Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink.
JOURNALS OF THE
MILITARY EXPEDITION OF
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN
AGAINST THE SIX NATIONS OF INDIANS
IN 1779 WITH RECORDS OF CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS
Prepared Pursuant to Chapter 361, Laws of the State of New York, of 1885.
Frederick Cook, Secretary of State
Auburn, N. Y. Knapp, Peck & Thompson Printers
[Transcription is verbatim.]
 and four companies of Morgan's Rifles under Major James Parr, amounting in all to about sixteen hundred men, together with two pieces of artillery. The next day, though it was the Sabbath, the troops commemorated the third anniversary of American Independence by parading on the south bank of the lake at three o'clock in the afternoon, firing a salute of thirteen guns and a feu-de-joie, after which they attended divine service conducted by the Chaplain of the Brigade, Rev. John Gano,* concluding the day with drinking thirteen toasts to the American cause, its friends, and their own wives and sweethearts at home.
Nothing important occurred until the morning of the 27th, when an express arrived bringing word of Indian depredations on the frontiers. Colonel Gansevoort with a detachment of three hundred men was immediately sent to check their maraud. By rapid marches the force reached Fort Herkimer on the 29th, but finding the enemy had retired, the detachment retraced its steps arriving at its old encampment on the last day of July. On the 8th of August, having received the long-waited for orders from General Sullivan, it was announced the army would move the next day. The boats, two hundred and fifty in number, † were taken to the Susquehanna and placed at proper distances along the bank loaded with the stores and two small cannon, and manned with three men to each boat. The next day the dam was broken up, and on the flood thus created, the fleet floated grandly over the shoals and bars which abound in the upper part of the stream, and the army took up its course by easy marches for Tioga.
The first day they encamped, after a march of sixteen miles, "On a small improvement called Burrows." On account of rain the next day, they did not strike tents until three o'clock in the afternoon when they moved five miles farther to "Yorkham's" ‡ on the west side of the river, while the boats drew up on the opposite shore. The next morning at sunrise the troops were moving. During the day several small clearings with dilapidated houses and a number of Indian encampments were passed. After a march of fourteen miles they halted for the night on the farm of one Ogden, two miles below Otsego creek.
On the 12th, the army broke camp at seven o'clock and continued their journey down the river twelve miles, where a small Scotch Tory settlement called Albout, on the east side of the river, was burned by the troops who then proceeded five miles farther. They had, thus far, been on the west or right side of the river, but they now crossed and encamped near the site of Unadilla, an Indian town at the junction of the Unadilla creek with the Susquehanna which Colonel William Butler had destroyed the year before. The next day the march was continued at six o'clock. About two miles below Unadilla they re-crossed the stream and proceeded on the west side to Conihunto, an Indian town fourteen miles below Unadilla, also destroyed by Colonel Butler in 1778. The main body of the troops encamped, the boats and cattle stopped for the night on an Island a little below the town, the rifle corps being a couple of miles in advance.
On the 14th the march was resumed. After traveling eight miles they again crossed the river; but the water was so deep the troops ferried over in the boats, and going a couple of miles farther, encamped at Onoquaga. § Here General Clinton remained two days to give his troops a little rest, and to await the arrival of Lieutenant Colonel Pawling
* See appendix No. 5.
† Major Fogg says, "1800 men, 208 boats and one month's salt provisions, with two Oneida Indians." Major Norris gives the same number of boats.
‡ Joachim Van Valkenberg.
§ This was a beautiful Indian town, for a full description of which see Beatty's journal of this date. Along with other towns on the upper Susquehanna, it was destroyed by Col. Wm. Butler in command of the Fourth Penna. Reg't. in October, 1778, a full account of which is given in his report to Gen. Stark. Pa. Ar. N. S., X, 484.
 who with two hundred troops had orders to join the expedition at this place.* On Monday, the 16th, Major Thomas Church of Colonel Butler's Regiment went out five or six miles to meet Pawling, but failing to find him returned in the evening. At eight o'clock on the morning of the 17th, Clinton broke camp at Onoquaga, and after a hard march of fifteen miles encamped at the lower end of Ingaren, † a small Indian town consisting of five or six houses surrounded with fields of corn and potatoes and containing a tannery in which were a number of partly tanned hides. This day they passed two Indian towns, the lower one containing ten or twelve houses, called Shawhiangto. ‡ The next day setting out early, they reached the Chenango river, fourteen miles from Ingaren, at four o'clock in the afternoon. Fording this they halted a couple of hours on the south side of it, while Major Parr § with a hundred of his riflemen went four miles up Chenango to destroy a town ¡¡ of about twenty houses. This being accomplished, the detachment joined the main body which had marched two miles farther down the Susquehanna and encamped, having destroyed a number of Indian houses on the road. This evening two messengers, Sergeant Asa Chapman and Justus Gaylord, both of Wyoming, who had been sent forward by General Poor, came to the camp with the word that General Sullivan had reached Tioga, and Poor was marching with a thousand men to meet Clinton and was then not more than nine miles distant.
Rumors from various sources had reached General Sullivan that a large body of Indians was hovering about Clinton's force intending to ambuscade and attack it. Fearing they might be reinforced by those who had fled from Chemung, immediately upon his return, finding Clinton had not arrived, orders were issued that "nine hundred of the most active privates with a proper number of commissioned and non-commissioned officers be immediately draughted from the army to prepare to march at six o'clock in the morning of the
* The following extracts of letters from General Washington to General Sullivan will explain: —
June 21, 1779, "A body of troops under the command of Lieut. Col. Pawling will still be ready for the proposed co-operation. Two hundred of these being engaged for a more permanent service, affecting the first object, will meet General Clinton at Onoquaga, and proceed with him to join you. * * * Lieut. Colo. Pawling is a very good officer.
3d Sept., 1779, "Colo. Pawling not having been able to reach Anaquaga at the appointed time, and upon his arrival there, finding that General Clinton had passed by, has returned to the settlement [Wawassing] with the men under his command which were about two hundred."
† This town called Tuscarora by Van Hovenberg, was located at or near present village of Great Bend in Susquehanna Co., Pa., and was said to be twelve miles by land and twenty by water from Onoquaga.
‡ This town located near present Windsor Broome Co., N. Y., is called a Tuscarora town. In 1708, at the settlement of North Carolina, the Tuscaroras had their seats on the upper waters of the Neuse and Tar rivers. In consequence of their implacable enmity and continual marauds they were driven out by the white and emigrated northward in 1712, and being of the same generic race as the Iroquois, formed an alliance with them in 1722 and planted towns along the Susquehanna from Onoquaga down and became the Sixth nation in the Confederacy
§ "Morgan's Partizan Corps," which played an important part in the military operations of the war, was a rifle corps of the best marksmen selected from the existing regiments organized by General Washington himself in the summer of 1777, of which Daniel Morgan of Virginia was made colonel; Richard Butler of Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Colonel; and Joseph Morris of New Jersey, Major. Its strength when enlisted was total officers and men from Virginia, 163; Maryland, 65; Pennsylvania, 193; of which Capt. Parr, 2 Subalterns and 50 privates were from the First Reg't; from other states, 87; making a total of 508. Shortly after the battle of Monmouth, a detachment under Major Parr, consisting of the companies of Capt. Gabriel Long of Maryland, Captain Michael Simpson and Lieutenant Thomas Boyd of Pennsylvania, and the Fourth Pennsylvania Reg't were ordered to Schoharie to defend the borders of New York from the Six Nations, where they joined Clinton in the Western Expedition. James Parr was from Buffalo Valley near New Columbia, Penna., and First Lieutenant in Captain Lowdon's Company, June 25,1775, promoted to Captain in the First Pennsylvania, July, 1776, to Major, Oct. 9, 1778. He commanded the Sixth Company of the Rifles, a man of great courage and boldness, cool and undaunted. His history, subsequent to the Revolution, seems to be lost He died prior to 1804.
¡¡ Also called Otsiningo and Zeninge, was on the Chenango river four miles north of its junction with the Susquehanna, near the present village of Chenango, in the town of the same name. Many have incorrectly located this town at Binghamton.
 16th instant."* They were furnished with eight days' rations and well supplied with ammunition. General Poor was first and General Hand second in command. Taking the cohorn with them they set out at ten o'clock on the day appointed and proceeded up the right bank of the river as far as Mauckatawangum, or Red Bank where they encamped for the night. From this point, Chapman and Gaylord were sent forward to announce the approach of the detachment to Clinton. The next day after an eight hours' march the detachment reached Owego. A party sent up the creek captured twelve hordes but found no Indians. On the 18th they set out early and after a march of fourteen miles reached Choconut three miles above the creek of the same name, an important Indian village of fifty houses, all but seven of which had been burned. This evening at sunset they were agreeably surprised to hear the report of Clinton's evening gun, which they answered with the cohorn. The next morning they were early on the march, but when a mile from camp, received a dispatch from Clinton saying that he would meet them at Choconut, † they at once counter-marched to their camp to await his arrival.
Clinton broke camp at seven o'clock, and going a couple of miles, halted a short time while a detachment burned a small town on the left bank of the river, then pushed on four miles farther where he came to Poor's force which was awaiting his arrival. After forming the junction with Poor, the united troops continued the march, Clinton taking the advance and Poor the rear, to Owego, ‡ a distance of twelve miles from Choconut, and twenty-two from Clinton's encampment. The next day the rain fell in frequent and violent showers and the troops remained in camp but on the 21st the march was resumed as far as Mauckatawangum, § a distance of twelve miles where they went into camp. On the route this day two of the boats loaded with ammunition were capsized, "and damaged a good many boxes of cartridges and a few casks of powder." At seven o'clock the next morning they set out for Tioga, which they reached about noon on Sunday, the 22d and were welcomed with salvos of artillery, and the cheers of the men, while Colonel Proctor's band enlivened the scene by playing martial airs.In the meanwhile, General Sullivan was busily engaged in forwarding the preparations for his advance. On both sides the river were meadows covered with luxuriant grass which afforded excellent pasturage for horses and cattle, but those appointed to watch them were continually annoyed by small bands of Indians lurking about the camp, who would spring out of their hiding place, fire upon their intended victims, but before pursuit could be made would be beyond reach. A corporal and four men were guarding some horses and cattle on Queen Esther's flats, when about four o'clock in the afternoon of August 15th, they were fired upon by a small party of the enemy who killed and scalped
* The details were made as follows:
BRIGADES Col's Lieut-Col's Majors Capt'ns Lieuts Sergt's Corp's Drums Fifers Privat's Total Jersey 2 1 1 12 18 18 3 3 360 427 Poor's 1 1 2 12 18 18 3 3 335 402 Hand's 4 8 12 12 2 2 215 255 Aggregate 3 2 3 32 48 48 8 8 910 1084
† There were two villages of this name, one consisting of twenty houses on east or left side of the river, at the mouth of Choconut creek, near the present Vestal, which was burned by Poor on the morning of Aug. 19; the other of about fifty houses on the site of present Union, so named because here was the union of the two forces on the right bank of the river, three miles east of a creek which Major Fogg and others call Choconut creek, all but seven of which had been burned before Poor's detachment arrived; the remainder were destroyed on the morning of the 19th.
‡ An Indian town of nineteen houses, which Clinton ordered burned as "a bonfire to grace the arrival of the united forces." It was near the present village of Owego. It is probable the next day his wet and dripping soldiers wished the bonfire had been deferred a day.
§ Called also Mawkuhtowonguh, Red Brook, Macktowanuck, the ruins of an old Indian town occupying the site of the present town of Barton. Fitzgerald's Farm, an abandoned (Tory?) plantation lay on the opposite side of the river. Simms in his History of Schoharie, pp. 291-3, relates the escape of two men named Sawyer and Cowley captured by the Indians, who rose upon their captors, killed three, wounded the remaining one and made their escape.
 one,* wounded another, run off four or five horses and killed one bullock. Detachments were at once sent after them but they made good their escape. Two days later, six of the German Regiment obtained permission to go beyond the lines in search of some missing horses; when not more than forty or fifty rods beyond the picket line they were fired upon by a dozen savages who were lying near by in ambush; four got safely back within the lines, a party sent by Colonel Hubley in pursuit, met one returning with his arm shattered, and found the other † killed.
On the 20th of April, Captain Davis of Hubley's Regiment and Lieutenant Jones of the German Regiment while marching with Major Powell to Wyoming were ambuscaded and killed by a band of Tories and Indians, while the army lay at Wyoming. Their remains were exhumed and buried with military honors. As they were members of the Masonic Fraternity, their brethren connected with the army desired Chaplain Rogers to deliver a discourse in commemoration of their character and services, which took place at the encampment on Wednesday, the 18th of August, at eleven o'clock in the presence of General Sullivan and his staff, of General Maxwell's, of Colonel Proctor's Artillery, the Eleventh Regiment, members of Military Lodge Number Nineteen, with many other gentlemen of the army.
On the 19th of August, after reaching Owego, General Clinton sent Lieutenant Boyd with dispatches to Tioga, announcing his safe arrival at that point and that he had met Poor who was returning with him.
About five o'clock in the afternoon of Monday, August 23d, Samuel Gordon, a soldier in Captain Moody Dustin's company, while carelessly handling his gun discharged it, the ball killing instantly Captain Kimball, ‡ and slightly wounding a Lieutenant.
