Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink.
OF MAJOR GENERAL JOHN SULLIVAN
AGAINST THE SIX NATIONS OF INDIANS
IN 1779 WITH RECORDS OF CENTENNIAL
Prepared Pursuant to Chapter 361, Laws of the State of New York, of 1885.
Frederick Cook, Secretary of State
Auburn, N.Y. Knapp, Peck & Thompson Printers
[Transcription is verbatim.]
 JOURNAL OF REV. WILLIAM ROGERS, D. D.
Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. 15,
where the journal of Rev. Rogers also appears,
REV. WILLIAM ROGERS, D. D., Chaplain in Hand's Brigade. He was born at Newport, R. I., 22d of July, 1751. In 1771, he was licensed to preach the gospel in the Baptist church at Newport, but soon removed to Philadelphia, where he was settled as Pastor of the Baptist church. In 1776, he was appointed Chaplain to the Battalions raised in Pennsylvania, and in 1778, was made Brigade Chaplain in the Pennsylvania line, which position he held until 1781, when he retired from military service. In 1789, he was appointed a Professor in the College and Academy at Philadelphia, and in 1792, was elected Professor of English and Belles Lettres in the University of Pennsylvania, which position he held until 1812. In 1816 and 17, he was a member of the Legislature. He died at Philadelphia, 7th of April, 1824 His journal, from June 15, to August 29, 1779, was published, with notes and biography, as No. 7 of the Rhode Island Historical Tracts, by Sidney S. Rider, Providence, R. I., 1879, and who has kindly permitted the publication of the journal in this volume. Extracts from the journal were published in Vols., 1 and 2 of the Universal Magazine, 1797.
JUNE 15th. Left Philadelphia.*
JUNE 17th. About 8 o'clock, crossed Easton ferry. Easton is a pretty village, the capital of Northampton county, Pennsylvania. Here I met with a large circle of my military acquaintances of General Poor's and Maxwell's brigades. At Colonel Barber's marquee I was introduced to Mr. Kirkland, a worthy clergyman who for a number of years past has been stationed as a missionary among the Indians. The place of his residence is Stockbridge, Massachusetts. I am glad to hear Mr. Kirkland is to go with us on the secret expedition. Four Stockbridge Indians are at Easton, who are to act as guides; we expect on our march the Oneidas and friendly Tuscaroras to offer us their assistance.
* This abrupt beginning is accounted for by the fact that all the chaplain's journals previous to this date were burned to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands. This statement is made by the editor of the Philadelphia Gazette.
 JUNE 18th. All the troops in town prepared for marching. Between 5 and 6 o'clock, left the village with all the pack horses, stores, etc. Halted for breakfast. The army reaching the foot of the Blue Mountains, twelve miles from Easton, encamped for the day. Dr. Kirkland, Dr. Evans and myself passed the mountain at a place called Wind Gap. We rode on seven miles from the camp to Banker's mills, now known as Sullivan's stores, upon account of a large house built here and a great quantity of provisions being stored therein for the use of the forces under Major General Sullivan's command. At the store we met with Captain Luke Broadhead, who with Captain Patterson attends at this post. On the road from Easton to Sullivan's stores nothing is to be seen, but hills, stones, trees and brush, excepting here and there a scattered house and a lake near the mountain, half a mile in length and one-fourth of a mile in breadth, wherein abound a variety of fish.
JUNE 19th. At 7 A. M., the troops reached Sullivan's stores. Halted and drew four days' provisions. Doctors Kirkland, Evans, Hunter and myself rode forward about nine miles to a place called Pokono, lower Smithfield township, and put up for the night at the house of a Mr. Savage, which, exclusive of one, is the last house from Easton to Wyoming, the remainder of the way (thirty odd miles) being uninhabited, except by wild beasts and roving animals. On a mountain between Sullivan's stores and Pokono, we had a fine prospect of nature's works. We discovered the water gap of the Blue Mountains, and hill upon hill surrounding us. The troops encamped at Learn's tavern, Pokono point. Pokono lies from Easton north, about two points west.
SUNDAY, JUNE 20th, Marched this morning in the following order: General Maxwell's brigade in front. Next Colonel Proctor's regiment; then Poor's brigade, afterwards the baggage. Halted at Rum Bridge for the night, six miles from the last inhabited house towards Wyoming. The camp is called Chowder camp, from the commander-in-chief dining this day on chowder made of trout. The artillery soldiers killed two or three rattlesnakes and made, as I understand, a good meal of them. Owing to Pokono mountain and other eminences, found this day's march very fatiguing to the horses belonging to the artillery. Passed a large quantity of pine, poplar, and oak timber, also a quantity of the largest laurel; the ground universally covered with brush by the name of ground oak. No preaching to-day on account of the fatigue of the troops.
MONDAY, JUNE 21, 1779. This day we marched through the Great Swamp and Bear Swamp. The Great Swamp, which is eleven or twelve miles through, contains what is called in our maps the "shades of death," by reason of its darkness; both swamps contain trees of amazing height, viz., hemlock, birch, pine, sugar maple, ash, locust, etc. The roads in some places are tolerable, but in other places exceedingly bad, by reason of which, and a long though necessary march, three of our wagons and the carriages of two field pieces were broken down. This day we proceeded twenty miles and encamped late in the evening at a spot which the commander named Camp Fatigue. The troops were tired and hungry. The road through the Swamps is entirely new, being fitted for the passage of our wagons by Colonels Courtlandt and Spencer at the instance of the commander-in-chief; the way leading to Wyoming, being before only a blind narrow path. The new road does its projectors great credit and must in a future day be of essential service to the inhabitants of Wyoming and Easton. In the Great Swamp is Locust Hill, where we discovered evident marks of a destroyed Indian village. Tobyhanna and Middle creeks empty into the Tunkhanunk; the Tunkhanunk empties into the head branch of the Lehigh, which, at Easton, empties into the Delaware. The Moosick mountain, through a gap of which we passed in the Great Swamp, is the dividing ridge which separates the Delaware from the Susquehanna.
