS
WITH RECORDS OF CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS
Prepared Pursuant to Chapter 361, Laws of the State of New York, of 1885.
Frederick Cook, Secretary of State
Auburn, N. Y. Knapp, Peck & Thompson Printers
[Transcription is verbatim.]
JOURNAL OF ENSIGN DANIEL GOOKIN.
Daniel Gookin, Ensign in Second New Hampshire Regiment. He was the son of Rev. Nathaniel Gookin of Northampton N. H., born March 2, 1756; was commissioned as Captain after the war from Oct. 20, 1786. In 1809 was appointed a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and in Dec. 1815, Judge of Probate, which office he held until constitutionally disqualified by age. He was an active member of the county Agricultural Society and of the New Hampshire Cincinnati. He died Sept 4, 1831. A portion of his Journal, from May 4 to September 5, 1779, was published in Vol XVI, No 1, New England Hist. and Gen'l Register, January, 1862.
"Journal of March from North Hampton, N. Hampshire, in the year 1779," by Daniel Gookin of that place.
Tuesday, May 4, '79. Set out from N. Hampton for the army. Lodged at Andover, Mr. Adams, 30 miles.
5. Thro' Tukesbury, Bilrica, Bedford, Concord, Malborough to Landlord Sawings, 38 miles.
6. Marched thro' Northborough, Salsbury, Woster, Leister, Spencer, Brookfield. Lodged at Landlord Coley, 35 miles.
7. Marched thro' Weston, Palmer, Wilbraham to Springfield. Lodged at Landlord Cottons, 32 miles.
8. Thro' Suffield (at this place my dog Bark left me) to Simesbury, 22 miles.
9. Sunday. Thro' Harrington to Litchfield. Landlord Thomsons at the Gaol, 25,
10. Washington, New Milford to pinch gut. Lodged at Camps Tavern. 24 miles.
11. Marched thro' Danbury to Ridgfield. Lodged at Keeler's tavern, 18 miles.
12. Wednesday, thro' Salem (this is in New York) Courtlandt's manor, correspond to Soldier's Fortune, 6 miles above Peekskill where the regt was encamped, 30 miles.
13, 14, 15, 16. Staid at Soldier's Fortune.
17. Marched from our encampment thro' Fishkill, crossed North River. Lodged at Newburg, 21 m. Here Gen. Poor over took us.
18. Marched thro' New Windsor to Bethlam, 9 miles.
19. to Chester, 12 miles.
20. to Warick, 14 miles.
21. Rainy Day, did not march, this place is 4 miles in the Jersey.
22. Did not march.
23. To Sussex Court House, here are four or five houses, very good, but the houses from North River to this place are small, the country mountainous, the valleys fertile, bearing large crops of wheat and rye, the men do but little work, and the women great sluts, marched 22 miles.
 24. Marched to Hope, a small moravian town where there is one of the finest mills I ever saw, built of stone, the sluce way of this mill is cut thro' stone 800 feet in length, 30 feet deep in some places.
25. Marched within 5 miles of Easton, encamped in Woods, marched in 19 miles.
26. Marched into Easton 5 miles, this town lies on the west side of Delaware river, 60 miles by land above Philadelphia; this town is very pleasantly situated on the Delaware and Lehi, the river runs thro' Bethlehem; they have a fine Stone Church and Court House which lie in the centre of the town and a Stone Gaol; the inhabitants German, buildings most of them stone.
27, 28. We encamped on the Banks of the river Lehi. Bethlehem lies 12 miles up this river.
29, 30. Went to church, heard a sermon in Dutch, saw the Priest administer the Sacrament, there was boys belonging to this church not more than twelve years old; their manner of administering the sacrament is first the men come around the altar, the minister takes small white wafers about as big as a copper which he puts into their mouths speaking to every one, the same with the wine, the organ going all the time and people singing. Sunday afternoon went to church, heard sermon preached by Jersey Chaplain.