On the arrival of General Clinton's Brigade, of which Major Nicholas Fish § of the 2d N. Y. Regiment was now Brigade Major, preparations for the onward movement of the army were prosecuted with great vigor. Some changes were made in the organization of the army. The Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment and the companies of riflemen were transferred to Hand's Brigade. Alden's Regiment was transferred from Clinton's to Poor's and Van Cortlandt's from Poor's to Clinton's Brigade. ¡¡ The riflemen, commanded by Major James Parr, were formed into an advance guard; and a pioneer corps was organized under Captains Selin and Ballard, and Ensign Dodge. The German Battalion was re-organized into four companies of twenty-five men each; two of these companies with two hundred picked men in addition, formed the right flanking division commanded by Colonel Dubois and Lieutenant Colonel Regnier, the whole under the direction of General Poor. An equal number under the direction of General Maxwell and commanded by Colonel Ogden and Lieutenant Colonel Willet formed the left flanking division. The flour and ammunition were packed in canvas sacks made of tents; commissary and hospital stores were placed in kegs, the two six-pounders were left with the garrison, and the rest of the artillery was taken with the army. In the order of march, General Hand's Brigade was in advance, General Poor on the right, General Maxwell on the left ¶ and General Clinton in the rear. The artillery preceded by the pioneers, and followed by the packhorses and beef cattle
* Jabez Elliott who with his brother Joseph came with his father's (Henry Elliott) family early to Wyoming. Though a mere lad he was at the battle in 1778, and was connected with the expedition as a packhorse driver.
† Philip Belter, by trade a biscuit baker, whose home was on Fifth street, near Market, in Philadelphia.
‡ Captain Benjamin Kimball from New Hampshire was paymaster in Colonel Cilley's Reg't. He left a wife and five children to lament his sad fate. He was buried next day with military honors.
§ See appendix No. 1.
¡¡ Hand's Brigade consisted of the Fourth and Eleventh Pennsylvania Regiments, the Wyoming companies and Parr's riflemen; also two companies of light infantry of fifty men each, from Clinton's Brigade, and one each from Poor's and Maxwell's. Poor's brigade consisted of the First, Second and Third New Hampshire Regiments and the Sixth Massachusetts; Clinton's, of the Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth New York Regiments, and Maxwell's of the 1st, 2d, 3d and Spencer's N. J. Regiments.
¶ Prior to the 24th of August, the positions of Poor and Maxwell had been, Maxwell on the right and Poor on the left. The order given in the text, was that announced in general orders at Easton, May 24, but was not observed until August 24th.
 was in the center. All cumbrous and unnecessary baggage was ordered to be stored with the garrison at Tioga, which was to consist of two hundred and fifty men, besides the invalids, under the command of Colonel Israel Shreve.
On the twenty-sixth of August, the army took up the line of its march into an unknown country, through leagues of unbroken forests, into the very heart of the enemy's territory, relying on their own valor alone for success, without hope of relief or of reinforcements, or, in case of defeat, of any quarter. It was an expedition in which not only peculiar hardships might be expected, but it was one without scarcely a parallel in the world's history for the boldness of its design, and the courage with which it was undertaken. To transport an army with its equipments and supplies, through an uncivilized country without roads, for much of the way without water communication, to cut loose from their base of supplies and communications, to be shut up for weeks from the intelligence of the world, where to fall was to die, and ordinarily to die by torture, was an example of heroic bravery which the world has seldom witnessed. Sherman's march to the sea has received and justly merits the applause of men for its daring and its success; but this expedition was far more daring, and if the loss of life and the ends secured by it, be taken into the account, equally as successful in its execution, and deserves first rank among the great military movements in our country's history.
It was known that the enemy were assembled in force somewhere on the Chemung river, where it was thought they would dispute the passage of our army. A few boats, carrying supplies and baggage, were to accompany the army, until it met the enemy, and then return.
The army reached the site of Old Chemung on the evening of the 27th. Between this point and the town, three miles above, the path led over a very high hill, which comes sharply down to the water's edge, and was found to be so serious an obstruction, that the artillery, baggage, ammunition wagons, packhorses and Maxwell's Brigade forded the river twice to avoid it. The current was swift and the water deep, and the crossing attended with considerable difficulty, and some of the loading was lost. The other troops passed over the mountain, and at night the army encamped near the site of the town destroyed on the 13th.
During the evening a scout came in with the information that the enemy were busily at work on a fortification a few miles above. The advanced guard could easily hear the sound of their axes, and see the light of their fires beyond the hills.
Early on Sunday, the 29th of August, the army moved with great circumspection. General Hand marched at eight o'clock, and before nine, all the troops were in motion. They had gone scarcely two miles before the advanced guard began to discover Indian scouts or spies, one hundred and fifty or two hundred yards in front, who, upon being observed, ran off at full speed. A small force was also seen on the opposite side of the river, which kept nearly abreast of General Hand's troops. About four miles from the encampment at Chemung, the fortifications of the enemy were discovered.
Consulting the map of the State of New York, it will be seen that nearly opposite the present village of Wellsburg, the Chemung (old Tioga) river runs first in a southerly direction, then sweeping around to the north-east, it forms nearly a semi-circle, of which the road leading to Elmira is the diameter. The road to Wellsburg divides this space into two nearly equal areas or quadrants. Coming down between the hills from the north is Baldwin's creek, which, a little south of the main road, turns sharply to the east, and reaches the river some distance below. Beginning near the river, and nearly opposite to what was formerly the lower point of Baldwin's Island, now, owing to a change in the main current of the stream, near the middle of it, begins a ridge of land, running in a south-easterly direction for about three thousand five hundred feet, and crossing the Wellsburg road, when it turns nearly at right angles, and extends in almost a direct northerly course about one thousand two hundred feet further, until it reaches the creek. The side of this ridge toward the streams was steeper and higher than it now is, it having been measurably levelled down by ninety years of cultivation. Between this ridge and the hill on the north on which the monument stands, now called Sullivan Hill, is a hollow, along which the Elmira road is laid, and which a mile to the west of the creek expands into a wider flat, where was an Indian town of twenty-five or thirty houses, called Newtown, which gave the name to the battle-field. At present only two or three old apple trees indicate its site.
A mile or more to the north of the main road, Baldwin's creek runs between two high ridges parallel with the stream, the slope of the western one, which is Sullivan Hill, coming sheer down to the water's edge. Where Jacob Lowman's sawmill now stands, in the woods, on both sides of the creek, were about twenty or thirty houses, which had never been inhabited, and were supposed to have been built for storing the crops growing in the vicinity. A few houses near the bend of the creek were torn down by the enemy, and the logs used in their fortification. One hundred and fifty to two hundred acres of magnificent corn just ripening for the sickle, were on the flats near the river. The Indian path from Chemung, probably, was nearer the creek than the present road; after the creek was crossed, the path turned to the right, until it reached the Elmira road, when it took about the direction of the highway to Newtown. The slope of Sullivan Hill was covered with pine and dense growth of shrub oaks.
Along the crest of the ridge, or "Hogback," from the river to the creek, the enemy had erected a fortification in most places breast high or more, in others lower, but pits or holes were dug, in which the defenders could be protected. The work was very artfully masked by the slope of the ridge being thickly set with the shrub oaks cut the night before from the hillside. A little in front of the line of fortifications were one or two log houses which served as bastions for the work.
The enemy had concentrated their main force at the angle in the fortified line. From this point a thin line was continued on one side to the river, and on the other to the creek. On the crest of the ridge, just above the sawmill before spoken of, a considerable force was stationed to repel any flank movement which might be attempted and was connected with the main force by a scattering line. On the very summit of the hill, where the monument stands, was placed a corps for observation, as also one on the opposite hill, on the east side of the creek.
The plan of the enemy seems to have been this: — Presuming their fortifications to be perfectly concealed, and that the army would follow the Indian trail, as it turned to the right after crossing the creek, a sudden and severe fire opened on its exposed flank would create confusion in the ranks, and in the surprise of the unexpected attack, the party on the eastern hill, and that over the river having fallen back and crossed over, would fall on the rear of the army, increase the consternation, stampede the cattle and packhorses, and, if they did not destroy it, would so cripple its resources, as to prevent its further progress. For the purpose of the enemy the place was admirably adapted. In addition to occupying a position naturally strong, they had the inside line, and could concentrate their forces in much shorter space than their opponents.
The troops behind the ramparts consisted of a few regular British soldiers, the two Battalions of Royal Greens, Tories and Indians. The whites were commanded by Colonel John Butler, with his son, Captain Walter N. Butler, and Captain MacDonald, and the Indians by the great Mohawk warrior, Joseph Brant. Other celebrated Indian Chiefs, but of less note, were also present.
The advanced guard having discovered the enemy's position about eleven o'clock A. M., General Hand ordered the riflemen to form at about three hundred yards from the enemy, and hold their position until the remaining part of the brigade should come up or until further orders. This was scarcely done, when about four hundred of the enemy made a sortie, delivered their fire, and quickly retreated to their works. This was a number of times repeated, with the manifest intention of drawing our men into their lines. The scheme which had too often been successful in alluring the militia into ambush, failed with the disciplined troops of this army, and, at length, the enemy sullenly retired behind his entrenchments to await the issue of the attack.
In the meanwhile, General Hand advanced his brigade in line of battle to support the riflemen, and informed General Sullivan of his discovery and the disposition he had made of his brigade.
(See illustration of Order of Battle.)
 The commander at once summoned a council of his general officers, who, after thoroughly reconnoitering the ground, agreed upon the plan of attack.
It was three hours from the time the enemy was discovered, before the ground was reconnoitered, the plan of attack matured, and the troops came up. It was determined that the artillery should be stationed on a slight rise of ground about three hundred yards from the angle of the enemy's fortified position in such a way as to enfilade his lines and command the space behind them; General Hand to advance a portion of his light troops near the breastwork, and divert the enemy's attention from the movements on the flank, and the rest to support the artillery; the left flanking division to push up the river as far as prudent, in order to gain the enemy's flank, cut off his retreat in that direction, and join in the pursuit when he left the works; General Poor with his brigade, the Riflemen, and the right flanking division, supported by Clinton's brigade, to march by a circuitous route, and gain the mountain (Sullivan Hill) on the enemy's left; Maxwell's Brigade to remain a corps de reserve, to act as occasion might demand.
It was about three o'clock P. M., when at a point a little more than a mile to the eastward of where the path crossed Baldwin's Creek, "marching by columns from the right of regiments by files," followed by Clinton, who was ordered to march to the rear and the right of him, Poor struck off to the right from the path, his movement being concealed from the enemy by a considerable hill, which also hid a swamp that was directly in his path. He had not proceeded far before he found himself floundering in this morass, which was so thickly grown up with alders and bushes that his men could only with great difficulty make their way through them. An hour had been allowed as sufficient time for Poor's troops to be in position to turn the enemy's left, at which time the attack should be made in force on the front, the artillery fire being the signal for a simultaneous attack on both front and flank. The advance of Poor's Brigade, had, however, just reached the creek where the group of houses stood near the sawmill, when General Sullivan, ignorant of Poor's delay, ordered the artillery to open fire, and the light infantry to advance. They pushed forward and formed in line under the bank of the creek, which afforded a secure protection within one hundred and twenty yards of the enemy's line. Proctor, whose battery, it will be remembered, consisted now of six three-pounders, the light cohorn, and two howitzers, carrying 5-1/2 inch shells, opened with a sharp, severe fire of shell and solid shot. Such a scene this valley never before witnessed, and to such music never before did these hills send back their answering echoes.
To endure a protracted cannonade is one of the severest tests of the discipline and fortitude of experienced troops, while to the Indian the roar of cannon is as terrifying as though it were the harbinger of the day of doom; yet such was the commanding presence of the great Indian Captain and such the degree of confidence he inspired, that his undisciplined warriors stood their ground like veterans for more than half an hour, as the shot went crashing through the tree-tops or plowing up the earth under their feet, and shells went screeching over their heads, or bursting in their ranks, while high above the roar of the artillery and the rattle of small arms, could be heard the voice of Brant, encouraging his men for the conflict, and over the heads of all, his crested plume could be seen waving where the contest was likely to be most sharp. At length, from the party on the mountain top, whose keen eyes had discovered the advance of Poor's Brigade by the gleaming of their arms in the sunlight, word came of the threatened attack on the flank. With a chosen band of his warriors, Brant hastened to repel this new danger, leaving a few of his Indians, with the troops under Butler, to hold the ground in front.
Emerging from the swamp, Poor bore off considerably to the left; General Clinton following with his left exactly in the rear of Poor's right, and his right as he turned toward the creek, sweeping over the lower part of the hill on the east side of the creek, uncovered the party of the enemy stationed there and compelled their precipitate retreat.
On reaching Baldwin's creek, Poor drew up his brigade in line of battle—Lieutenant Colonel Reid's 2d New Hampshire Regiment on the left, Lieutenant Colonel Dearborn's 3d New Hampshire next, then Alden's, the 6th Massachusetts, and Colonel Cilley's, the 1st New Hampshire, on the right; and on the right flank of the brigade the two hundred  and fifty picked men under Colonel Dubois, while the riflemen were deployed in front of the line as skirmishers.
By this time the advance of General Clinton, who was to support Poor, began to arrive, and his brigade was placed in order of battle with Gansevoort's Regiment, the 3d New York on the left, Dubois, the 5th New York next, then Livingston's, which was the 4th New York and Van Cortlandt's, the 2d New York, on the right.
Having formed the line of battle, Poor advanced his brigade with as much rapidity as the nature of the ground and the heat of the day would admit. No sooner had he crossed the creek, than he was met by a sharp but somewhat random fire from the enemy, stationed along the slope toward the creek, and protected by the trees which thickly studded the hillside. The riflemen returned the fire, but the brigade pressed rapidly forward, without firing a shot, and with fixed bayonets, steadily driving the enemy before them, who as our men advanced, retreated, darting for cover from tree to tree with the agility of panthers.