TUESDAY, JUNE 22. The Army continued at Camp Fatigue until two o'clock, P. M., on account of their great march the preceding day, many of the wagons of the rear guard not getting in until midnight. A bear and a wolf were seen by a New Hampshire sentinel, and several deer by a scouting party, but none were shot. In the forenoon a person arrived who in the month of April last had been taken prisoner near the Minisink by two Tories, two Tuscaroras and seven Delawares; this poor fellow, after being car-  ried through a long tract of country, and experiencing the severest usage in being cruelly tied or bound or otherwise ill treated, had the good fortune when getting within one day's march of Chemung, to make his escape at night when the Indians were asleep; he was obliged, however, to leave his only son and two other boys behind. In relating this circumstance he was greatly affected. For forty days he was almost destitute of provisions, and eighteen or twenty days without seeing a fire. Rattlesnakes and a few small fish were his support till he reached Wyoming. He seemed very sensible of his providential deliverance, and in relating the matter gave God the praise.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 23. The troops prepared themselves for Wyoming, from which we were now distant only seven miles. This day we marched with regularity, and at a distance of three miles came to the place where Captain Davis and Lieutenant Jones, with a corporal and four privates were scalped, tomahawked, and speared by the savages, fifteen or twenty in number; two boards are fixed at the spot where Davis and Jones fell, with their names on each, Jones's being besmeared with his own blood. In passing this melancholy vale, an universal gloom appeared on the countenances of both officers and men without distinction, and from the eyes of many, as by a sudden impulse, dropt the sympathizing tear. Colonel Proctor, out of respect to the deceased, ordered the music to play the tune of Roslin Castle, the soft and moving notes of which, together with what so forcibly struck the eye, tended greatly to fill our breasts with pity, and to renew our grief for our worthy departed friends and brethren. The words of the celebrated Young, occurred on this occasion to my mind:
"Life's little stage is a small eminence,
Inch high above the grave, that home of man
Where dwells the multitude."
Getting within two miles of Wyoming, we had from a fine eminence an excellent view of the settlement. It is founded on each side of the eastern branch of the Susquehannah, which with the western branch unite at Northumberland, from which place Wilkesbarre, the county town, is distant sixty-five miles. It lies in a beautiful valley, surrounded by very high ground, the people inhabit up and down the banks of the river and very little back. There were in the settlement last summer a court house, a jail, and many dwelling houses, all of which excepting a few scattered ones were burnt by the savages after the battle of July 3, 1778, which took place near Forty Fort. At present there are a few log houses newly built, a fort, one or two stockaded redoubts and a row of barracks; the settlement consists of six or more small townships. At the battle before spoken of about two hundred and twenty were massacred within the space of an hour and a half, more than one hundred of whom were married men; their widows afterwards had all their property taken from them and several of them with their children were made prisoners. It is said Queen Esther, of the Six Nations, who was with the enemy, scalped and tomahawked with her own hands in cool blood eight or ten persons. The Indian women in general were guilty of the greatest barbarities. Since this dreadful stroke they have visited the settlement several times, each time killing, or rather torturing to death, more or less. Many of their bones continue yet unburied where the main action happened. Wyoming is by Connecticut, styled Westmoreland county, and has for a long time been under the jurisdiction of that state. How the matter will be settled by them and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, must be determined by those who are better acquainted with the dispute than I am.
THURSDAY, JUNE 24. Was introduced to Colonel Zebulon Butler, the gentlemen of whom much has been said on account of his persevering conduct in opposing the savages. Had an interview with Mr. Ludwigg, baker-in-chief for the army, who was sent on from Easton to this post, to prepare bread for the troops; owing to his activity, a bake-house was built in eleven days, and a large quantity of bread was in readiness for delivery on our arrival. An inhabitant showed me an Indian weapon called a death mall. The handle was unwieldly, the ball about the bigness of a three pounder, curiously cut out of a maple knot. The use of this instrument is to knock people on the scull with, when overtaken in a chase. Being Saint John's day, a number of Freemasons met at Colonel Proctor's  marquee; at his request (though not one of the fraternity myself) read for them the Rev. Dr. Smith's excellent sermon on Masonry.
SATURDAY, JUNE 26. Between ten and eleven o'clock last night there was a small alarm; two Indians were discovered advancing towards some of our sentries. The sentinels fired on them, but the savages escaped. Captain Jehoiakim with two other Stockbridge Indians and five soldiers of Colonel Cilley's regiment were sent out on a scout. Dined with the officers of artillery.
A rock (sic) which was caught the preceding evening, on the table, which measured two feet nine inches and weighed twenty-seven pounds.
SUNDAY, JUNE 27, Agreeably to yesterday's orders, preached at ten o'clock, A. M., near the fort to General Hand's brigade and Colonel Proctor's regiment; General Sullivan with his suite were present. Captain Jehoiakim returned; he met with no success. This day, with the three preceding, exceedingly sultry.
MONDAY, JUNE 28, P. M. News arrived of a family near Cam's Tavern, between this and Easton, being part of them killed and part of them taken prisoners by the savages.
TUESDAY, JUNE 29. Early this morning the account we had yesterday was confirmed by the arrival of Mr. Steel, D. C, G. of issues, who says that of the family, three women were carried off, and that a son of Dr. Ledlies was scalped and tomahawked. The few scattered inhabitants were in great distress moving for safety to Sullivan's Stores leaving the principal part of their property behind them. Upwards of thirty boats loaded with provisions arrived this day from Sunbury. Orders came out for the execution of Lawrence Miller and Michael Rosebury, in the following words: "The sentence of death passed upon Lawrence Miller and Michael Rosebury by the court martial, whereof Brigadier General Maxwell was president, and approved of by the Commander-in-chief at Easton in the orders of the sixth instant, is directed to be executed upon the said Lawrence Miller and Michael Rosebury, the day after to morrow in the afternoon, between the hours of two and four o'clock." The orders of the sixth instant referred to, are: "Lawrence Miller and Michael Rosebury, inhabitants of Sussex county, State of New Jersey, being tried by a general court martial, held at Easton, on the third instant, of which Brigadier General Maxwell was president, for enticing soldiers of the American army to desert to the enemy, and engaging their assistance for that purpose, the court are of opinion, they are guilty of the charges exhibited, and do unanimously sentence them to suffer death. The Commander-in-chief approves the sentence of the court, but postpones the execution of it for a few days. He at the same time returns his thanks to Lieutenant McConnell, and the other evidences, for their zeal and address in detecting the offenders. P. M.—Mr. Kirkland accompanied me in paying these two unfortunate men a visit; found them ignorant and stupid. Our endeavors were upon this occasion to open unto them the nature of man's fall, and the dreadful situation of those who died in a state of impenitency and unbelief.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 30. We went to see the prisoners; Miller appeared much softened, distressed, and anxious about his future state; Rosebury said but little; I enlarged particularly at this time on their awful condition by nature and practice, their amazing guilt in the sight of an holy God; the spirituality of the divine law; the necessity of an interest in Jesus Christ; their own inability to obtain salvation, and the great importance of a due preparation for another world.
THURSDAY, JULY 1. Before breakfast visited the convicts; spoke to them on the realities of heaven and hell, and the justice and mercy of God; Miller appeared still more penitent, and freely confessed the sentence of death passed against him to be just. The other excused himself and insisted much on the innocency of his life. Mr. Kirkland and myself waited on the Commander-in-chief, in order to recommend Miller to mercy. His Excellency was so obliging as to inform us that it was his purpose, upon account of Miller's wife and numerous family, his decent behavior on trial, the recommendation of the court and former good character, to pardon him under the gallows, fifteen minutes after  the execution of Rosebury; and requested that it might remain a secret with us until it was publicly known. P. M.—At the hour appointed the prisoners were taken under guard to the place of execution, attended by Messrs. Kirkland, Hunter and myself. In walking to the gallows we of course conversed with them on the most serious subjects. Upon arriving there, the military being under arms, and a number of the inhabitants present, it fell to my lot to address the spectators, after which Mr. Kirkland prayed. Rosebury was then turned off; he died to all appearance the same stupid man he was at the first of our visiting him. Poor Miller was much agitated at the sight, expecting every moment the same punishment. He was employed in commending himself to God—upon hearing his pardon from the commander-in-chief read, he was greatly affected. On recovering himself he expressed the utmost thankfulness for his great deliverance. The scene throughout was very affecting.