31. I [? ] & Rec'd one Hundred Dollars of Capt. Fogg.
JUNE 1, '79. Rec'd this day a certificate from the State of New Hampshire, appointing me an ensign in Col. Reids Regt. to take Rank from 6 May, 1777.
2, 3. On Court martial.
7. Bought of Capt. Carr a Hanger for one hundred and fifty Dollars. Borrowed of Capt. Fogg 200 Dols.
14. Heard of the Victory Genl Lincoln gained over the British at Charleston, S. Carolina. Fired a fuze de joy on the Occasion.
18. Marched from Easton to Hilerston, 12 miles and encamped.
19. To Poconoco Mount, Point Lawrence. To wain 17 miles. Country all mountainous and Barren.
20, 21, 22, 23. Marched thro' Long Swamp to Wyoming 36 miles, there is one house 7 miles from this (no inhabitants) that is all for 36 miles back.
24. On guard. Provisions scant, Beef very poor; there has been a large quantity condemned.
26. Indians discovered last night near one of our piquets.
27. Removed our camp to the west side of the river, about 3 miles up; this is allowed by judges to be the best land they ever saw and sure I am that I never saw an equal to it, our garden spots in New Hampshire not excepted, the interval surpasses all description; the river Susquehanna on which this lies, abounds with fish, shad in great plenty in the spring, as they go up to spawn, and the shores are covered with these fish which have died up the river, thro' their too long stay in Fresh water. The land at present is unimproved, the inhabitants being killed in an engagement with the Indians and Torys, last summer. 300 were killed and scalped at one time.
29. Mr Bell arrived from N. Hampshire.
30. Our men went out this day gunning, saw deer and wild Turkey, killed none; this country has a mountain which affords excellent stone-cole; our blacksmith told me its almost equal to Newcastel Cole.
JULY 5, 1779. This day Genl Poor gave a genl invitation to the officers of his Brigade to dine with him in commemoration of American Independence (the fourth being Sunday) we had an elegant entertainment. A number of patriotick [toasts] drank, &c. &c.
6. This day a shower rose in the East and rained very hard with thunder & hail, the hail was as big as pullets egg.
12. Received Commission as an Ensign in the 2d N. Hampshire Regt giving me Rank as Ensign from the 6 of May, 1777; my warrant I rec'd at Easton.
21. The Genl congratulates the Army on the success of our arms at Stoney Point, this newes he received by letter from one of Genl Washington's Family, the following is an extract: (to wit.) Brigadier Genl Wayne with part of the light Troop surprised and took  Prisoners the whole of the garrison at Stony Point, all the cannons, stores, mortar, howitzers tents, baggage, &c. &c. without the loss of more than four or five men, no officers killed or badly wounded; if this story turns out as true as the news from Genl Lincoln did, Amen for orders. Mr Bell being on detachment with Colo. Reid at Brinker's Mills by Major Titcombs desire I did Adgts duty from the 10 &c. &c. drew very bad provisions it being that which was condemned some time past all the alteration in it is that it has been smoked which takes out some of the ugly smell but the juice of the grape continues in it yet. Owing to the badness of the Provision some of our officers and men are sick.
28. Colo Reid & Mr Bell & the Detachments that went with him, arrived at Camp, drew our horses, making all the preparations possible for a march up the river. Agreeable to Genl orders we moved down yesterday from Forty Fort to Wyoming.
31. Marched from Wyoming to Leighawaneuch, our baggage was carried on pack horses provided for that purpose. 9 miles.
AUGUST 1st. By reason of the boats not getting up the river, we did not march till three o Clock in the afternoon. Marched to Quilutimack. 4 miles.
2. Our moving so late from Leighawanock yesterday, and the badness of the roads, several of the pack horses (with flour and other stores over set) which put us under the fatal necessity of tarrying all this day and night at this Post.