When about two thirds of the distance up the hill, the left part of the brigade was met by the party of the enemy from the breastwork, led by Brant in person. They, falling like a thunder bolt upon Colonel Reid's* Regiment, which was the left wing of the brigade and nearest the foe, checked his advance, and before he had time to recover from the shock, his men being out of breath from their run up the hill, he found himself in the midst of an Indian force outnumbering his own, three to one, who were swarming in a semi-circle about his regiment, threatening to cut it off from the support of the rest of the brigade from which he was already separated by nearly a gun-shot, and leaving him the alternative either to fall back on Clinton for support or to force his way through at the point of the bayonet. General Poor being with the right wing of the brigade, urging forward his men that he might cut off the retreat of the Indians toward Newtown, was not aware of the serious danger which threatened Reid, but Colonel Dearborn, whose regiment was on Reid's right, immediately and on his own responsibility ordered his regiment to change or reverse front, by a right about face, and just as Reid had given orders to charge, Dearborn's Regiment poured in a volley upon Brant's force which first staggered them, and then a second volley, when they beat a hasty retreat.
About the same time, Clinton perceiving the critical condition of Reid pushed forward Gansevoort's and Dubois' Regiments for his support, who reached him just in time to hasten the flight of the enemy. Brant observing the movement toward his rear and understanding its meaning, sounded the retreat, and the enemy fled from all parts of the field towards Newtown and the ford of the Chemung, pursued by Hand and the riflemen. The two regiments on the right of Poor's Brigade and the flanking division of Dubois, reached the river above Newtown, at a point where the old Fountain Inn, now owned by Willard Harrington, stands; but this force was not sufficient successfully to resist the demoralized mass of the enemy, whose only means of escape led in this direction; and which being thus intercepted, they broke through Poor's line with such impetuosity, as for a time, to endanger his flank. Some shots were exchanged, without serious casualty to our troops, although General Sullivan and others say the enemy did not so escape. At the same time, Colonel John Butler himself came very near being taken prisoner.
General Clinton with his two remaining regiments followed in the track of Poor, burning the houses which lay in his path, and joined the other troops near Newtown. It was now about 6 o'clock in the afternoon, and seven hours since the first gun was fired, when three rousing cheers announced that the battle was ended and General Sullivan's gallant army was in possession of the contested battlefield. Our men fought with great valor
*Colonel George Reid, of Londonderry, N. H., was born in 1733, captain of a company of minute men in 1775, and with his company joined Stark's Regiment at Medford, on receiving the news of the battle of Lexington, and took an honorable part in the battle of Bunker Hill. In the spring of 1777, he was made Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd H. H. Reg't, and in the summer following, (its Colonel, Nathan Hale being captured,) its commandant, and so continued until 1781. He was Brigadier-General of the N. H. militia in 1785, and high sheriff of Rockingham county in 1791. He died September, 1815, at the age of 82 years.
 and determination. The horrors of Wyoming, of Cherry Valley, of the West Branch, of Minisink and German Flats, were fresh in their recollections, and many of the soldiers had lost some of their nearest relatives in these strifes, where savage hordes and Tory outlaws held high carnival. There is a tradition, that as Poor's men began the charge up the hill, some one said: "Remember Wyoming," which was taken up along the line as the watchword and battle-cry of the hour; but there is not a lisp in confirmation of this, in any of the numerous journals which have been preserved to us.
The exact numbers engaged on either side cannot be ascertained. General Sullivan and his officers, after going over the whole field, examining the line occupied by the enemy, and comparing the accounts and estimates of those in best position to know, put their strength at one thousand five hundred men, while the two men who were captured on the evening of the battle, gave the number as low as seven hundred or eight hundred. Somewhere between these extremes, is doubtless, the truth.*
The loss in General Sullivan's army was three killed on the field, viz.: Corporal Hunter and two privates; the wounded were Benjamin Titcomb, † of Dover, Major in the 2d New Hampshire, through the abdomen and arms; Elijah Clayes, Captain of the 7th Company of the 2d New Hampshire, through the body; Nathaniel McCauley, of Litchfield, 1st Lieutenant of the 4th Company of the 1st New Hampshire; Sergeant Lane, wounded in two places, Sergeant Oliver Thurston, and thirty-one rank and file, all but four of whom were of Poor's brigade and nearly all from Reid's Regiment. Lieutenant McCauley had his knee shattered, making amputation necessary, and died before morning, and Abner Dearborn ‡ died a few days after he was removed to Tioga. Sergeant Demeret,
* There were 15 British regulars, viz.: 1 Captain, 1 Sergeant, 1 Corporal and 12 privates both companies of the Royal Greens, and the Tory militia all told from 200 to 250 white men. Besides these, there were all the Indian warriors of the Senecas, Cayugas, Mohawks, and part of the Onondagas, Oneidas and Tuscaroras, and some of the northern tribes. General Sullivan says, " the warriors of the Seven Nations," at least 1,000 men, making the entire force of the enemy not far from 1,200.
At Catherine's Town, about 200 Indians from Canada joined Brant, and a couple of days after, at Kendaia, he reported that he had 1,000 Indian warriors in his army. Deducting the losses at Newtown, and from desertion, which is always large after a disastrous battle, and his force at Kendaia could not have been much, if any, greater than at Newtown.
The numbers in General Sullivan's command are equally uncertain. At Wyoming, his force was said to be 3,500 men, and the number which came with Clinton to have been about 1,500 or 1,600 more, making a total of 5,000 in the grand army. But this is evidently much too large. To begin with, Pennsylvania failed to furnish the 750 men required to fill up her quota, leaving not more than 2,750 men in actual service; and this must be somewhat diminished. July 22, nine days before the army marched from Wyoming, but after the arrival of all his troops, the returns comprise 8 Brigadiers, 7 Colonels, 6 Lieutenant Colonels, 8 Majors, 48 Captains, 3 Chaplains, 10 Surgeons, 11 Drum and Fife Majors, 131 Drummers and Fifers, 2,312 rank and file, or a total of 2,539 men of all grades and ranks.—Clinton's Brigade consisted of five regiments and four companies of riflemen. The 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, which was one of the number, by a return dated June 18, 1779, numbered of all grades 243 men of whom, however, only 198 were fit for duty.(1) Taking this as the standard and the five regiments would have about 1,250. Of the riflemen, the return of the same date gives just 100 men.(2) These figures cannot be far from correct, and make the sum total of the army a trifle less than 4,000 men of all ranks. From these deduct 5 per cent for sick and absent, the 100 left at Wyoming, 300 left at Fort Sullivan, 250 pack horse drivers, and General Sullivan's effective force could not have exceeded 3,100 or 3,200 men.
(1) Lieut. Col., Commandant, Major, 4 Captains, 5 Lieutenants Adjutant, Paymaster, Quartermaster, Surgeon, Sergeant Major, Quartermaster Sergeant, Drum Major, Fife Major, 20 Sergeants, 11 drums and fifes, 148 privates present fit for duty, 13 sick, 33 on command, total 193.
(2) Major, Captain, 1 Lieutenant, 1 Ensign, Adjutant, Paymaster, Quartermaster, Surgeon, Sergeant Major, Quartermaster Sergeant, 10 Sergeants, 58 privates fit for duty present, 7 sick, 34 on command, 1 on furlough, total 100— Pa. Ar., N. S , X, p. 487. On p. 298, Proctor's force of all grades is 144.
All the data obtained since the above notes were written (in 1880) diminish rather than increase the estimates of General Sullivan's force.
† He was made Major in 1777. One of the most gallant men in the army, ever in the thickest of the fight, and was wounded in three different battles. He died in Dover, N. H.
‡ Norris' Journal, Sept. 5.
 Joshua Mitchell and Sylvester Wilkins died previous to September 19th, making a total of eight.*
Those who died upon the field were buried separately, near where they fell, and fires were built upon their graves to conceal them from the enemy, lest after the departure of the army their bodies should be desecrated; a practice shamefully prevalent on both sides in Indian warfare. It seems strange that in a contest waged between such numbers and for so long a time, the casualties should have been so few. But our men were well protected by the bank of the creek on the front, and the Indians probably shot over the heads of those coming up the hill.
Twelve of the enemy were found slain on the ground, and two prisoners were taken,— one a negro, the other "one Hoghtailer from the Helder Barrack." † A British account says: "In this action, Colonel Butler and all his people were surrounded, and very near being taken prisoners. The Colonel lost four rangers killed, two taken prisoners and seven wounded." Butler also lost his commission and private baggage, beside jewels and hard money. The Indian account, found four days afterward, near Catherine's town is as follows: "September 3d.—This day found a tree marked 1779, Thandagana, the English of which is Brant; twelve men marked on it with arrows pierced through them, signifying the number they had lost in the action of the 29th ultimo. A small tree was twisted round like a rope and bent down which signified that if we drove and distressed them, yet we would not conquer them.
Disheartened, terror-stricken, and hopeless of further resistance, the enemy fled with all possible speed, not daring even to look behind them; and such was the moral effect of the victory, that without thought for else but their lives, they abandoned their villages to the torch and their cornfields to the destruction of the victorious foe. ‡
The day after the battle was spent in destroying the crops in the neighborhood, sending the wounded, § four heavy guns, ¡¡ ammunition wagons, etc., back to Tioga; and while
* Here as in other instances the figures are given differently by different writers. Dr. Kendall, in whose care the wounded were sent to Wyoming, reported, that our loss was 1 Lieutenant killed on the spot, with a few privates, one Major do., Captain, etc., and 26 Indians were found dead and were scalped by our people. Major Norris gives the list as to rank in Poor's Brigade as follows:
Killed. Wounded. Major 0 1 Major Titcomb. Captain 0 1 Captain Clayes. Lieutenant 0 1 Lieut. McCauley, died same night. Ensigns 0 0 Sergeant 1 0 Privates 2 29
He adds there were no others killed and but four others wounded in the whole army, making a total 3 killed and 36 wounded. Major Fogg gives the list by regiments but it was evidently made up a day or two after the battle and is as follows:—
Killed. Wounded. Col. Cilley's Reg't 1 Lieut Lieut. McCauley & 1 private Col. Reid's Reg't 1 Corp. 6 privates Col. Scammel's Reg't 2 Corp. 6 privates Col. Alden's Reg't 1 Private 7 privates Covering party 1 Private Several privates.
In General Sullivan's report, August 30, he gives his loss as three killed and thirty-nine wounded, a larger number of both killed and wounded, than is given by any journalist of the campaign.
† Probably meaning "Helderberg."
‡ "After the battle of Newtown, terror led the van of the invader, whose approach was heralded by watchmen stationed upon every height, and desolation followed weeping in his train. The Indians fled as Sullivan advanced, and the whole country was swept as with the besom of destruction."— Stone's Life of Brant.
§ Such of the wounded as could endure the journey were sent by boats in care of Dr. Kimball to Wyoming, reaching there September 2d.
¡¡ As to the number of artillery pieces there is considerable difference in the several diaries. All agree that two six-pounders were left at Fort Sullivan in charge of Captain Wool; while most who mention the number say he took nine (Beatty says seven but probably does not include the howitzers) with him. Aug. 23d, in general orders, Col Proctor is directed to have ammunition fixed for six three-pounders, two howitzers, and the cohorn, and the order of march for the artillery, issued the 24th, is as follows: "The two lightest pieces designed for General Hand to advance in front, General Poor's two to follow, General Maxwell's next and General Clinton's next," the cohorn being carried by hand by the light troops is not mentioned in the order. After the battle the two howitzers and two of the cannon more cumbrous than the others, to the great relief of the pioneers, were returned to Tioga, leaving four light three-pounders and the cohorn with the army.
 here, owing to the prospective scarcity of beef and flour, and the abundance of corn, beans, potatoes, squashes, etc., the army agreed without a dissent, to subsist on half rations of the former articles.
On the 31st of August the army again started westward, to complete the work for which the expedition had been organized.
About two miles above Newtown a little village of eight good houses was found, which was burned, and the army passed to Kanawaholla, a pleasant town situated on the point, at the junction of present Newtown creek with the Chemung, near the city of Elmira, and four and a half miles above the battle-ground. Here, as at Chemung and Newtown, the cornfields bore marks of having been planted under the supervision of white people, whom it is well known were directed by the British government to aid the Indians in raising supplies for the British army and garrisons.
From this point, Colonel Dayton, with the Third New Jersey Regiment and a detachment of the Riflemen, was sent up he river in pursuit of some of the enemy whom the advanced guard saw escaping in their canoes. He chased them for eight miles up the river, but their speed was too great, and the nimble-footed savages escaped. At this point, Colonel Dayton* found an Indian village which was near present Big Flats, where he encamped for the night. The next morning he burned the village, destroyed about thirty acres of corn and a quantity of hay, and rejoined the main army just as it was leaving its encampment.
From Kanawaholla the path turned northward; the army marched about five miles farther and encamped for the night, near the present village of Horseheads. The next morning, tents were struck at eight o'clock, and for three miles the path lay through an open plain, then they entered the low ground which forms the divide of the waters flowing into the Susquehanna and into the St. Lawrence, at that time a deep, miry swamp, covered with water from the recent rains, dark with the closely shadowing hemlocks, the path studded with rocks and thickly interspersed with sloughs; it was the most horrible spot they had met with. It was past seven o'clock, just in the dusk of the evening, when the advanced guard emerged from the gloomy shadows of the morass and formed themselves in line on the outskirts of the village Sheaquaga, or French Catherine's Town. †
It was pitch dark before Hand's brigade got out of the wilderness. To the rest of the army it was a night of horrors. It was so dark the men could not see the path, and could keep it only by grasping the frocks of their file leaders. Poor's and Maxwell's Brigades did not reach the town until ten o'clock. Many of the soldiers, utterly worn out with heat and fatigue, fell exhausted by the wayside, and did not join the army until the next day. Clinton's Brigade spent the night in the swamp without supper or shelter. Two of the packhorses fell and broke their necks, others became exhausted and died in the path, while the stores of food and ammunition were sadly depleted. The town was built on both sides of the inlet to Seneca lake, and about three miles from the lake, on the site of present Havana. It consisted of between thirty and forty good houses, some fine cornfields and orchards. The soldiers found a number of horses, cows, calves and hogs, which they appropriated.