FRIDAY, JULY 2, P. M. An experiment by the General's permission, was made by Colonel Proctor, with a grasshopper on board one of the batteaux, with a view of trying the nature of shot on the water should it be necessary when going up the river. Four rounds of canister and eight of round, were discharged, which fully proved the utility of the plan; it plainly appearing that the enemy's force, consisting of the greatest number of boats, would be hereby totally frustrated in their design of impeding our progress. The sight was extremely gratifying. Notwith-standing the axletree of the cannon on which the grasshopper was mounted was as wide as the batteau, yet the batteau was not in the least injured by the experiment.
SUNDAY, JULY 4. Ten o'clock. Preached to the brigade and regiment of artillery; being the anniversary of the declaration of American Independence, took notice of the Same in my sermon. Text, Psalm 32:10, "But he that trusteth in the Lord, mercy shall encompass him about." The discourse was concluded nearly as follows: Politically as a nation are we exhorted to trust in the Lord. God hath hitherto blessed our arms and smiled on our infant rising states. Recollect, my brethren, the commencement of our bloody contest; pursue in your minds the difficulties we already have had to encounter. Be not ye afraid of the insolent foe. "Remember Jehovah, who is great and terrible, and fight for your brethren, sons and your daughters, your wives and your houses." Provided we fear God and are publicly as well as individually honest; what have we now to alarm us? American exertions have hitherto been crowned with success; let us still under the banners of liberty, and with a Washington for our head, go on from conquering to conquer. Hark! what voice is that which I hear ? It is the voice of encouragement; permit me for your animation to repeat it distinctly: "Our fathers trusted and the Lord did deliver them; they cried unto Him and were delivered; they trusted in Him and were not confounded." Even so may it be with us, for the sake of Christ Jesus, who came to give Freedom to the world.
MONDSAY, JULY 5th. An Express arrived from Sunbury, announcing the destruction of nine persons out of twelve, by the savages at Munsey, as they were working in a field. Took a view of the remains of Forty Fort. At General Poor's, where a large party dined to-day, two skulls were shown us which were picked up near the field of battle, and with a variety of other human bones had lain unburied for twelve months past. From the appearance of the skulls which were most shockingly gashed and bruised, it is evident that the poor creatures must have suffered amazingly. Towards evening two soldiers reported that they saw four Indians about three-quarters of a mile from General Poor's encampment. Two small parties were sent out to make discoveries.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 7th. A soldier of Colonel Shreeve's regiment going out a hunting, after getting about three miles espied an Indian. The Indian being on the opposite side of a deep run fired on him and shot the sleeve of his coat. The soldier having run a small distance, looking behind, and saw two other savages who had joined the first; he then retreated in haste to the camp and reported the occurrence to the General. In consequence of which three parties were ordered to be in readiness on the ensuing morning to scout different ways.
THURSDAY, JULY 8th, A. M. Generals Hand and Maxwell, Colonels Proctor, Butler  and Shreeve, with the number of other gentlemen, agreeably to proposal, rode up to Colonel Courtlandts, where, being joined by him, General Poor, Major Fisk [Maj. Fish, probably] and others, and having the benefit of a proper escort of light infantry, we proceeded up the river four miles further to take a view of the noted place where the battle was fought July 3, 1778, between Colonel Butler, with his Tories and savages on one side, five hundred in number, and our Colonel Butler, on the other with three hundred of the inhabitants, who had formed themselves into militia companies, having nothing but bad muskets without bayonets. Our people, sallying out of Forty Fort, proceeded to Wintermute's Fort, where the enemy, forming their left and extending their right quite to a swamp, were prepared to receive the defenders of their country. Our Colonel Butler, having judiciously drawn up his men in line of battle to oppose the barbarians, a severe firing ensued; six or seven rounds were in a few moments discharged on both sides, when the enemy's centre, fallen a few paces back and a part of their right filing off, our people supposing that they had intention of surrounding them, instantly got confused and notwithstanding the spirited exertions of their Colonel, a retreat took place and ended in a general rout, which gave rise to a most horrid scene of butchery. Out of our party only one hundred escaped; among these was Colonel Butler. From many circumstances it appeared Wintermute's Fort proved treacherous, old Mr. Wintermute with all his sons and about twenty-five others who composed the garrison, having on the enemy's approach delivered up the fort, without the least opposition, the major part of whom immediately joined the enemy and took up arms against their friends. Moreover it was alleged that they corresponded with the enemy many months before. The place where the battle was fought may with propriety be called "a place of skulls," as the bodies of the slain were not buried, their bones were scattered in every direction all around; a great number of which for a few days past having been picked up, were decently interred by our people. We passed a grave where seventy-five skeletons were buried; also a spot where fourteen wretched creatures, who having surrendered upon being promised mercy, were nevertheless made immediately to sit down in a ring, and after the savages had worked themselves up to the extreme of fury in their usual manner, by dancing, singing, halloaing, etc., they proceeded deliberately to tomahawk the poor fellows one after another. Fifteen surrendered and composed the ring. Upon the Indians beginning their work of cruelty, one of them providentially escaped, who reported the matter to Colonel Butler, who upon his return to Wyoming, went to the spot and found the bones of the fourteen lying as human bodies in an exact circle. It is remarkable, that on this spot grows a kind of grass different from all other grass around it. The bones of seven or eight other persons were found nearly consumed, they having been burned to death. Colonel Butler related the following occurrence. On a small island in the Susquehannah below the field of action, Giles Slocum, having reached thus far in safety, concealed himself in the bushes, where he was witness to the meeting of John and Henry Pensell, brothers. John was a Tory and Henry was a whig. Henry, having lost his gun, upon seeing his brother John, fell upon his knees and begged him to spare his life; upon which John called him a damned rebel. John then went deliberately to a log, got on the same, and began to load his piece, while Henry was upon his knees imploring him as a brother not to kill him. "I will," said he, "go with you and serve you as long as I live, if you will spare my life." John loaded his gun. Henry continued, "You won't kill your brother, will you?" "Yes," replied the monster, "I will as soon as look at you, you are a damned rebel." He then shot him and afterwards went up and struck him four or five times with a tomahawk and scalped him. Immediately after one of the enemy coming to him said, "What have you been doing, have you killed your brother?" "Yes," said he, "for he was a damned rebel." The other replied, "I have a great mind to serve you in the same manner." They went off together. In the evening, Slocum made his escape. Slocum is a man of reputation, and his word was never disputed in the neighborhood where he is known. The family of the Pensells came from lower Smithfield on the Delaware, twenty miles above Easton. Henry's widow and seven children are still at Wyoming, in very low circumstances. From the best intelligence collected between seventy and eighty of the butchering foe were killed. Colonel Denison,  retreated to Forty Fort that night, next day capitulated. The savages, notwithstanding the capitulation, plundered the inhabitants of everything that came in their way; sparing neither woman nor child. Good God! who, after such repeated instances of cruelty, can ever be totally reconciled to that government which divesting itself of the feelings of humanity, has influenced the savage tribes to kill and wretchedly to torture to death, persons of each sex and of every age—the prattling infant, the blooming maid and persons of venerable years, have alike fallen victims to its vindictive rage. On the road to Wintermute's fort, we took notice of very high Timothy grass. The earth in general is very rich, the whole settlement from its appearance is capable of producing the finest wheat, and every other kind of grain.