3. Marched at Seven oclock in the morning over a very mountainous country to Tunck Hanich twelves miles, our baggage arrived safe this night, one of our men catched a wild turkey and another a deer both of them alive, the deer attempted to run thro' the troops but got grabbed; not very well, up last night on guard &c. &c. Crosd several very fine streams in our march this day, (or rather) waded thro' them.
4. Marched at six o'clock in the morning, the country much the same as yesterday untill we arrived within about 3 miles of this Encampment when we come to most excellent land on the interval, there were black walnut trees four feet through, not only one or two but a very large number of them that hold their bignes equal to pine. The land back of the interval descending gradually toward the river afforded a most exalted prospect. On our march came across what they call Indian apples, they grow on a small bush only one stock which is about two feet high, six inches from the top there is one branch, on this branch there is a very large leaf and in the crotch of these grows the apple about as big as a walnut shell and all over it has a thick skin like Lemmons, and the middle of it very fine tasted. Encamped at Vanderlips desolate farm, 42 miles from Wyoming.
5. To Wylucing 10 miles. On our march this day came across very large Buttonwood trees one of which I had the curiosity to measure, it was nineteen feet eight inches round, 19-8 inches. Capt. Fogg measured one 21 feet round.
6. By reason of the rain did not march this day.
7. The weather still continuing bad cannot march this day was sent out Corpl Mill with some men to spy out the country.
8. Marched at six o'clock in the morning to Standingstone. 10 miles.
9. Marched to Shackanack, 14 miles, very tedious days march this.
10. Did not march from the Shackanack bottom by reason of the boats not arriving.
11. To Tioga 4 miles waded across the river up to our middles, currant running strong, Col. Barber came very near drowning crossing the river. The number of horses that came from Wyoming was Genl Poor's Brigade 300, Genl Maxwell's 300, Genl Hands 200, Colo Proctor 100, the horses from the Publick stores 300 besides the riding horses of the officers, 120 boats, 800 head of cattle &c. To see with what patience the soldiers endured the fatigues of this march wadeing rivers, climbing mountains and a number of other things too tedious to mention, afford a pleasing prospect that in time we shall have soldiers equal to any in the world.
12. Waiting at this post for Genl Clinton's Brigde the Troops employed in building four block houses and a fort for the security of the garrison, and the provision that is to be left at this post.
13. Genl Sullivan hearing that part of the enemy lie at Chemung gave orders for the whole army's moving which we did soon as ever it was dark last night, marching all night  arriving at Chemung at day light, but the enemy had just moved out of the town which we set on fire, destroyed large fields of their corn, beans, potatoes, squashes, cucumbers, water mellons &c, they plant with as much exactness as any farmer and their corn and other things [were] very forward our men pursued them, came up with them and exchanged some shots—we had 7 or 8 killed and a number wounded, returned to Tioga in the evening, from this to Chemung is said to be 12 miles.
14. In our nights march fell and hurt my Knee which is somewhat painful—a good deal fatigued, &c. &c. &c.
15. Sunday a small party of the enemy came down to the outpost of our encampment and Killed one man and wounded another.
16. A detachment of 900 men commanded by Genl Poor went to meet Genl Clinton.
17. The army preparing to march which we shall do as soon as Genl Clinton arrives. Tioga lies on the west side of Susquehanna river and just in the crotch of the river that comes by Chemung, one man killed and scalped this day by the Indians.
20. A party from Genl Clinton arrived last night giving an account of his being within eighteen miles of this post. Rainy last night and to-day.
21. Cutting up tents for bags to carry flour.
22. Sunday on guard—Genl Clinton's brigade arrived this day, they have better than 200 boats and 1800 men.
23. This day about 3 o'clock a very melancholy accident happened in camp—Samuel Gordon, soldier in Capt. Duston's company taking a gun in his hand and snaped it (not knowing it was loaded) the gun went off, killed Capt. Kimball of Col Cilleys Regiment as he was sitting in a tent, and wounded one more. Capt. Kimball was buried with the honors of war.