* Elias Dayton entered the military service at the beginning of the war, was made Colonel of the Third Jersey Battalion, February 9, 1776, and subsequently of Third Regiment, and Brigadier General of the Continental army, January 7, 1783; discharged at the close of the war, and took part in all the battles in which the Jersey line was engaged. After the resignation of Maxwell, July 25, 1780, Colonel Dayton commanded the Jersey Brigade. He was an active, intrepid officer, a man of cool judgment and sound discretion. He was born in Elizabethtown, N. J. 1735, and died in Philadelphia, June, 1807. In 1774 he represented his native town in the Committee of Safety. In 1775 he was engaged in the capture of a British prison ship off the Jersey coast. He was a prominent Free Mason and the first president of the Society of Cincinnati of New Jersey, a man of generous charities and an earnest supporter of the gospel.
†As before said, Catherine was sister of Queen Esther, and grand-daughter of Madame Montour, whose romantic history covered the first half of the 18th century. In 1749 she was very aged and blind, and probably died prior to 1752. The husband of Catherine was Thomas Hudson, alias Telenemut, one of the most noted of the Seneca Chiefs. She had a son named Amochol, who was living at New Salem in 1778. Catherine was living in 1791, "over the lake not far from Niagara."
 All of Thursday was spent in resting, bringing up the wearied horses and exhausted soldiers, burning the houses, destroying the trees and corn, and scouring the country for straggling Indians. A very old squaw was found hidden in the bushes. She was accosted by one of the Indian guides in various dialects, but shook her head as if she could not understand. At length the General becoming convinced that her ignorance was only assumed, threatened her with punishment if she did not answer. She replied that Butler and the Indians held a council here, and many of the old chiefs and women desired peace, but Butler told them General Sullivan's army would kill them all if they surrendered, and they had better run off into the woods; that Brant received a reinforcement of two hundred Indian warriors, who were eager to fight, but those who had been in the battle of Newtown shook their heads and would not agree to it. She further said that the Indians lost very heavily in killed and wounded, and she heard many women lamenting the death of their relatives. She also said that many of the squaws and children were then over the hills about five miles away; in consequence of which Colonel Butler, with a detachment of three hundred men, taking the cohorn with them, went about noon in pursuit of them, but after a fruitless chase returned in the evening.
On Friday, September 3d, having built a comfortable hut for the old squaw, and left her a supply of provisions, the army resumed its march and encamped twelve miles from Sheaquaga, the route most of the way being through open woods, over level country, and the journey devoid of special incident. The place of the encampment was on the lakeside, where there were a few houses and plenty of corn, and near what has since been called Peach Orchard, where it is said the early settlers found conclusive evidences of Indian occupation. An Indian scout left one of these cornfields just as our men came up, who found the corn roasting by the fire and the supper left untasted.
About ten o'clock the next morning, the army moved from its encampment, and after proceeding four miles, came to what is now known as North Hector. The Indian town was called Con-daw-haw, and consisted of one long house, built according to Indian custom to contain several fires, (but in utter defiance of the white man's proverb about no roof being large enough for two families), and several smaller houses. Destroying these and the cornfields, the army went eight miles further and encamped.
On Sunday, the 5th of September, the army marched three miles and encamped at an Indian town called Kendaia, or Appletown, pleasantly situated, a half a mile from the lake, consisting of twenty or. more houses of hewn logs, covered with bark, and some of them well painted. Here was one apple orchard of sixty trees, besides others; also peach trees and other fruits. The houses were burned for firewood, and the trees were cut down or girdled. About this town, the showy tombs erected over some of their chiefs, were most noticeable, one of which, larger and more conspicuous than the others, is described by one of the journals as a casement or box made of hewn planks, about four feet high and somewhat larger than the body over which it was placed, and which was appropriately dressed. This casement was painted with bright colors, and had openings through which the body could be seen, and was covered with a roof to protect it from the weather. Although this was evidently an old town, yet there was such a scarcity of pasturage, that during the night twenty-seven of the cattle strayed off and were not found until the next afternoon. While here, Luke Swetland, who with Joseph Blanchard had been taken by the Indians from Nanticoke, below Wyoming, the 24th of August of the year before, and remained until now in captivity, came to the army, Mr. Jenkins says, almost overjoyed to see his old friends again.
On the 6th, the army encamped three miles north of Kendaia, on the shore of the lake, and opposite a considerable Indian town on the other side. This camping place has been identified by General Clark, of Auburn, N. Y., as near the ravine called on the old maps "Indian Hollow."
Early in the morning of the 7th, the army again struck tents, and after marching about eight miles, came to the foot of Seneca lake, about five miles from Kanadesaga, where expecting an attack, the army halted and reconnoitered the ground. Finding no enemy they proceeded keeping close to the bank of the lake on account of a bad marsh on their  right. In about half a mile they came to the outlet, a rapid running stream from twenty to thirty yards wide and knee deep. Fording this the army re-formed on the high ground on the left bank and marched about half a mile with a narrow marsh between them and the lake; they then came to a large morass or quagmire, now known as the "soap mine" and were compelled to pass a narrow and dangerous defile along the lake shore, which was flooded at intervals. Emerging from this, they encountered another morass now known as Marsh creek, thence by a narrow path along the beach they came to a cornfield and Butler's buildings, consisting of four or five houses at the north-west corner of the lake near the present canal bridge in Geneva. The path then lay along the north side of Castle brook to Kanadesaga, an important Seneca town, of about fifty houses, surrounded by orchards and cornfields, distant nearly two miles in a westerly or north-westerly direction from the foot of Seneca lake, General Maxwell's Brigade going to the right and General Hands' to the left to gain the rear and surround the town.
Here the army rested during Wednesday, the 8th, while several detachments were sent out in various directions to explore the country, discover and destroy the neighboring villages and cornfields. General Sullivan was now in a strange country. He had not a single guide who knew the exact locality, of a town beyond him and was compelled to rely entirely upon his own scouts for information.
Among the companies which were thus sent out, was a party of volunteers under Colonel John Harper,* who, following down the Seneca river about eight miles, came to a pleasantly situated town consisting of eighteen houses on the north side of the river, called Skoi-yase, and occupying the site of the handsome and thriving village of Waterloo. Near this town were some fish ponds, the remains of which were found by the early settlers without knowing their use—a peculiar enterprise for an Indian village, and one which I do not remember to have seen elsewhere. Here, too, were fields of corn whose golden ears were waiting the sickle of the harvester, and orchards whose trees were bending under their load of ripening fruit. The scout finding the village abandoned by the Indians, burned the houses, and hastened to return to Kanadesaga.
Skoi-yase, though not the capitol of the Cayugas, was one of their important towns, and the probable residence of one or more of their sachems. Situated upon the western frontier of their particular territory, and on the great trail which extended east and west through the whole length of the Confederacy, and far beyond, it was guarded with especial care and watchfulness by the nation. Its destruction was only the forerunner of that entire destruction of their nation which they had every reason to expect was soon to follow. It may be added that Norris and one or two others, call the place "Large Falls," and Fellows says "Long Falls."
Major Parr, with a company of riflemen was sent seven miles up the west side of the lake to destroy the town of Shenanwaga—(also called Gothseungquean) which had been discovered on the 6th from the opposite side of the lake, containing about twenty houses, surrounded with cornfields, peach and apple orchards, where were found large stacks of hay, hogs, fowls, and all the evidences of agricultural prosperity. The houses were new and well built and the fields fenced. Finding himself unable to complete the destruction of the town before the army would move, Maj. Parr sent to General Sullivan for assistance. Four hundred men under Lieutenant Colonel Smith † volunteered to join in the work, which was not finished until the next day, and they joined the main army at its encampment on the evening of September 9th.
Kanadesaga was a large and important town, consisting of fifty houses with thirty more in the immediate vicinity, and being the capitol of the nation was frequently called the "Seneca Castle." Its site was on the present Castle road, a mile and a half west from
* See appendix No. 6.
† In general orders of May 26, Lt. Colonel William Smith was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of Spencer's Regiment. On the 28th of June the companies of Forman's Corps were assigned to Spencer's Regiment, and the Regiment to Maxwell's Brigade. On the 20th of July, some of the men belonging to this regiment were transferred to Hubley's, the remainder served under Spencer until the close of the war.
 Geneva. The town was divided by Kanadesaga or Castle Creek. It was regularly laid out, enclosing a large green plot, on which, during the "Old French War" in 1756, Sir William Johnson had erected a stockade fort, the remains of which were plainly visible to our army, and spoken of in a number of the journals. Orchards of apple, peach and mulberry trees surrounded the town. Fine gardens with onions, peas, beans, squashes, potatoes, turnips, cabbages, cucumbers, water melons, carrots and parsnips, abounded; and large cornfields were to the north and northeast of the town. All were destroyed on the 8th of September. Here was found a little white boy, about three years of age, who had been stolen by the Indians from the frontiers. The little fellow was nearly starved when our men found him. No clue to his parentage was ever obtained. The officers of the expedition were greatly interested in the little waif and tenderly cared for him. Captain Machin adopted him and christened him Thomas. He died in Kingston, N. Y., some two years after, of small-pox.
Here was the residence of Siangorochti, commonly called Grahta, or Old Smoke, from the fact that he carried the brand by which the council fires were lighted, an honor held by no other. At the time of General Sullivan's Expedition, the old king fled in advance of the army to the British fort at Niagara, while the young king, being only twelve years of age, was too young to engage in military affairs. A daughter of the old king married Roland, a son of Catherine Montour.
Here General Sullivan held a consultation with his brigadiers, as to the advisability of proceeding further and though the supplies on hand were scanty, it was determined in view of the abundance of vegetables everywhere found, to push forward, as far at least as the Genesee Castle. Here all who were disabled by sickness and lameness, together with the unserviceable horses were sent back to Tioga under an escort of fifty men commanded by Captain John Reed, of the Massachusetts Regiment, who also had instructions to forward supplies from Fort Sullivan as far as Kanawaholla, for the army on its return.
On the 9th the army resumed its journey toward the Genesee and after an uneventful march of eight miles, encamped in the woods near a stream of water now called Flint creek.
Starting the next morning at 8 o'clock, after marching eleven miles, the army came to "Kanandaigua lake," and fording its bullet marched a mile farther, when they found the town of "Kanandaigua," consisting of twenty-three elegant houses, some of them framed, others log, but large and new, pleasantly situated about a mile from the west shore of the lake, partly on the site of the present Canandaigua. At this place, the rear guard of the enemy remained so long, that their fires were found burning. The torch was soon applied to the buildings, and the army advanced a mile farther where the cornfields were, and encamped, when fatigue parties were detailed for the destruction of the crops, which was pretty thoroughly accomplished before dark.
Before daylight on the morning of Saturday, September 11th, the troops were again in motion. A march of fourteen miles brought them to the Indian town of Han-ne-ya-ye, which contained about twenty houses, and was near the site of present Honeoye, at the foot of Honeoye lake, on the east side of its outlet.
The General now estimated his distance from the principal Genesee town at about twenty-five miles and that he might not be burdened with unnecessary baggage and stores, all except about four days half rations, the baggage, cattle and horses except a few of the strongest, were left here in charge of Captain Cummings and fifty men, together with the "sick, the lame and the lazy" which amounted to three hundred men all told. The Captain took possession of the strongest block-house, cut port holes through the sides, protected it with abatis made from the limbs of the apple trees, placed the two three-pounders left with him in proper position, strengthened the walls with the kegs and bags of flour, so that altogether it was capable of offering a formidable defense against any force that could be brought against it. Thus lightened, the army proceeded with its work with increased celerity.
Sunday morning, September 12th, was rainy, with thunder and lightning, so that it was noon before the army broke camp, after which it marched eleven miles and encamped  in the woods, nearly two miles from Kanaghsaws, which place General Sullivan would have reached that day but for the rain. He arrived there early the next morning. This town which is also called Adjuton, and several other names, in the journals, consisted of eighteen houses on the east of the inlet to Conesus Lake, a short distance southeast of the head of the lake, and about one mile northwest of Conesus Center, on the north and south road that passes through the McMillan farm. Between the town and the lake, on what were afterwards known as Henderson's Flats, were the cornfields. The main army encamped nearly two miles north, on the flats southwest of Foot's Corners. George Grant says, that a fine stream of water ran through the town, and that an enterprising negro, called Captain Sunfish, who had acquired considerable wealth and influence, resided here. It was also the home of the well-known Seneca chieftain, Big Tree, of whom Mr. Doty says, that he was a useful friend of the American cause in the Revolution, and a leading advisor in all treaties and councils of the Senecas. In the summer of 1778, he was sent by Washington to the towns along the Genesee, in the hope that his personal influence and eloquence might win the Senecas to the cause of the States. He found his countrymen disposed to listen until they learned from a spy that the Americans were about to invade their country, when all flew to arms. Big Tree put himself at their head, as he said, "to chastise an enemy that would dare to encroach upon his people's territory."* This last sentence cannot be accepted as correct. Colonel Dearborn says that Big Tree "made great pretensions of friendship towards us; has been in Philadelphia and at General Washington's head-quarters since the war commenced. He received a number of presents from General Washington and Congress, yet we presume he is again with Butler." The facts seem to be these: though a real friend to the Americans, yet on coming to his own country he found the feeling of enmity so strong and so universal among the Senecas, that he was overborne by it, and obliged to submit.