FRIDAY, JULY 9th. Upwards of fifty boats arrived from Sunbury, loaded with stores and guarded by the Eleventh Pennsylvania regiment, commanded by Colonel Hubley. The small boats, being unloaded, set off again under the directions of Captain Cummings, to proceed down the Susquehannah for further necessaries.
SATURDAY, JULY 10th. Early this morning General Hand with his aid-de-camp, escorted by a company of light horse, set out for Harris's ferry, one hundred and thirty miles distant, in order to hurry on provisions, the detention of which, owing to the unaccountable neglect of those who have the superintendence of the same, has occasioned the army to continue at this post for such a length of time, and bids fair, without the spirited exertions of some superior officer, to prevent in a great measure our accomplishing the desirable end in view. Colonel Dayton, returning from New Jersey, brought with him several newspapers, the perusal of which was a great refreshment after such a long political drouth. Colonel Read's regiment of General Poor's Brigade marched to Sullivan's Stores, with a view of mending the roads and escorting the wagons which are to come on from thence and Easton. An experiment was made towards evening on board of a batteau, by discharging several shells from a five and one half inch howitzer. It appeared that great benefit may be derived therefrom, without the least injury befalling the batteau. One of the shells was thrown nine hundred yards, and upon its bursting exhibited to the spectators a pleasing sight.
SUNDAY, JULY 11th. Raining all day, which prevented the chaplains from officiating. A letter was received by express from General Clinton, dated head of Lake Otsego, announcing that twenty-five Oneida warriors had joined him, and that the hostile Indians were collecting together in their own country where they meant to oppose us; also that a detachment of three hundred had been sent out to distress and harass our army as much as possible on the march.
MONDAY, JULY 12th. In consequence of the above intelligence, one hundred and fifty-men with a field piece were ordered to reinforce Colonel Read.
TUESDAY, JULY 13th. A letter was received at headquarters the preceding evening from General Hand, requesting that the large batteaux might be sent down the river, as the boats there were not sufficient. They were accordingly sent away this morning under the direction of Major Conway, with a detachment of infantry and Captain Rice, of the artillery, with two field pieces and an howitzer.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 14th. Last night thirty-three of the German regiment deserted under the plea of their time being out. They went off properly armed with drum and fife. Their route being discovered by a friendly Indian, who was dispatched for the purpose, a detachment of fifty soldiers on horseback were ordered to pursue them.
FRIDAY, JULY 16th. News arrived of the detachment having taken all the deserters except four or five.
SATURDAY, JULY 17th. We learnt that the Indians had been committing some outrages on the western branches of the Susquehannah.
SUNDAY, JULY 18th. A scouting party, consisting of a few soldiers and the four Stockbridge Indians, returned. They proceeded as far as Wyoming, discovered many tracks, but saw none of the enemy.
MONDAY, JULY 19th. Colonel Cowperthwaite arrived from Philadelphia. On his way he inspected the provisions at Sullivan's Stores. If those on the way from Sunbury should  not turn out better, of which he was fearful, our expedition must be attended with many inconveniences. Mr. Bond also got in with a number of horses for the army. Likewise a party with twenty-nine of the German deserters, four being yet missing.
TUESDAY, JULY 20th. Accounts are received of the enemy's plundering New Haven, burning Fairfield and committing many other outrages in Connecticut.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 21st. This morning an express arrived with the following glorious, intelligence from the main army. That on Thursday night last, General Wayne with part of his light infantry, surprised and took the whole of the garrison of Stony Point, with all their stores, mortars, howitzers, tents, baggage, etc., without the loss of more than four or five privates. The garrison consisting of English, Scotch, and new levies, with two or three companies of grenadiers, besides artillery, in the whole about six hundred men. In the evening a number of wagons from Easton arrived loaded with stores, also an express who had a letter from Colonel Stroud to some militia captain dated this morning, two o'clock, informing that a number of Indians were at Minisink plundering and murdering the inhabitants; the colonel writes to the captain for assistance, as he expected they would in the course of the day be at or near his house, as they were bending their course that way.
SATURDAY, JULY 24th. General Hand arrived with one hundred and twelve loaded boats. On the river they appeared beautiful as they approached the village in proper divisions. Those with field pieces on board discharged several rounds for joy, which in the surrounding woods produced a pleasing echo. The Commander-in-Chief in public orders returned his cordial thanks to General Hand, Major Conway, Captains Rice and Porter, and others for their great exertions in thus bringing forward the stores of the army with such expedition. Also expressed his grateful acknowledgments to Commissary General Steele for his attention and activity in the business. The troops were directed to be in readiness to march on Wednesday morning next. The deserters from the German regiment, having been tried by a general court martial whereof General Poor was President, having been found guilty, were sentenced as follows, viz.: five to be shot, two corporals to be reduced to the ranks, and the remaining twenty-two to run the gauntlet through General Maxwell's and General Hand's brigades and the regiment of artillery; the respective punishments to take place on Monday next at four P. M.
SUNDAY, JULY 25th. No preaching, it being a very rainy day. P.M. —Visited the criminals. The whole appeared attentive to what was said, but very ignorant of those things which appertain to religion. In the orders issued this day is laid down the line of march for the army from this place to Tioga, General Hand's brigade, which is to be considered as the light corps, is to move in three columns and keep something less than a mile in advance of the main body. General Maxwell will advance by his left, then General Poor by his right, the flank guard on the right to consist of a field officer and two hundred men in two divisions, the flank guard on the left to consist of a captain and sixty men in two divisions. The pack horses and cattle to follow in the rear of General Poor's brigade. The rear guard will consist of a regiment complete, taken alternately from Maxwell's and Poor's brigades. Those of Colonel Proctor's regiment who are not required with the artillery in the boats are to march in the rear of Maxwell's brigade and form on his right. The main army will keep as nearly abreast of the boats as possible; the horns in the boats must be frequently sounded to give notice of their situation. A captain and sixty men will advance a mile in front of the boats on the west side of the river to scour the country and give notice of ambuscades. In case of their being attacked by a superior force they are to retreat across the river, for which purpose four light boats will keep ahead of the fleet, nearly abreast of the party, to transport them across the river in case of necessity; in these boats there will be a trusty officer and twelve armed soldiers, who are to be answerable for their conduct. Colonel Proctor will take part with his pieces of artillery, which will be fixed in the boats and have the direction of the whole fleet, he will take such officers and men with him as he shall find necessary. When a warm firing commences against the light party on the west side of the river the armed boats will immediately proceed to the place to cover the party by their fire.