24. The army struck their tents at 3 o'clock and loaded them and the rest of the baggage—and the flanks and the infantry and covering partys took their foot in order of march—I was drafted from the right flank.
25. Wednesday, was to have marched this day but the stores not being ready prevented our marching in the morning and in the afternoon it was rainy.
26. Thursday early in the morning received a letter from my sister Betsey, dated July 10. Marched from Tioga at 11 o'clock fore-noon about two & a half miles above Fort Sullivan.
27. Marched at nine o'clock but proceeded very slow on account of the Artillery and the Horses being over loaded, did not arrive till 9 o'clock at night which was at the corn field.
28. Marched at 3 o'clock afternoon over a very high mountain from which we had a fine view of the country—arrived at Chemung and encamped—passed a defile a mile in length.
29. Sunday, marched at nine o'clock about 4 miles when our advanced party discovered the enemys breastwork which they seemed determined to defend, upon this we formed ourselves and waited for the rear to come up, about 3 o'clock in the afternoon we were ordered with Genl Poor's and Genl Clinton's brigades to gain the rear of the enemy. Just as we began our march the cannon began to play on the enemys line which drove them from the breast-work before we had time to gain their rear—they took possession of a high mountain which we immediately attacked and gained the summit of—in this attack Major Titcomb was wounded thro' the belly and arms, Capt. Clayes thro' the body, Serjeant Lane wounded in two places, Serjeant Thurstin & Twelve Rank & file wounded. Corp. Huntress Killed.
Lt McCalley of Colo Cilley's regiment was wounded in the knee, the wound was so bad that they were obliged to take of his leg—Colo Reid's regiment suffered the most, the infantry and rifle men pursued them by the river whilst we were gaining the rear; the name given this place by the Tories is Newton, about 6 miles from Chemung.
30. Monday did not march—on fatigue Lt McCalley died this morning of his wound—here were large fields of corn and beans which our people destroyed. In the engage-  ment yesterday one Tory was taken and one negro. They gave an account that both Butler and Brant were at this post, they had with them 1 sergt 1corpl & 12 regular soldiers, 600 Indians, & two hundred Tories, that they live on green corn and beans, have no meat all. Our men found considerable plunder Buried in the ground. They got yesterday several Indian scalps, &c. &c. &c.
The Genl returns his thanks to the army in general and to Genl Poor's brigade in particular for their spirited exertions yesterday.
31. Tuesday. Last night our wounded were sent down the river to Tioga & the ammunition waggons were sent back. We proceeded on our march at 9 o'clock with 4 small pieces of cannon and one Howitzer. The ammunition was carried on pack horses. Marched to [? ] 10 miles and pitched our tents there, put to half allowance.
SEPTEMBER 1. Marched at 9 o'clock across what they call the 12 mile swamp. This swamp is composed of mountains and valleys which rise and fall as quick as possible one after the other, it being such bad going were not able to arrive at our encamping ground till ten o'clock night. The troops much fatigued & great loss of Flour, Ammunition &c, &c.
2. One Indian squaw left on this ground, she was so old they could not carry her off—Genl Sullivan gave her a pardon—she gives an account that the warriors went out from here as our advanced guard entered—they had a council of war where in the squaws were for throwing themselves on our mercy, but the sannops would not consent—on guard last night and to day—did not march on account of the baggage not all arriving last night.
3. Marched 5 mile and came to the Sinica Lake—a very fine level country along this Lake—Marched 12 miles this day.
4. Marched 14 miles, plenty of mandrakes or Indian apples along this country—encamped in woods.
5. Sunday. marched to T [? ] diah 6 miles and encamped; this is an old settled place, a number of 200 old apple trees and peach trees plenty—the houses here look quite comfortable, there are two tombs where their Indian chiefs were buried—here one of our men that was taken at Wyoming a twelve month ago made his escape from them and came to us, informs us that Butler is for fighting us again but the Tories say its only throwing their lives away for no purpose; cut down their apple trees.