All day the Indian scouts had been so near our army that their tracks were fresh on the path, and the water was roiled through which they passed.
Immediately after the battle of Newtown, the forces of Butler and Brant had retired to Canawaugus, near the site of present Avon, in Livingston county, but having received considerable reinforcements, they determined to make another attempt to arrest the further progress of the army.
At the head of Conesus lake was a soft, miry bottom, along the south side of which ran the Indian path to the Genesee towns, nearly on the site of the present highway, crossing the sluggish inlet by a bridge, which Butler had destroyed on his retreat, probably a few feet south of the present one. On the west of the lake and running parallel with it is a steep bluff of considerable height, which reaches nearly to the water's edge, at that time covered with trees, and then, as now, deeply gashed by several ravines which come straight down its face. The path led up to the crest of the hill between two of these ravines, but with a southerly trend, following nearly or exactly the line of the present road. This was the place selected by the enemy to surprise the army, and, if possible, to destroy it. †
Learning from his scouts that General Sullivan was approaching this difficult place, early on the morning of the 12th, Butler left Canawaugus, and in the afternoon had his forces posted on the crest of the ridge and in the ravines, overlooking the south end of the lake, and flanking the path to the Genesee towns. Here, though himself perfectly concealed, he was in full view of General Sullivan's army and within musket shot of the inlet crossing.
As late as 1770, the principal Genesee town, called Chenussio, was located near the confluence of the Canaseraga creek with the Genesee river, and here it was marked on the
* Col. Doty's history of Livingston county, p. 113.
† General J. S. Clark has called my attention to the fact that there is a striking topographical resemblance between this place and Braddock's Field. The memory of that victory may have afforded inspiration to the courage and patience of the enemy.
 most recent maps* to which General Sullivan had access. He was not aware of the fact that its location had been changed to the west side of the river, and seems to have known nothing of another town two miles farther up the Canaseraga.
When, therefore, General Sullivan reached his encampment on the evening of the 12th, he supposed that he was near the great Genesee Castle of which he had heard so much, and which was the objective point of his expedition. In order to secure more accurate information, he ordered Lieutenant Thomas Boyd of the Riflemen, to take five or six men with him, † make a rapid reconnoissance, and report at head-quarters as early as sunrise the next morning. He took, however, twelve riflemen, six musketmen of the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment, and eight volunteers, making, with himself and Hanyerry, an Oneida Indian guide, and Captain Jehoiakim, a Stockbridge Indian, twenty nine men in all. ‡ The party left camp north of Kanaghsaws at eleven o'clock in the evening and set out on the trail leading to the Great Town. Owing to his misinformation, General Sullivan's directions had been confusing and misleading. It was found that the principally traveled trail took a direction different from what was expected. Boyd did not lose his way, but instead of taking the unused path that led to the abandoned Chenussio, he took the one which brought him to an important town two miles farther up the Canaseraga, the only one between the army and the Genesee. In the darkness, he had passed Butler's right flank, without either party having discovered the other. Boyd reached the town which the enemy had abandoned, early in the morning, without having encountered any difficulty. Halting his force at the outskirts of the village, with one of his men he carefully recon-noitered the place, then rejoining the rest of the party they concealed themselves in the woods near the town. He sent back four § of his men to report the discoveries he had made, and awaited the light of the day, whose morning was just breaking. Soon four Indians on horseback were seen entering the town, and Boyd sent a party to take or kill them. One Indian was killed and another wounded. The wounded man and the two others escaped. Boyd then set out for camp. Having gone four or five miles, and thinking the army must be on its march toward him, he sat down to rest. After a short halt he dispatched two of his men to inform the General where he was, and of his intention to await the coming of the army. In a short time these men returned, with the information that they had discovered five Indians on the path. Boyd again resumed his march and had gone but a short distance, when he discovered the same party and fired on them. They ran, and Boyd, against the advice of Hanyerry, pursued them. The chase was kept up for some distance, the Indians succeeding in alluring the scouting party near the enemy's lines. They then allowed the party to approach sufficiently near to draw their fire, but kept out of danger. Butler, hearing the firing on his right, as his force was arranged facing Conesus, and fearing that he had been discovered, and that an attempt was being made to surprise his camp, hastened to the spot, where he found Boyd's party still following the Indians. Without being aware of their presence, Boyd was already within the fatal embrace of the enemy, and before he was aware of it, Butler had given such orders as to completely surround him. Once and again he attempted to break their
* General Sullivan frequently complains of the inaccuracies of his maps, then accessible, and that he was sometimes misled by them. But when we recollect, that they were not made after any surveys, and were at the best, mere estimates as to distance and direction, we need not be surprised at this.
† This is the number given in Genera Sullivan's report. Major Adam Hoops, who was on General Sullivan's staff, in a letter written by him says, "I was in the General's tent when he gave the instructions to Boyd, which were verbal, of course, but very particular." He directed him to take three or four riflemen.
‡ The numbers are very conflicting. Major Hoops says 28 and an Indian guide, with this agree some others. General Sullivan says, "Instead of three or four riflemen, he took 23 volunteers from the same corps and a few from Col. Butler's Regiment, 6 in all." If in this he does not reckon the commandant, or the two Indian guides, they would make the 29, the number given by Major Fogg, whose means of information were so superior and his account so circumstantial, that I have adopted it substantially, instead of the numbers adopted in 1879. Beatty and Hubley say 26, besides the Lieutenant, and do not count the Indians.
§ Including Captain Jehoiakim.
 line, but without success; he then sought to retreat, but he was encompassed on all sides. The odds were fearful, eight hundred of the Indians and Tories to twenty-five Americans, but the scouts determined to sell their lives as dearly as possible; and relief from our army, which was only about a mile distant, was expected every moment. Covered by a clump of trees, our men poured a murderous fire upon the enemy as they were closing around them, numbers of whom were seen to fall.* In all, fifteen of Boyd's party, including Hanyerry probably, † were slain, eight escaped, Boyd and his sergeant, Michael Parker,‡ were captured, and four had been sent early in the morning to report to General Sullivan. The bodies of the slain § were found on the 16th by Captain William Henderson, of the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment, who with sixty men had been detailed to search for them and buried with military honors, that of Hanyerry with the others, although literally hacked to pieces. The story of his capture, the theatrical address of his brother, and his tragic end, as told by Stone and repeated by others, lacks both confirmation and probability. Of those who escaped, one was the noted Timothy Murphy, from Northumberland, Pa., of Boyd's company, an account of whose hair-breadth escapes and deeds of reckless daring would fill a volume. Others were David Elerson, Edward McDonald, Garrett Putnam, a French Canadian and John Youse. ¡¡ Boyd and Parker were hastened to Little Beard's town, where they were put to death with cruel tortures. ¶ It has been currently reported, that after his capture, Boyd approached Brant under the sign of a Free Mason, of which ancient fraternity both were members, that the chieftain recognized the bond of brotherhood and promised him protection, but having
* Boyd's men were buried near where they fell. It is at the head of the first ravine south of the road which passes by the cemetery on the hill west of the head of Conesus lake. The point is within a half mile of the cemetery and about ten rods directly south of Mrs. Boyd's barn. A view of the spot is given in the History of Livingston county. In the autumn of 1841, the grave at Groveland was opened and some of the bones taken out, which, with those of Boyd and Parker, were taken to Mt. Hope cemetery in Rochester, N. Y. S. Treat, Esq., delivered an historical oration at Geneseo, to an audience estimated at 5,000 persons, at the formal delivery of the remains by the citizens of Livingston county to the Committee of Rochester, and at Rochester, Hon. Wm. H. Seward delivered a patriotic address. A number of the soldiers of Sullivan's army were present, among them Moses Van Campen, and Mr Sanborn, who discovered the remains of the unfortunate Boyd and Parker. (See also paper by Geo. H. Harris, published with proceedings of Geneseo centennial celebration.)
† There is some discrepancy in the statements, but the probability is that Hanyerry was not counted with the 14 found at Groveland.
‡ Michael Parker was a corporal in the First Pennsylvania Regiment, from which he was promoted to Sergeant in Captain Simpson's company.
Thomas Boyd was from Derry, Pa., where he enlisted January, 1776, as a Sergeant in Captain Stephen Bayard's Company, transferred to Captain Matthew Smith's Company the following November, and January 14, 1778, was made Captain Lieutenant in the First Pennsylvania Regiment. He was with other riflemen detached from his regiment and joined Colonel Butler's, and subsequently under command of Major Parr. Of fine physique, engaging manners, brave almost to recklessness, he was endowed with the qualities which would command attention, without the cool judgment or firmness which would fit him for a leader. He was 22 years of age at his death.
§ Among the slain were Nicholas Hungerman, Sergeant in Captain Mears' Company, and the following privates of this regiment viz.:— John Conrey, William Faughey, William Harvey, James McElroy and John Miller also John Putnam, a cousin to Garrett from Fort Hunter, and Benjamin Curtin (or Custin) of Schoharie.
¡¡ "I was one of the party of the corps in the expedition against the Indians of Genesee, Seneca, &c., and was one of the party of five who survived, out of a scout of twenty-four, and forty-one days of that campaign was on half rations."—Petition of John Youse.—Pa. Ar., N. S., X, 31.
¶ Major Fogg says, "So that of the twenty-nine sent out, eleven returned, sixteen were killed, and two are now missing."— Journal for Sept. 16. Of the eleven who returned, four were sent back on the morning of the 13th, five escaped who were the flankers of the party, and two hid under a log in a thicket of tall thrifty nettles —And Beatty says, the evening of the 13th, two came in, who escaped from the savages. Fogg and Thomas Grant both report two missing, that is, that on the 16th, the burial party found all but two of those who went out with Boyd. Campfield and Jenkins give the number killed as 17, while Shute says that four and Jehoiakim returned in the morning of the 13th. If these be the correct figure, it accounts for the 29 viz.: 17 killed, 5 returned, and 7 escaped. A number of the journals speak of one being wounded, but this may have been confounded with Corporal Calhawn.
 been unexpectedly called away, the captives were placed in charge of Butler (probably Walter N.) who, becoming exasperated with Boyd's persistent refusal to disclose any information in regard to the army, handed them over to the Indians to be put to death. The whole story however, is extremely doubtful, and it is now difficult to ascertain how much of it, if any, should be received as true. The most that can be said with certainty is, that the next day the bodies of the unfortunate men were found by our troops, horribly mangled, and bearing marks of having suffered unspeakable torture.*
General Sullivan had established a line of sentries along the base of the hill next the morass, to guard the pioneers against surprise while repairing the bridge. Benjamin Lodge, who was the surveyor for the expedition, and with chain and compass had measured the entire route from Easton, about half an hour after the skirmish with Boyd on the hill, had gone a short distance beyond the picket line, when he was set upon by a party of Indians, who were pursuing the fugitives of the scouting party. Thomas Grant, who was one of the surveying party, thus tells the story: "Myself and four chain carriers, who were about one and a half miles advanced of the troops, were fired on by several Indians, who lay in ambush; a Corporal by the name of Calhawn, who came voluntarily with me was mortally wounded and died next day. The Indians pursued us a fourth of a mile, but without success,—we being unarmed, were obliged to run." Lieut. Lodge was compelled to leave his compass and ran toward the nearest sentinel, who shot the Indian chasing him with uplifted tomahawk, and Lieut. Lodge escaped. General Sullivan ordered Hand's Brigade to cross the morass, push up the hill and dislodge the enemy. Butler on returning to his forces on the crest of the hill found them in confusion, and, seeing the preparations made to attack them, they beat a hasty retreat, leaving their hats, packs, etc., behind them. Butler being thus thwarted in his plans to surprise the army, withdrew his forces to Gathtsegwarohare, and then to Canawaugus.
Having destroyed Kanaghsaws and completed the bridge across the creek, General Sullivan pushed forward on the trail taken by Boyd the night before, a distance of seven miles to Gathtsegwarohare.
This was an Indian town of twenty-five houses, mostly new, on the east side of Canaseraga creek, about two miles above its confluence with the Genesee. The site is now occupied by the house and surrounding grounds of the "Hermitage," the ancestral home of the Carrolls.
As the advance of the army approached the town about dusk of September 13th, they found themselves confronted by a strong force of Indians and rangers, drawn up in battle array to dispute their further progress. The General at once pushed forward the flanking divisions to cut off their retreat, but the enemy, seeing the troops come into position, fled without firing a gun, and the army encamped in the town without opposition. There were extensive cornfields adjacent to the town, which it took two thousand men, six hours, the next day, to destroy. This being accomplished, about noon of the 14th, they set out for the great Genesee town, reaching it about sunset.
The route was down the Genesee valley then in its autumnal glory, covered with grass from six to ten feet high. Soon after leaving the encampment, the army crossed the Genesee river, about twenty yards in width, but with such rapid current, the men were obliged to cross in platoons with locked arms to resist the force of the stream. Ascending the high land on the west side of the river, the scene was one of indescribable beauty. For miles not a hill nor bush could be seen, only here and there a clump of trees broke the monotony of the landscape. The army also presented a grand appearance, marching in the same accurate order of that laid down by the General on paper. So deeply were many of the soldiers impressed with the wonderful resources of this valley, that as soon as it was open for occupation, they became the pioneers in its settlement.