 Should a firing begin with the main army, Colonel Proctor will wait for orders; he is also directed to establish signals to notify the fleet how to conduct in case of attack or other emergencies. The brigadiers must see that a covered wagon be filled with ammunition and put into proper boats for their respective brigades.
MONDAY, JULY 26th. Visited the criminals, found them greatly dejected on account of their approaching dissolution; orders were issued that by reason of the unsettled state of the weather their execution be postponed until to morrow. P. M., 5 o'clock. Read a Philadelphia paper giving a particular account of the enemy's burning Norwalk, the Saw Pitts, etc.
TUESDAY, JULY 27th. Visited the convicts twice; in discussing with them upon a future state they appeared much affected and very penitent— represented their situation to General Sullivan, who told me that in consequence of a petition received from them he had ordered a board of general officers to sit. On the issuing of this day's orders the following sentence was read with pleasure by myself and the other chaplains: "The Commander-in-Chief having received a petition from the prisoners of the German battalion now under sentence, manifesting their consciousness of the crimes for which they have been condemned, and promising in case of pardon to distinguish themselves in future as brave and obedient soldiers, which petition being laid before a board of general officers in hopes that an act of lenity may have a proper effect on their future conduct as well as that of others, they have unanimously advised a pardon of all the offenders without discrimination. The General, wishing to extend mercy where it can be done without injury to the public service, has accordingly consented to pardon each and every one of the offenders tried and sentenced by a general court martial, whereof Brigadier General Poor was president, and directs that they be immediately released and restored to their duty. Lest this unparalelled act of lenity should be abused, and any soldier take the same unjustifiable measures hereafter, the Commander-in-Chief absolutely declares he will not in future pardon a deserter, or one who, though his time be expired, shall quit his corps without a proper discharge from his commanding officer. "Instantly after the above was made known to the criminals, I called in to see them, and found them calm, composed and thankful; agreeably to the above order the whole twenty-nine were dismissed the main guard and joined their regiment.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 28th. News arrived of a large body of Indians having drawn about one hundred and forty of our militia stationed on the Delaware, at a place called Lackawack, above the Minisink, into an ambuscade, only eighteen or twenty of the party escaping, all the rest fell a prey to savage barbarity. This unfortunate affair happened on the 22d instant. Two or three field officers, with several captains, lieutenants and ensigns were among the missing. Colonel Read arrived from Sullivan's Stores with his detachment and ninety loaded wagons. P. M.—Walked to the park of artillery, on my way down saw a note from Shawnee directed to Dr. Ellmore, requesting his attendance on a man who, a few miles distant from this place, was shot both in his side and thigh by some Indians or painted Tories, but had the good fortune to get safe to his family; one he knew to be a white man, an acquaintance of his, who many months ago had joined the enemy.
"Ah, why will kings forget that they are men,
And men that they are brethren—why delight
In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties
Of nature that should knit their souls together
In one soft bond of unity and love."
THURSDAY, JULY 29th. Agreeably to previous determination, the bodies of Captain Davis and Lieutenant Jones were removed from the place of their interment to the proper burying ground. The brotherhood met at five o'clock, and marching by the General's marque, had the pleasure of his company. Colonels Proctor's and Hubley's regiments, with drums, fifes and the band of music, accompanied them. Reaching the graves, an exceedingly heavy shower of rain prevented the delivery of a discourse designed for the occasion, however a short prayer was made, the bodies were interred in Masonic form, and three volleys of small arms fired. This evening General Sullivan received a letter  giving a more favorable account of the Lackawack battle, making the killed and missing between forty and fifty. Orders were this day given for everything to be gotten in readiness for the marching of the army on Saturday morning.
FRIDAY, JULY 30th. A letter was received by the General, dated yesterday at Northumberland, seven o'clock A. M., from Colonel Cook, informing him that the day before the enemy made themselves masters of Freeland's Fort upon terms of capitulation, viz.: "The men to remain prisoners of war, and they with the fort to be plundered by the Indians, the women to go free." The number of the enemy before the fort were two hundred and fifty, one-third of them were British troops, under the command of Captain McDonald, with a corps de reserve of one hundred men. At Northumberland, which is only twenty miles distant from the fort, there were only one hundred and fifty men to make a stand for the protection of the women and children, it being impossible to get them off; when the express came away they expected to be attacked every hour; the enemy had collected all the cattle and abundance of plunder of every kind. In an action after the capitulation, Captain Hawkins Boon and fourteen volunteers were killed and scalped and a few wounded.
SATURDAY, JULY 31st. This morning every department of the army was very busy in preparing for a movement. About one o'clock P. M. the whole marched from Wyoming agreeably to the orders of the 25th. The fleet, under the command of Colonel Proctor, consisting of one hundred and twenty boats, appeared most beautifully on the river; in passing the fort there was a mutual salute which gave universal satisfaction. The country we came through to-day, though generally a wilderness, affords a pleasing prospect of great improvement in a future day; we passed several plantations, no houses of any kind standing, being all burnt by the enemy; from the road we occasionally saw the river, which excited agreeable sensations. Crossing Lackawanick creek, which is in breadth about sixty yards and fordable all times of the year; it empties into the Susquehannah; encamped for the night near the same on a beautiful plain at Lackawanick, having marched from Wilkesbarre ten miles, and reaching the plain between the hours of five and six. Our course this day N. N. E. The light corps, which agreeably to general orders were to march in three columns, were by General Hand arranged as follows:— Eleventh Pennsylvania regiment and Captain Spalding's independent company advanced by platoons from the centre of a line formed by them, and constituted a column to proceed on the main road. The German regiment and Captain Schott's independent corps from the right of the said regiment, formed a column and marched on the right of the Eleventh, having their right flank covered by one-third of the light infantry of the Eleventh and Schott's riflemen in Indian file. Two-thirds of the light infantry of the Eleventh and Captain Spalding's riflemen marched in Indian file on the left flank, and answer the purpose of a third column; each column and flanking party had proportioned to their strength respectively a small party advanced in front, the same to be observed if possible until our arrival at Tioga.