The location of this great Seneca Castle, was on the west side of the Genesee river, on
*On the 27th of March 1780, a party of Indiana captured Thomas Bennett and others in the Wyoming valley. The leader had a very fine sword, which he said belonged to Boyd, and added, " Boyd, brave man!" The prisoners rose upon their captors, killed several of them, recaptured the sword, and returned in safety to Wyoming.
 the flat immediately in front of Cuylersville, in the town of Leicester, on the opposite side of the valley from Geneseo. It appears on Evans' map as Chenandoanes; in 1776 it was called Chenondanah; by Morgan it is called De-o-nun-da-ga-a, as a more modern Seneca name, signifying "where the hill is near," but is more often called Little Beard's town, from the name of the noted Seneca chieftain who resided there in 1779.
The castle consisted of one hundred and twenty-eight houses, of which the most were large and elegant, and was surrounded by about two hundred acres of cornfields and gardens, filled with all kinds of vegetables. It was the western door of the Long House to which the Iroquois were accustomed to liken their confederacy. Near this town were found the bodies of Lieutenant Thomas Boyd and Sergeant Michael Parker, horribly mutilated by the tortures to which they had been subjected. They were buried that evening with the honors of war, near the spot where they were found.
Mr. Paul Sanborn, a soldier on the extreme right wing of Clinton's Brigade, discovered the headless bodies, and the rifle company of Captain Michael Simpson,* of which Boyd had been Lieutenant, performed the melancholy duty of burying the mutilated remains of their comrades, which was done under a wild plum tree, standing near the forks of two streams, which have been named, respectively, Boyd's creek and Parker's creek.
At 6 o'clock in the morning of the 15th of September, the whole army was turned out to destroy the crops, orchards, houses and gardens of the place. The corn was piled up in the houses and burned with them, or consumed on log heaps. It was estimated that from fifteen thousand to twenty thousand bushels were destroyed at this place. It was the largest corn the troops had ever seen, some of the ears being twenty-two inches in length. It was about two o'clock P. M., when, the fields having been over-run, the abundant harvest destroyed, the trees hewn down, and naught of the great town remaining but smoking ruins and blackened logs, there came the joyful order to about face and return. While the army remained at this town, Mrs. Lester, with a child in her arms, came to our troops. The autumn previous, (November 7th,) her husband with others was captured near Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, by the Indians; he was slain, but his wife was carried into captivity. In their haste to escape our army, her captors left her behind and she escaped to our lines. Her child died a few days after. She subsequently became the wife of Captain Roswell Franklin, who was in the first party that settled Aurora, on Cayuga lake.
Having over-run and destroyed, as it was supposed, all the villages of the Senecas, about three o'clock P. M., the army set out on its return by the same route it had advanced, and on the evening of the 19th, reached Kanadesaga without any occurrence worthy of note, except that scattered dwelling and fields of corn which had been overlooked, or purposely spared, were completely destroyed, and a number of the packhorses, being unable to travel further, were shot. Here General Sullivan was met by a delegation from the Oneidas, who came to excuse themselves for not joining the expedition, and also to intercede on behalf of the Cayugas, east of the lake, who claimed to be friendly to Congress. They were also closely united by inter-marriages to the Oneidas, who thought that if the towns were destroyed and the means of subsistence laid waste, their families would come to them for support, which, added to their already heavy burdens, would be more then they could endure. In reply, General Sullivan informed them that the whole course of the Cayugas had been marked by duplicity, and hostility, for which he had determined they should be chastised, and he should not be turned from his purpose.
During this day's march, a delay of two hours was caused by the breaking down of one of the gun carriages, which required considerable time to repair. It is doubtless owing to this circumstance that at a number of streams on the route of the army, there is a tradition of a lost cannon. There is positive evidence, that General Sullivan brought back the five guns he took from Newtown.
On Monday morning, the 20th of September, General Sullivan sent Colonel Smith with
* Captain Simpson was promoted from First Lieutenant, December 1,1776; retired from the service, January 1, 1781; died, June 1, 1813, aged 65; buried in Paxtang church-yard, near Harrisburg, Pa.
 a small force up the west side of Seneca lake to complete the destruction of Kershong and its cornfields, which had been partly effected on the 9th, and make explorations for other towns. Having finished its work, the party joined the main army in the evening. At the same time, the General detached Colonel Peter Gansevoort with 100 men selected from the New York Regiments, with instructions to go to Albany, via Fort Schuyler, and bring forward the heavy luggage which had been stored at those places, previous to the setting out of the expedition. A few families of the Mohawks who professed to be friendly to the United States, occupied what was known as the Lower Mohawk Castle. By some means General Sullivan had been informed that these Indians were acting as spies for the hostile part of the nations, and directed Colonel Gansevoort to capture the inhabitants and destroy their town. On the representations of their neighbors, of the friendly disposition of these Indians, he set a guard over their town, but took the men to Albany; where, upon the statement of Schuyler,* Washington ordered their immediate release with directions, "To lay them under such obligations for their future good behavior as they should think necessary."
In Colonel Gansevoort's letter to General Sullivan, he describes the movements of his detachment:
ALBANY, October 8th, 1779.
Agreeable to my orders, I proceeded by the shortest route to the lower Mohawk Castle, passing through the Tuscarora and Oneida Castles, where every mark of humanity and friendship was shown the party. I had the pleasure to find that not the least damage nor insult was offered any of the inhabitants. On the 25th ultimo, I arrived at Fort Schuyler, where refreshing the party, I proceeded down the river, and on the 29th effectually surprised the lower Mohawk Castle, making prisoners of every Indian inhabitant.
They then occupied but four houses. I was preparing, agreeable to my orders, to destroy them, but was interrupted by the intercessions and entreaties of several of the inhabitants of the frontiers, who have lately been driven from their settlements by the savages, praying they might have liberty to enter into the Mohawk's houses, whilst they could procure other habitations. And well knowing these persons to have lately lost their all, humanity tempted me, in this particular, to act in some degree, contrary to orders. At this I could not but be confident of your approbation, especially when you are informed that this Castle is in the heart of our settlements and abounds with every necessary, so that it is remarked, that these Indians live much better than most of the Mohawk river farmers. Their houses were well furnished with all necessary household utensils, and great plenty of grain; several horses, cows and wagons, of all which I have an inventory, leaving them in care of Major Nukerck of that place, who distributed the refugees in the several houses. Such being the situation, I did not allow the party to plunder.
The prisoners arrived at Albany the 2d inst., all closely secured in the fort. Yesterday, the 7th, I received a letter from General Schuyler, (I have enclosed a copy,) respecting those prisoners, and desiring the sending the prisoners down might be postponed until an express arrived from his Excellency, General Washington. Agreeable to this request, a
* The following is General Schuyler's letter to Colonel Gansevoort, dated Albany, October 7, 1779:
Having perused General Sullivan's orders to you, respecting the Indians of the lower Mohawk Castle and their property, I conceive they are founded on misinformation given to that gentleman. Those Indians have peaceably remained there, under the sanction of the public faith, repeatedly given them by the Commissioners of Indian affairs on condition of peaceable demeanor; this contract they have not violated, to our knowledge. It is, therefore, incumbent upon us as servants of the public to keep the public faith inviolate, and we therefore entreat you to postpone the sending the Indians from hence until the pleasure of his Excellency, General Washington, can be obtained; and a letter is already dispatched to him on the occasion, and in which we have mentioned this application to you.
I am, dear sir, your most obedient, humble servant,
President of the Board of Commissioners for Indian Affairs. N. Dep't.
 Sergeant and twelve men are detained to keep charge of the prisoners until his Excellency's pleasure is known. * * *
I am, Dear Sir, with Respect,
Your Most Obedient and Very Humble Servant,
HONORABLE MAJOR GENERAL SULLIVAN.
At the same time (September 20th,) a detachment of six hundred men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William Butler, † of the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment, was sent to lay waste the towns on the east side of the Cayuga lake. Thomas Grant accompanied this detachment, and his journal, which unfortunately ends abruptly September 25th, and the journal of George Grant, Sergeant Major of the Third New Jersey Regiment, with Sullivan's report, are the principal sources of information in regard to their movements.
It was 2 o'clock P. M., when the detachments of Gansevoort and Butler set out from Kanadesaga for Skoi-yase, which they reached at dark and encamped there for the night. The next morning several fields of corn were discovered about the town, which Major Scott, ‡ with two hundred men, was detailed to destroy.
While Major Scott and his party were engaged in completing the distruction of Skoi-yase, the rest of the detachment pushed forward at seven o'clock in the morning. A march of eleven miles brought them to Cayuga lake, the outlet of which they crossed where it was seventy perches in width, wading up to their breasts in water. Just at the
* See biographical sketch accompanying steel engraving.
† Colonel William Butler was the second of five brothers of a family which came from Ireland and settled in Cumberland county, Pa., prior to 1760.
On the formation of the 4th Regiment he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel, October 25th, 1776. As a military officer he early acquired considerable distinction. When, in the spring of 1778, the whole frontier was threatened by Indians and Tories, Timothy Pickering wrote to Washington for "an officer of established reputation for bravery and capacity," and adds, "if we are not misinformed, Lieutenant Colonel William Butler has been most conversant with the Indians and their mode of fighting."
Immediately after the battle of Monmonth, in which both his regiment and himself bore an important part, his regiment, with four companies of Morgan's riflemen, was stationed at Schoharie, N. Y. Here his bravery and experience as an officer, which was second to none of his rank, rendered him greatly efficient in quieting the disaffected, and establishing confidence and courage among the people. In order to break up the haunts of the hostile Indians on the Susquehanna, Colonel Thomas Hartley, with the 11th Pennsylvania, ascended the river as far as Tioga, which he destroyed, together with Queen Esther's plantation and Wyalusing; and about the same time, Colonel Butler, the riflemen and a corps of twenty rangers, marched to the waters of the Delaware, descended that stream for two days, and then struck off for the Susquehanna, which they reached at Unadilla. The Indians fled on their approach, leaving behind great quantities of corn, some cattle and much of their household goods. Butler pushed on to Oghkwaga, which was a well built Indian town, there being a number of good farm houses on each side of the river. Destroying both these towns, and an Indian castle three miles below, the mills at Unadilla, and the corn, Butler returned to Schoharie. He went down the river with Clinton in 1779, to Tioga, where he was transferred to Hand's Brigade. He served in the army until the close of the war when he moved to Pittsburg. Here the remaining years of his life were spent in comparative quiet and comfort until his death, in 1789. He was buried in Trinity church-yard, Pittsburgh, Pa. The inscription upon the tablet erected to his memory, has become well nigh effaced by the storms of nearly a century.
‡ Major William Scott, of Cilley's 1st New Hampshire Regiment, was of Scotch-Irish descent, his father, Alexander, being one of the first settlers of Peterborough, moving into that town in 1742. While preparing a permanent settlement, he left his wife in Townsend, Mass., where William was born, May, 1743. When seventeen years of age he became connected with Goff's Regiment, and was noted for his energy and courage. In 177_ , he was a Lieutenant in one of the Massachusetts Regiments, and fought with desperate courage. His leg was fractured early in an engagement in which his regiment participated, but he continued fighting until, receiving other wounds, he fell and was taken prisoner. Upon the evacuation of Boston he was carried to Halifax and thrown into prison, but escaped by undermining its walls. He was in Fort Washington at the time of its surrender, November 17th, 1776, and was the only person who escaped, which he effected by swimming the Hudson by night, where it was a mile in width. He was promoted to a captaincy in a Massachusetts Regiment, but preferring the New Hampshire line, he accepted a captaincy in Cilley's Regiment. He was with the army until 1781, when he entered the naval service, in which he continued until the close of the war. He died at Litchfield, N. H , September 10th, 1796, aged fifty-three years.—N. H. Hist. Coll.
 outlet of this lake, was the old Indian town, Tichero; which the Jesuit fathers called St. Stephen. The journalist says, "Near the outlet destroyed two Indian houses. The name of the place is Choharo." The site was on the east side of the river, at a point where it was crossed by the great trail, and near where it was afterward crossed by the Northern Turnpike. While they were destroying this place, Major Scott and his party overtook them. Five and a half miles farther, or sixteen miles from Skoi-yase, the detachment encamped for the night at a small Indian settlement, a mile and a half from the Cayuga Castle, called Gewawga, located on the site of Union Springs. After leaving Choharo, the path kept near the lake shore, along which were several houses and cornfields that the detachment destroyed as it passed along.
Early in the morning of Wednesday, September 22d, the detachment reached Cayuga Castle. Thomas Grant describes this town as containing fifteen very large square log houses, and adds, ''I think the building superior to any I have yet seen." Two other towns were in the immediate neighborhood: one, a mile south from the Castle and called by our men Upper Cayuga, containing fourteen large houses, and the other, two miles north-east of the Castle, (Grant says,) called by our men Cayuga, sometimes East Cayuga, or Old Town. In the vicinity of the Castle, were one hundred and ten acres of corn; besides apples, peaches, potatoes, turnips, onions, pumpkins, squashes and other vegetables in abundance. Major Grant describes Cayuga as a large and commodious town consisting of about fifty houses, but he evidently includes the three towns mentioned by Thomas Grant; he also adds that the troops found salt here, manufactured by the Indians from the salt springs near Choharo, some United States muskets and a few regimental coats. The Oneidas, who accompanied the detachment of Colonel Butler on their return to their own country and who had besought clemency for the Cayugas, were somewhat displeased with General Sullivan's answer to their petition, but, on searching the houses at Cayuga, some fresh scalps were discovered, which, being shown to them, convinced them of the justice of the course pursued by General Sullivan. This town, the Cayuga Castle, probably was on or near one called by the French Jesuits, Goi-o-gouen, at which the mission of St. Joseph's was established, and which General John S. Clark locates on the north side of Great Gully Brook. This corresponds with the distance (ten miles,) recorded by Benjamin Lodge, the Surveyor of the expedition, who accompanied this detachment. On his map, Cayuga Castle is located on the north side of the stream, and Upper Cayuga on the south side of it.
The troops were employed until three o'clock P. M., of the next day, in destroying this place when they marched to Chonodote, four and a half miles from Cayuga Castle, and which Mr. Lodge notes as "remarkable for its peach trees." There were fifteen hundred of them, some apple trees, and a number of acres of corn. This town consisted of fourteen houses, chiefly old buildings, and stood on the site of the village of Aurora. Here the army encamped for the night. Early the next morning, September 24th, the work of destruction commenced. As remorseless as a cannon shot, the axe levelled every tree though burdened with its loads of luscious fruit, and the freshly ripened corn was gathered only to be destroyed. At 10 o'clock A. M., the torch was applied to the dwellings, and as the crackling flames lifted their fiery heads over this scene of havoc and destruction, the detachment resumed its march. It was an hour after dark before the next encampment was reached, which was sixteen and a half miles south of Chonodote, on a pleasant hill beside a fine stream of water.*
Early on Saturday morning, the 25th, the detachment resumed its march. After traveling seven miles, they reached the southern extremity of Cayuga lake; going five miles farther, they came to the smoking ruins of a town destroyed by a party under Colonel Dearborn, the day before, of which I shall speak presently. Having destroyed the corn which was overlooked by the party who burned the town, the troops encamped here for the night.
* North of Ludlowville. This day they crossed two streams, the first of which Gen. Clark identifies as Mill creek, the second as near Lake Ridge in the town of Lansing.
 On the 26th and 27th, the route for most of the way was a thorough pathless wilderness, where the sun and the surveyor's compass were the only guides. While on the march this day, a man of the party died suddenly. On the 28th, the detachment rejoined the main army at Fort Reed, erected at Kanawaholla.
In his report General Sullivan sums up the results of this branch of the expedition as follows: "Colonel Butler destroyed, in the Cayuga county, five principal towns and a number of scattering houses, the whole making about one hundred in number, exceedingly large and well built. He also destroyed two hundred acres of excellent corn, with a number of orchards, one of which had one thousand five hundred fruit trees." The five towns destroyed were Skoi-yase, the three Cayugas and Chonodote.
We left General Sullivan with the main army at Kanadesaga on the 20th. That day he crossed to the east side of the outlet and encamped. From this point on Tuesday morning, the 21st, Colonel Dearborn* with two hundred men was sent to lay waste the country on the west side of Cayuga lake. General Sullivan says: "I detached Colonel Dearborn to the west side of Cayuga lake, to destroy all the settlements which might be found there, and to intercept the Cayugas if they should attempt to escape Colonel Butler."
The journal of Colonel Dearborn and that of Major James Norris of the same Regiment, Third New Hampshire, and the Seneca County Courier, are the principal sources of information.
At eight o'clock on the morning of the 21st, the detachment left the main army, and taking almost a direct easterly course, came to three wigwams in the woods, where were also several patches of corn, cucumbers, melons, peas, etc.; they also found near here fifteen horses. Advancing four miles farther, they reached the shore of Cayuga lake at a very pretty town consisting of ten houses, which, with a considerable quantity of corn, was destroyed. A mile south of this point was another town called Skanayutenate; going a mile farther south, they found a third village, described by Norris as a new town, consisting of nine houses, and a mile beyond, they found a large house, all which they burned, and Dearborn encamped for the night about two miles south of the large house. Counting the three wigwams a village, as both Dearborn and Norris do, and the results of this day's work were the destruction of four towns and numerous cornfields, and a march estimated at seventeen miles. The relative situation of these three towns on the west side of the lake was very similar to that of the three Cayugas on the opposite side. The first little cluster of wigwams was located near the reservation line on the small stream that enters the Seneca river above Seneca Falls, in the town of Fayette. Skanayutenate, the central one of the three, was situated on the bank of Canoga creek, the second, the one unnamed, being a mile north, and the one called Newtown on the Disinger farm, a mile south. This is a point hardly second in historical interest to Cayuga itself, and its destruction was a severe blow to the Cayuga nation. While it is not germane to my topic, to discuss questions of general history outside of this campaign, it may be allowed me to say, that Canoga was the birth-place of Red Jacket, the great Iroquois orator.
After marching five miles the next day, the detachment came to the ruins of a town burned by the packhorse drivers, connected with Colonel Gansevoort's Regiment. Beatty, under date of September 6th, says: "This evening came up four or five packhorse-men, who lost themselves, and told us that they took the wrong path, and went on till near night when they came to a small Indian town on Cayuga lake, which the Indians had abandoned. They then found out their mistake and came to us as soon as possible, after burning the houses. They likewise got a very fine horse, and a great number of peaches and apples which they brought to camp." Dr. Campfield adds, they were Colonel Gansevoort's servants. This town, Dearborn calls Swah-ya-wa-nah, and adds "a half mile distant found a large field of corn and three houses. We gathered the corn out and burnt it in the houses." This town was built on the banks of a stream which passes through the farm of Mr. Edward Dean, in Romulus, opposite to Aurora.
* For a biographical sketch of Col. Dearborn, see introduction to his journal.
 The detachment pushed on about five miles where they found a hut occupied by three squaws and a crippled Indian lad. Two of the squaws were taken captive, the others were left. Three miles beyond this, they found another hut and a field of corn; both were destroyed and the party encamped four miles farther up the lake, twelve miles from Swah-ya-wa-nah, and seventeen from the last encampment.
The march on the 23d was one of great fatigue. Setting out at sunrise, without any path, or map, or guide, no one of the party having ever been there before, they advanced over what both journalists call, "a horribly rough country," which was so thickly covered with bushes that the men with great difficulty pushed their way through them. After traveling about nine miles, they found themselves at the end of a long cape, now known as Goodwin's Point or Taghanic, which they had mistaken for the end of the lake. The detachment then struck off two or three miles to the west, and after marching by point of compass, about eight miles farther, came to the end of the lake and encamped.
On the 24th, Dearborn put his force in motion at sunrise, and soon struck an old path which led to some huts and cornfields. Supposing that he was near an important Indian town, which was reported to be at the head of the lake, he divided his force into small parties and sent them in different directions to look for it. In their search several scattered houses and cornfields were, discovered and destroyed. At length the town was found situated on the Inlet creek, about three miles from the lake. The town consisted of twenty-five houses, and, says Norris, is called Co-re-or-go-nel, who adds that "it is the capital of a small nation or tribe called ____." Major Grant, who was in Butler's detachment and reached this town the next day after Dearborn, calls the place De Ho Riss Kanadai, says it was situated on the west side of the stream in a beautiful valley, and the creek was deep enough for canoes to pass from the town to the lake at any time. This site of this town has been identified by General Clark, at a point of rising ground, south of the school-house on the farm of Mr. James Hemming, and opposite to Buttermilk Falls. Dearborn's party was from nine o'clock in the morning until sunset, in destroying the crops and orchards about this place. The next day some of Colonel Butler's men found here the horse of the Rev, Dr. Kirkland, the missionary to the Oneidas, and one of the chaplains to the expedition.
The locality of this town is one of great interest to the antiquarian. In 1753, a remnant of the nation of the Catawbas called Christannas, having been nearly exterminated by the Iroquois, were planted here by the Cayugas. Soon after, a party of Monseys and the remnant of the nation of Tutelos, were allowed to settle here. In 1765, the Cayuga Sachem desired to remove the Christian Indians at Wyalusing, to the head of Cayuga lake, which he was forced to forego at the earnest persuasion of the missionaries. But now, as for nearly a century past, over their buried bones and slumbering ashes, the march of the white man's civilization goes sweeping by; and the glimmering water of the lake over which the Cayuga skimmed in his birchen canoe, are whitened by the sails of the white man's commerce.
Early in the morning of the 25th, Colonel Dearborn set out to join the main army, and by taking a due west course reached Catharine's about four o'clock P. M. Finding the army had passed that place, his men, though wearied by the difficult march, pushed on six miles farther and encamped on the edge of the swamp, and the next day reached the main Army.
General Sullivan thus reports concerning this detachment: "Colonel Dearborn burnt in his route, six towns, which include one that had before been partly destroyed by a small party, destroying at the same time large quantities of corn. He took an Indian lad and three women, prisoners; one of the women being very ancient, and the lad a cripple, he left them and brought on the other two, and joined the army on the evening of the 26th." The six towns destroyed, were the four burned the first day, together with Swah-yawana, and Co-re-or-go-nel.
The main army which we left on the south side of the Seneca river on the morning of the 21st, after the departure of Colonel Dearborn, immediately resumed its march, and without special incident reached its camping place, two miles south of Kendaia, at four  o'clock in the afternoon, having traveled thirteen miles. A march of fifteen miles the next day brought them within six miles of the head of the lake, which was reached before noon of the day following. Catherine's town was reached about noon. Halting here to rest, they sought out the old squaw found on their advance, and left her a supply of food and comfortable quarters. Here Sullivan also expected the detachments of Butler and Dearborn, but they not arriving, the army proceeded three miles farther and encamped for the night. On Friday, the 24th, the army was in motion at seven o'clock in the morning. The dry weather which had prevailed for the past four weeks had rendered the passage of the swamp comparatively easy. Halting to kill a number of horses* that were so worn down that they were unable to go farther, the troops pushed forward to Kanawaholia, a distance of fifteen miles from their last camping place.
Captain Reed, † whom General Sullivan had sent in command of the detachment which escorted the sick and lame from Kanadesago on the 9th, had, in obedience to orders, erected a palisaded fort at the junction of Newtown creek with the Tioga, which was named Fort Reed, and which he had manned with his three-pounder, where he had gathered a hundred beef cattle and abundant stores of provisions and liquors, and awaited the return of the army. As the men emerged in sight, Captain Reed received them with a salute of thirteen rounds from his cannon, which was answered by the cohorn, that being the piece in advance, and the next day received the thanks of the Commander-in-Chief, in general orders. Full rations were now resumed, to the great joy of the men, who were heartily tired of their almost exclusive vegetable diet. The army remained here until the 29th.
The 25th was taken as a day of rest and rejoicing over the news of the alliance of Spain with the United States, and over the success of the expedition. Colonel Jenkins says, "Five oxen were barbacued, and a great plenty of liquor to drink." In General Hand's Brigade, thirteen fires and thirteen candles were kept burning, and thirteen toasts were drank. ‡ A salute of thirteen cannon and a feu-de-joie were fired at evening.
About noon of the 26th, Colonel Dearborn reached Fort Reed in safety. The next day one party under Colonel Van Cortlandt § went nine miles up the Tioga where they devastated cornfields and brought to camp nine boat loads of corn and vegetables and returned in the evening. About sundown, Mr. Lodge and five others from Colonel Butler's, detachment now came into camp and reported the Colonel only ten miles distant, and that he would report at head-quarters the next morning.
Captain Simon Spalding ¡¡ was sent still farther up the Tioga, where he destroyed a
* Upon the return march of the army, it is said that a large number of worn out horses were killed or died at a camp not far from Newtown (Elmira), and that the Indians afterward collected the skulls and arranged them in a line by the side of the trail, from which it was named "The Valley of Horse-heads," and now (1886) "Horseheads," a town of Chemung county. In 1887, North Elmira.
† Not to be confounded with Lieut. Col. George Reed. Under date of Sept. 14, Col. Shreve at Fort Sullivan, orders a "Detachment of 100 men, properly officered, one three pounder and artillery men sufficient to work it, twenty small boats with a hundred boatmen under the care of Major Morrison to be immediately turned out, the whole to be under the command of Captain Reed. Lieutenant Colbrath, from his knowledge of the ground, is requested to go with the party." They set out for Kanawaholia the next day. Captain John Reed belonged to the Mass. Reg't.
‡ The toasts are given by Col. Jenkins, see journal of Sept. 25, the thirteenth toast, however, was so unique that I cannot forbear transcribing it here: —
"May the enemies of America be metamorphosed into packhorses and sent on a western expedition against the Indians."
§ See biographical sketch of Col. Philip Van Cortlandt, accompanying steel engraving.
¡¡ Simon Spalding, was born in Plainfield, Connecticut, in 1741. He early emigrated to Wyoming and had a settlement at Standing Stone before the Revolutionary war. He was made captain of the consolidated Wyoming Independent Companies and did active service on the frontiers from 1776, until the close of the war. Becoming acquainted with the fertile plains at Sheshequin, during the Sullivan Expedition, he raised a company and made a settlement, as soon as the war ended. He was well acquainted with and enjoyed the confidence of the Indians. He died at Sheshequin, January 24, 1814.
 town,* ten acres of corn, fences, etc., and which bore unmistakable evidence of having been built by white people. Captain Spalding did not rejoin the main body until the evening of the 29th.
A party of three hundred under Colonel Dubois, was sent down the right bank of the Tioga, which destroyed three hundred acres of corn, and encamped for the night, three miles below Kanawaholla.