SUNDAY, AUGUST 1st. The preceding night very rainy and at times uncommonly heavy, felt very cold and uncomfortable, which may be attributed in a great measure to sleeping on the ground and getting a great deal wet. General Hand this morning issued directions to be strictly observed by the light corps under his command in case of being attacked on the march, concluding with the following expressive language: "The Brigadier begs leave to assure the light troops that experience has taught him that maintaining a good countenance and a little perseverance, which from their known valor, he has every reason to expect will ensure success against the kind of enemy they have to oppose, and that turning their backs, let them be pressed ever so closely, will end in their utter ruin.'' Between the hours of two and three 11. P. M, the fleet arrived, which, owing to many unforeseen difficulties, could not reach the Lackawanick sooner; two boats, one loaded with ammunition, the other with provisions, were sunk; the ammunition and provisions were saved. At three o'clock P. M. our line of march recommenced, which, as we had all our horses and cattle collected, must have exhibited a grand spectacle had there been any disposed to take a view of the whole. The army being obliged to proceed in Indian file,  and the pack horses only, judged to be about two thousand in number, must have formed,, according to the opinion of many of the officers, a line of at least six miles. This day we marched seven miles, and arriving about dusk at Quialutimunck, we pitched our tents, for the night, contiguous to several fine springs on a considerably level spot surrounded by mountains and close by the river. Our course this day principally N. The road we marched over was exceedingly bad; we passed two places called the Narrows, previous, to our reaching the first (which are one mile in length); a very great curiosity presented itself to view, viz., a cascade or falling spring. The water descended in great abundance and amazingly rapid down a rock, interspersed with chasms, about eighty feet high; the ear was agreeably stricken by the constant sound created by the descending water; the distance between the first and second Narrows is three miles, which are one and a half miles long. The riding was much better than at the first Narrows, which was very stony and in several places so sloping as to have rendered it unsafe to keep on horseback. The soil of this country in general is loose and rich, abounding in trees of almost every kind, which, together with the high and thick brush, rendered our journeying rather tedious. In casting my eyes upon hills and mountains, some of which were imagined to be two, three and four hundred feet in heighth, my thoughts were agreeably led from nature's works to contemplate on nature s God. May it be my constant wish and aim to devote myself to the service of Him whose wisdom, power and goodness shine so conspicuous amidst all created objects. The fleet generally kept abreast of us, and our course being mostly on the water's edge, we had frequently the opportunity of exchanging words. They all arrived timely without any detriment at Quialutimunck. At Quialutimunck there was a few years ago an Indian town. The pasture ground at this encampment is very excellent, consisting of the highest Timothy grass I ever saw.
MONDAY, AUGUST 2d. Orders were this day issued for a continuance on the present ground, by reason of many of the pack horses not arriving till this morning. Colonel Cilley's regiment being in the rear to protect and bring on everything, did not arrive till two hours after sunrise; he gave an account of his having had a very tedious night; several horses gave out, the packs kept continually giving way and a considerable number of flour kegs burst, and the flour was lost. These with other reasons induced the General to prevent a movement until to-morrow morning. This being the anniversary of my nativity, grant, O God, that as my moments fly apace, I may by the assistance of thy Holy Spirit double my diligence to make my calling and election sure.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 3rd. The light troops began their march at six o'clock in the morning, the main body at seven. The major part of the way we met with trifling difficulties; we had to encounter a few bad places, such as swamps, steep hills and thickets; however in comparison with Sunday's march, it deserves the appellation of excellent. On an exceedingly high spot we had the pleasure of viewing many adjacent mountains; in two or three places for a considerable way the woods were open, the earth in general fine, trees stately and of various sorts; among the rest are interspersed the sugar maple and birch. We crossed several beautiful purling streams or creeks, viz.: Buttermilk Run, Tunkhun-nunk, and a few smaller ones. Buttermilk Run, about forty yards below where we crossed it, falls off a rock or rocks fifty feet in height, which goes by the name of Buttermilk Falls; so called on account of the water in its rapid descent appearing as white as the whitest buttermilk. Tunkhunnunk is a beautiful creek eight poles in breadth. The place where we crossed it, about three-quarters of a mile from the Susquehannah, into which it empties, was very rapid. The path along which we came and on each side of it as far as we could see, wild grass had grown in abundance. Some places, owing to the herbage, emitted a most fragrant smell, and we frequently had the pleasure of viewing flowers of various hues. Hazlenuts were ripening for a long tract of country in amazing quantities, and beyond a doubt nature has been equally kind in causing these wilds to abound with other things delicious to the taste. Several deer were seen, both by the officers and men; one came running close by us; none dared to fire, it being contrary to orders. Two privates in the right column, having each shot a fawn were put under guard as it occasioned a small alarm, and might if not prevented be attended with bad  consequences, The country all along abounds with snakes, particularly the rattlesnake and blacksnake. At two o'clock P. M., we arrived at Tunkhunnunk, and encamped on the banks of the Susquehannah, about a mile from where we crossed the creek of the same name. The fleet got up between the hours of three and four. This day we marched twelve miles, course N. N. W.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 4th, The light troops marched at five o'clock in the morning, and the main body at six. Soon after we set out we entered upon the third place since we left Wyoming called the Narrows, a mile and a half in length, a very bad, stony passage. These Narrows or defiles are on the west bounded by the river, which upon that account when the water is very high cannot well be travelled over. On the east they are bounded by exceedingly lofty and seemingly impassable mountains, (letting clear of this defile we had to rise a monstrous hill, very steep, with a narrow pathway, for in case a horse should miss his step he must fall at least one hundred and fifty feet; the spectacle was horrid. Having surmounted this difficulty we had the pleasure of marching through a good deal of open wood, though one or two disagreeable swamps opposed us in our passage; in fine, many of yesterday's observations are applicable to this. Eight miles from Tunkhunnunk is a delightful creek called Masshappen or Massappe, in breadth seven rods; we crossed it near its mouth. The wilderness thereabouts goes by its name. For two miles after we passed this creek we marched over a fine level tract, and then entered upon another defile not near so tedious as the former. Arriving at a place called Black Walnut Bottom, our tents were pitched for the night on the river bank. The main body encamped on a tract formerly improved by one Vanderlip; the light troops farther on, where one Williamson held a plantation. A creek, viz., Machapendaarre, ran between the two encamp-ments. Our march this day was thirteen miles. Our course in general, northwest. At the bottom of the steep hill was an excellent stream of water. On this, as well as on the preceding days, we had several flying reports concerning the enemy though no real discoveries were made. Towards evening our fisherman Hansell returned from his flanking manoeuvre and introduced himself with a good string of fish, on which having refreshed ourselves we retired soldierlike to our hard beds and devoted the night to invigorating sleep. "A contented mind and a good conscience will make a man happy in all conditions."
"Hail universal Lord ! he bounteous still
To give us only good; and if the night
Have gathered ought of evil or concealed
Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark."
THURSDAY, AUGUST 5th. By reason of the boats not arriving till late this morning the light troops did not march till half past eight o'clock, the main body their usual time after. We soon entered another defile or narrows three-quarters of a mile in length, bounded as the other defiles, though the mountains on the east appeared rather more perpendicular and lofty. Leaving the narrows we ascended a steep but short hill and travelled over a considerable open part of the country, the land in some places very indifferent, in others rich and fit for meadow. About two miles from Black Walnut Bottom, we crossed a small run or creek named Tuscaroge, took a particular view of the two places. where the enemy last fall attacked Colonel Hartley's regiment on its return from Tioga. Both of them were as favorable for action as the regiment could have wished. We passed by a skull of one of our men who was then killed, hanging on a small tree. After we left this height, having marched over a low and swampy piece of ground we came to Wyalusing mountain. The ascent was gradual, at the top we had a pleasing view of the Susquehannah; its form is rather more than semi-circular, flowing around a large tract or wilderness called the Horse Shoe, which every one who sees it will confess to be rightly named.