On the morning of the 29th, General Sullivan broke camp at Fort Reed, and having demolished the fortification, continued his homeward march, encamping for the night on the flat two miles below Chemung, and the next day reached Fort Sullivan at Tioga, where he was received by Colonel Shreve † with demon-strations of joy, amid thunders of artillery, lively strains of music by drum and fife and by Proctor's regimental band. After feasting both officers and men, and pouring out pretty free libations to Bacchus, the whole was concluded with an Indian dance, under the direction of an Oneida Chief, led off by General Hand. One of the journals says, the clothes of the men were torn into shreds, by the bushes and brambles through which, for more than a month, they had been marching, and observes, that as the men joined in the dance, with their heads powdered with flour, their faces bedaubed with paint, and their fringed and shredded rifle frocks streaming in the wind, they presented an appearance at once weird and grotesque. One of the narrators of the story says: "Everybody laughed; even our grave chaplain could not repress a smile."
In this expedition, the army had burned forty Indian villages, destroyed 200,000 bushels of corn, besides thousands of fruit trees and great quantities of beans and potatoes. It might be said to be literally true of this army, that "The land was as the Garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness."
To Colonel Shreve, had been assigned duties involving great diligence and responsibility. When the army left Tioga, Fort Sullivan was hardly in a defensible condition, and the first work of the commandant was to strengthen its walls until they would be secure against any force the enemy might bring. Then in addition to the nine companies, (250 men) ‡ as many more invalids were left in his care. It was also understood when the army set out on its march that a battle was imminent and provision must be made for hospital accommodations for those who could not be removed, and for the removal of such as could be carried to Wyoming in boats. Also many cattle strayed beyond their herdsmen and the danger from skulking savages was too great to allow the men to go in quest of them. These must be collected for the sustenance of the troops on their return. Captain Reed gathered a hundred of them, that he took to Kanawaholla, while as many more were secured at Fort Sullivan. Colonel Shreve's responsibility was farther increased by the coming of three hundred sick and lame from Kanadesaga. In addition to these, the enlisted boatmen and the fleet were left in his care. His work was well done, and on the return of the army, General Sullivan in general orders commended his faithfulness, zeal and diligence.
From August 30th until the 26th of September, a period of twenty-seven days, § the army voluntarily subsisted on a half ration of flour and meat the most of which they carried on their backs, supplementing their wants with the green corn and vegetables found in the fields, they devastated. This diet together with the exposure and early autumn
* No name has been given this town, which was probably about the neighborhood of Painted Post.
† Israel Shreve was made Lieutenant Colonel of the Second New Jersey Battalion, Nov. 8, 1775; Colonel of the Second Battalion, Nov. 23, 1776; Colonel of the Second Regiment, discharged at the close of the war. In the campaign, his son Lieut. John Shreve, was in command of one of the companies of his regiment.
‡ They were Captain Isaiah Wools' of the Artillery, Captain George Tudor's, 4th Penna., Captain John Myers', 2nd N. J. Captain Benjamin Weatherby's, Spencers, N. J., Captain Moody Dustin's, 1st N. H., Captain Amos Morrell's, 1st N. H., Captain Nathaniel Norton's, 4th N. Y., Captain McCluer's, and Captain Day's.
§ Mr. Youse, whose petition has been referred to on p. 369 is mistaken when he says, the army was on half rations, 41 days.
 weather occasioned considerable sickness, especially in the latter part of the campaign. Notwithstanding the severity of their marches and the dangers to which they were exposed, the entire loss since leaving Wyoming until the return, was only forty-one men, of whom four died from sickness, one was accidentally drowned and one accidentally shot in camp, or one per cent of his entire force.
On the 3d of October, Fort Sullivan was demolished, and the next day the army set out for Wyoming, part on foot but the greater number in boats, reaching that place on the 7th. In obedience to orders from general head-quarters. General Sullivan left Wyoming, October 10th, and reached Easton the 15th, where a thanksgiving service was held, conducted by Rev. Mr. Hunter, and then the army hastened to join that of Washington. Congress* passed a vote of thanks in which the officers and men were complimented in the highest terms, and which is made a record of, as follows:
October 14th. On motion of Mr. Gerry seconded by Mr. Morris, "The thanks of Congress were voted to his Excellency, General Washington, for directing and to Major General Sullivan and the brave officers and soldiers under his command, for effectually executing, an important expedition against such of the Indian Nations as, encouraged by the councils, and conducted by the officers, of his Britanic Majesty, had perfidiously waged an unprovoked and cruel war against these United States, laid waste many of their defenseless towns, and with savage barbarity, slaughtered the inhabitants thereof," and Washington did not hesitate to express his satisfaction with the management of the campaign, and its results, in flattering terms:
In General Orders from West Point, October 17th, General Washington congratulated the army, on General Sullivan's success, and that ''The whole of the soldiery engaged in the expedition, merit and have the Commander-in-Chief's warmest acknowledgments, for their important services."
The expedition was more disastrous to the Indians than at first might appear. They returned to their blackened homes and wasted cornfields, and looked with despair upon the waste and ruin before them. They now began to feel the iron they had so ruthlessly thrust into the bosom of others. Mary Jemison says, there was nothing left, not enough to keep a child. Again they wended their way to Niagara, where huts were built for them around the fort. The winter following was the coldest ever known, and prevented the Indians going on their winter hunt. Cooped up in their little huts and obliged to subsist on salted provisions, the scurvy broke out amongst them, and hundreds of them died. Those the sword had spared, the pestilence destroyed.
The power of the Iroquois was broken. That great confederation, whose influence had once been so potent, crumbled under the iron heel of the invader, and the nation which had made so many tremble, itself quailed before the white man's steel. It is true, that as long as the war continued, they kept up their depredations, but it was in squads of five or six, seldom as many as twenty. We have no repetition of Wyoming or Cherry Valley. It was a terrible blow, but one which they brought upon themselves, by their own perfidy and treachery and cruelty. The sacking of so many homes, the destruction of so much that was valuable, awakens in every civilized heart, the sentiment of pity for their loss, but the act was as justifiable as that which slays the assassin at your door, or the man who is applying the torch to your dwelling.
Colonel Stone remarks: "With the exception of Newtown, the achievements of the army in battle were not great. But it had scoured a broad extent of country, and laid more towns in ashes than had ever been destroyed on the continent before. The red men were driven from their beautiful country—their habitations left in ruins, their fields laid waste, their orchards uprooted, and their altars and the tombs of their fathers overthrown."
To the New England troops, who had been accustomed to the rocky soil and the steep hillsides of their native states, these broad and fertile valleys seemed like another Eden,
* It was also ordered by Congress, that the second Thursday of December, 1779, should be set apart as a day of general Thanksgiving
 and no sooner had war furled her crimson banners, than these hardy sons of the east, shouldered knapsack and axe, and again bent their footsteps toward these beautiful valleys; here they built their homes and reared their children, planted the institutions of liberty and religion, and builded an empire whose exhaustless wealth and tireless enterprise and increasing grandeur, make it the crowning glory of this Empire State, and a living example of her glorious motto, Excelsior.
APPENDIX TO THE ADDRESS OF REV. DAVID CRAFT.
In General Sullivan's final official report, he claimed to have lost from all causes, only forty men, and to have destroyed forty towns, fourteen of which were burned by Gen. Clinton and himself, prior to the 30th of August. This statement has been doubted by some critics, and General Sullivan's veracity in his official report seriously questioned. A careful collating of the journals gives the following results:
LOSS OF MEN.
AUGUST 5. A boatman fell overboard and drowned . . . Jenkins.
AUGUST 5. One of the bullock guard died at Vanderlip . . . Jenkins.
AUGUST 5. Serg't Martin Johnson at Wyalusing . . . Elmer.
AUGUST 13. Seven at Chemung . . . Hubley and others.
AUGUST 15. Jabez Elliott shot by Indians at Tioga . . .Jenkins.
AUGUST 17. Philip Helter do . . . Dr. Rogers.
AUGUST 23. Captain Benjamin Kimball . . . Do and others.
AUGUST 29. 3 killed and 5 died of wounds at Newtown, Norris and others.
SEPT. 13. Lieut. Boyd and party (seventeen) . . . Foggy and others.
SEPT. 13. Corporal Calhoun at Groveland . . . Thomas Grant
SEPT. 27. One of Col. Butler's detachment . . . George Grant
SEPT. 27. A soldier of the N. H. Troops . . . Jenkins.
Of the following fourteen towns destroyed previous to the 31st of August, the forces under General Sullivan devastated the following seven:
1. Newtychanning, on the right bank of the Susquehanna, a little above the mouth of Sugar creek, by Col. Proctor, Aug. 9.
2. Old Chemung, near the present town, Aug. 13.
3. New Chemung, Aug. 13.
 4. Small village at the fortifications, Aug. 29.
5. New buildings on Baldwin's creek, Aug. 29.
6. A small village on Seeley creek, Aug. 30.
7. Newtown, Aug. 31.
The following seven towns were destroyed by General Clinton:—
8. Albout, a Scotch Tory settlement on the left bank of the Unadilla, and about five miles above Unadilla, Aug. 12.
9. Shawhiangto, a Tuscarora town of 12 houses, located on the right bank of the Susquehanna, near Windsor, Broorne county, N. Y., Aug. 17.
10. Ingaren, a Tuscarora town of o or 6 houses at Great Bend, Penna., Aug. 17.
11. Otsiningo, abandoned and partly destroyed by the Indians, destruction completed, Aug. 18.
12. Choconut or Chugnutt, on both sides the Susquehanna, mostly on the left bank near the mouth of Choconut creek, containing altogether fifty or sixty houses. Destroyed by Gen. Poor, Aug. 19.
13. Owegy, the main town, about twenty houses on Owego creek a mile above its mouth, and a small hamlet near the river, Aug. 19.
14. Mauckatawangurn, or Red Bank, near an abandoned plantation known as Fitzgerald's Farm, near Barton, N. Y., Aug. 16, by Gen. Poor.
These towns were destroyed by the main army:—
15. Middletown, 3 miles above Newtown, August 31st.
16. Kanawaholla, site of Elmira, August 31st.
17. Runonvea, near Big Flats, August 31st, Colonel Dayton.
18. Sheoquaga, Havanna, September 1st.
19. Peach Orchard, September 3d.
20. Condawhaw, North Hector, September 4th.
21. Kendaia, or Appletown, September 5th.
22. Butler's Buildings, at the foot of Seneca lake, near the present canal bridge in the village of Geneva, September 7th.
23. Kanadesaga, near present Geneva, September 7th.
24. Gothseungquean, (Kershong), on the west side of Seneca lake, September 8th, by Colonel Smith and Major Parr.
25. Skoi-yase, now Waterloo, by Colonel Harper, September 8th.
26. Kanandaigua, September 10th.
27. Haneyaye, September 11th.
28. Kanaghsaws, September 13th.
29. Gathtsegwarohare, September 13th.
30. Chenandoanes, the Great Genesee castle, Little Beard's town, Sept 15.
Besides completing the destruction of Skoi-yase, Sept 21, Colonel Butler laid waste:
 31. Choharo, at the foot of Cayuga lake, Sept. 21.
32. Gewauga, at Union Springs, Sept. 22.
33. Cayuga Town, Goiogouen which comprised—
(1) Cayuga Castle of fifteen large houses, built of squared logs, situated on the north bank of Great Gully Brook.
(2) East Cayuga, Old Town, of thirteen houses.
(3) Upper Cayuga, of fourteen houses, on the south bank of Great Gully Brook. George Grant speaks of the three as one town of fifty houses. It was destroyed by Colonel Butler, Sept 22.
34. Chonoclote, Peach Tree Town, of fourteen houses, at Aurora on Cayuga Lake, Sept. 24.
Colonel Dearborn destroyed the following towns:—
35. A small hamlet of three houses on the Shankwiler farm, in Fayette, Seneca county, four miles from Cayuga lake, Sept. 21.
36. A small town of ten houses on the west shore of Cayuga lake, one mile north of Canoga creek, Sept. 21.
37. Skannayutenate, of ten houses, on the south bank of Cayuga creek, half a mile northeast of Canoga village, Sept. 21.
38. Newtown, of nine houses, a mile south of Skannayutenate, Sept. 21.
39. Swahyawana, on the farm of E. R. Dean, in the north-east corner of the town of Romulus, Sept 22. This town was partially laid waste by some packhorsemen belonging to Colonel Gansevoort's Regiment, who, taking the wrong path, lost their way and came to this town Sept. 6, and set it on fire the next morning.
40. Coreorgonel, of 25 houses on the left bank of Cayuga inlet, three miles from the head of the lake.
41. A small town up the Tioga river destroyed by a detachment under Captain Spaulding, Sept. 28.
WASHINGTON'S INSTRUCTIONS TO SULLIVAN.
The following letter from General Washington to General Sullivan, dated Head-Quarters, West Point, 15th Sept, 1779, will explain the idea of the commander-in-chief as to what the expedition should accomplish and to what extent it had already been done:
I had the pleasure of receiving your letter of the 30th of August, and congratulate
you sincerely on the success of the engagement at Newtown.* I immediately transmitted your account to Congress.
*See General Sullivan's Report of the Battle of Newtown in Elmira Centennial Proceedings.
 The advantages we have already gained over the Indians, in the destruction of so many of their settlements, is very flattering to the expedition. But to make it as conclusive as the state of your provisions and the safety of your army will countenance, I would mention two points which I may not have sufficiently expressed in my general instructions, or if I have, which I wish to repeat. The one is the necessity of pushing the Indians to the greatest practicable distance from their own settlements and our frontiers; to the throwing them wholly on the British enemy. The other is the making the destruction of their settlements so final and complete as to put it out of their power to derive the smallest succor from them in case they should attempt to return this season.
I am, Dear Sir,
Your Most obt. Servt
Major General Sullivan.
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