From the top of the mountain the plains of Wyalusing settlement are also visible, the descent of the mountain is not nearly so gradual as the ascent. The mountain is two miles over; on reaching the foot we entered a thicket containing the largest trees my eyes,  ever beheld of the sycamore or button wood kind, being in circumference, take one with another, between twenty and thirty feet, and in diameter between nine and twelve feet. Notwithstanding these trees, the bottom is called Sugar Bottom, on account of the Sugar Maple. Along this bottom there grows plenty of a root called sweet Sicily, of a similar taste with anise-seed and very useful. On the mountain and in the bottom we saw several spots where the Indians had encamped; fresh Indian tracks were discovered and one of their canoes was taken up by Mr. Lodge, also, by some of our soldiers, a raft with a pair of moccasons. An engagement was expected throughout the day, but granting that the enemy had a fair view of us, of which we had not the least doubt, they suffered us to pass unmolested, notwithstanding the many advantageous posts they might have occupied in annoying us. From the foot of the mountain to Wyalusing, the distance is one and a half miles. Wyalusing, which we reached in good season, consists of about one thousand acres of clear land, amazingly fertile and containing beds of extraordinary fine English grass. Since the present contest the town, which was inhabited by Moravian Indians, has been partly destroyed by our people and partly by the Indians. It contains upwards of eighty good square log houses, and a fine ornamented Moravian church in the centre with a bell. The minister resided in the town, there was also a tavern and other public buildings; all of which without exception were demolished or rafted down the Susquehannah. No sign of even the smallest hut was left standing. These Indians moved off with their families towards the Ohio. On this fine open plain, like a bed of down, the main army encamped. The light troops marched a mile further on, contiguous to an excellent spring, the place abounding with good pasture and distant from the river about half a mile where we made our fires and took up our abode for the night. This day's march was nine miles, course north, 80° west, or northwest by west. Wyalusing plains are exactly fifty miles from Wyoming, agreeably to the actual survey of Mr. Lodge. The country hereabouts is excellent for hunting.
FRIDAY, AUGUST 6th. This day the army halted, a party of thirty men from the light corps with a commissioned officer were sent out on a scout and returned without making any discoveries. Towards evening I rode to headquarters, where information had been received of four hundred and fifty British troops from Canada having joined the Indians, also a great body of savages from that quarter having been implored so to do by Colonel Brant, a devoted servant of the man who bears the title of the "Defender of the Faith." May the Lord give him that faith which worketh by love. Visited Colonel Proctor on board the "Adventure," and felt happy in finding all the fleet safely arrived and moored along the shore of Wyalusing plains. The evening rainy, which continued almost the whole night. Through the country the nights and mornings are generally foggy; when we were in Wyoming, and since we left it I scarcely remember seeing any clear sunshine until considerably late in the day.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 7th. By reason of the rain the army continued at Wyalusing. We hear that Indians had been doing mischief on the west branch of the Susquehannah near Northumberland. Nothing new occurred among us except that one or two scouting parties were sent out who returned without making any discoveries. Wyalusing belonged to one Job Childeway an Indian, a friend of our cause. Indian Job died last winter. Many handsome things are spoken of him, which make his manners to be
"By strangers honored, and by strangers mourned."
SUNDAY, August 8th. The light troops marched at five o'clock in the morning and the main body at six. We crossed Wyalusing creek, a fine stream, where it is eighty feet wide in batteaux. Having soon afterwards ascended a long and high mountain, which consisted of a good deal of miserable but some rich land, we found our march tolerably agreeably as the woods were not as thick as common. The descent of the mountain was very rough and steep. We then passed along a short defile, leaving which our course was for a considerable distance along the banks of the river through a gloomy thicket. Having waded through the creek and descended another steep place, we entered upon another defile rather longer and more tedious than the former one. After this we soon arrived at  Standing Stone Flats, distant from Wyalusing ten miles. Here is plenty of good land, fit for meadow and for raising wheat and other grain. It was formerly settled by a few families, some of whom have since been so villainous as to join the savages. Just upon entering these flats, I saw the stone from which they take their name. It is upon the opposite shore, on the cap of the water with which it is usually surrounded. Its height is twenty feet. Its breadth fourteen feet. Its thickness two and a half feet. At the back of it is a large rock forming more than a semicircle upon which it is supposed a considerable tenement might be erected. Passing then through another thicket, we came to a third defile, the worst narrow Passage, on account of stone and roughness, which we have met with since we left Wyoming. Surmounting this difficulty and passing over a tract of exceedingly fine bottom, we arrived at Weesauking or Rush Meadow Creek, a stream both narrow and shallow. Not far from this, on the banks of the Susquehannah, we encamped for the night. The ground was level and very good, but we could find no spring water. Distance to-day thirteen and a half miles, our course northwest. Captain Bush having gathered a few wild gooseberries, gave me one to taste; they are exactly similar to the tame kind. I plucked some wild pinks, and saw a wild tulip, and also plenty of crab apples. Across the river, and upon an island, we had the pleasure of viewing a large flock of wild ducks; contrary to orders to fire, or we might have had an excellent supper. This country abounds also in turkeys, which, in their flight near us make us often wish for a repeal of the general orders. General Sullivan being ill, took passage on board the fleet, which arrived at Standing Stone Flat, where the main body of the army tarried during the night. On this day's march we saw one or two places where the savages had lately encamped, also an Indian paddle floating down the river, and a canoe lying on the beach. A scouting party which had gone forward many miles, returning informed us that they had seen three tracks of Indians, and a spot where they had lately set down. They were undoubtedly spying our progress though as yet we have met with no impediment from them.
MONDAY, AUGUST 9th. The main army not reaching Weesauking till ten o'clock, A. M., the light troops did not leave it until one-quarter of an hour afterwards. Considering our advanced position, we were under some expectation of a visit from our tawney neighbors. However, we passed the night without being disturbed. Soon after we set out, we were a little obstructed by a swamp. Afterwards, as usual, our time was employed in rising and descending mountains; sometimes marching by the river, but mostly at a considerable distance from it. The land was without exception rich; but none of the timber, though of various kinds, by any means nigh as large as that which may be seen between Wyoming and Easton. Between four and five miles from Weesauking we came to a hill called Breakneck Hill. It is an exceeding narrow and sidelong path along a very high mountain, about a quarter of a mile long, with scarcely room for man and horse to walk in, and in case of a misstep nothing seemingly could preserve from instant death, as the fall must be at least one hundred and eighty feet perpendicular down rocks into the river. We got safe over this shocking passage. The army marched with orders to stop one mile ahead of the first plains of Shesecunnunk, opposite to which on the other shore had been an Indian settlement, consisting of a few houses. They were destroyed last fall by Colonel Hartley's detachment. Owing to the mistake of the guides or some other cause the first plains were passed. It was then judged proper to proceed through the woods to the upper plains of Shesecunnunk, which we reached at five o'clock, P. M. Near these plains and on them, we plainly discovered many fresh tracks of the enemy; and we doubt not of their having been here but a short time before our arrival. March of the light troops to-day from Weesauking Upper Plains eleven miles. Our general course north by northwest. On this as well as on some of the preceding days, we saw several of the bows on which the Indians dry the scalps they take. Two or three canoes were taken up opposite our encamping ground. This day's march was very fatiguing and several of the men gave out. A good deal of the ground we passed over was covered with pea vines. May apples were also plenty.
TUESDAY AUGUST 10th. Captain Gifford who commanded the detachment of the army  on the west side of the river, gave us a little history of his march and observations, differing not much from that of the army on the east side. The fleet arrived between eight and nine o'clock this morning after a tedious passage from Weesauking. Yesterday about four o'clock, P. M., they burned an Indian town on the west bank of the river, and containing about twenty-eight wigwams. One of the boats was sunk on the passage; but a party being sent down for the purpose, saved all the flour but two barrels. By this day's general orders the quantum of rations was diminished; several reasons made manifest the propriety of this measure. General Sullivan, with the brigadiers, and a regiment from each brigade who went out to reconnoitre, returned without making discovery of any savages.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 11th. The light troops marched from Upper Shescecunk at half past seven, the main body at eight o'clock, A. M. Proceeding about one mile and a half we arrived at a fording place on the Susquehannah, unknown to any of our guides, but found out on the preceding day by the general officers. The troops pursuant to orders, taking off their overalls and tying them about their necks, crossed in platoons under cover of the fleet, each soldier grasping the hand of his comrade next to him for support. The current being strong and the water for a considerable distance coming up to the middle of the men, some considerable difficulties were encountered, but notwithstanding every impediment the whole body got over without suffering any peculiar disadvantage. General Hand in order to animate his brigade, dismounted and marched through on foot at the head of his soldiers. Such an army crossing a river with so much regularity at a place so rapid and in width three hundred and thirty yards, affords the spectator a pleasing sight, and must have struck our enemies with awe. I must doubt whether the army of Alexander the Great encountered as many difficulties with as much good humor as ours has evinced. The river being forded we entered upon what is properly called the Indian country, or that part of the wilderness claimed by the six nations, the boundary on the west side is the Tawandee Creek, emptying into the Susquehannah, about three miles above Weesauking. The army being formed as usual we proceeded sometimes in single files, and then in double, through a thicket till we entered those beautiful plains where the Tioga branch unites itself with the main river. On this level spot stood Queen Esther's palace, burned by Colonel Hartley last fall. Over those plains the army marched towards the mouth of the Tioga, in order of battle, the light troops being joined by two three-pounders from the regiment of artillery. The view of this was grand beyond description, as the ground for a great circuit was level and the grass high and green. Drums were beating, fifes playing, colors flying. Getting to the mouth of the Tioga, we found it in width one hundred and forty-two yards, and the water much deeper than had been imagined. Verdant plains in our rear, the flowing Susquehannah on our right. Ourselves in the Tioga or Cayuga stream, with a fine neck of land in our front and mountains surrounding the whole, afforded pleasant reflections though separated from friends and in an enemy's country. Surely a soil like this is worth contending for. Possessing ourselves of the north side of the Tioga, and passing through a swampy piece of ground we entered upon other plains, pleasing to the eye, though not so grand as those on the south. Here the main body encamped; the light troops proceeded farther on, one column on the banks of the Susquehannah, and another on those of the Tioga banks. The land in general very fine. Having advanced a mile and better, our tents were pitched from river to river, judged to be two hundred yards. Just below our encampment we took a view of the Indians' carrying place, thirteen yards across, so called from their carrying or dragging their canoes from river to river to save themselves the trouble of paddling round the neck.
On the west side of the Tioga is a most beautiful tract of level and fine country, terminated by a mountain. On this tract an Indian town formerly stood; it was destroyed by themselves. This day we marched five miles, course due north. Saw Captain Jehoiakim, who with four men had come thus far forward the day before. He picked up one or two horses that had been left behind by the savages. Captain Jehoiakim's three Stockbridge Indians left us at Wyoming.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 12th. Rode to the other encampment. The scouting party which  went out the evening before with Captain Cummins, returned about three o'clock, P. M. The accounts brought by them of Chemung and the seeming security of the Indians there as well as of some white persons, together with their fields of corn, etc., induced the General after holding a council to determine to surprise the village if possible. Accordingly between nine and ten o'clock at night, the major part of the army marched with the utmost silence for the place with the Commander-in-Chief, his family consisting of Generals Poor, Hand and others. General Maxwell being unwell, tarried behind. To have been of the party myself was my fervent desire, but I could not petition for it to be granted, after being requested by General Hand to stay and take charge of our family baggage and stores, which, among such domestics as we are blessed with, was the necessary duty of some one. Captain Cummins's party brought in with them two fresh scalps lately taken by the Indians, the crowns of each only cut out. One, from the thinness of the skin, must have been an infant's. In this day's general orders appeared in substance the following: As the army will soon be called upon to march against an enemy whose savage barbarity to our fellow citizens, has rendered them proper subjects of our resentment, the General assures them that though their number should even be equal, which he is sensible cannot be the case, yet it is his firm opinion they cannot withstand the bravery and discipline of the troops he has the honor to command. Nevertheless it ought to be remembered that they are a secret, desultory and rapid foe, seizing every advantage and availing themselves of every defeat on our part. Should we be so inattentive to our own safety as to give way before them, they become the most dangerous and most destructive enemy that can possibly be conceived. They follow the unhappy fugitives with all the cruel and unrelenting hate of prevailing cowards, and are not satisfied with slaughter until they have totally destroyed their opponents. It therefore becomes every officer and soldier to resolve never to fly before such an enemy, but determine either to conquer or perish, which will ever insure success. Should they thus determine and thus act, nothing but an uncommon frown of Providence can prevent us from obtaining that which will insure peace and security to our frontiers, and afford lasting honor to all concerned.
FRIDAY, AUGUST 13th. That part of our army which marched for Chemung the evening before returned at dusk. The particulars relative to this enterprise as collected from several friends, particularly Major Edwards, are as following: Owing to many inconveniences attending a march by night in a wilderness, they did not arrive at Chemung till after daylight; nevertheless the morning being very foggy, favored their undertaking. Having surrounded the town, to their great sorrow they found it abandoned. Its situation was beautiful, being on the banks of the Tioga branch. The houses in general were good, some built of logs, others of hewed slabs, in numbers, upwards of thirty with a council house. The whole was immediately set fire to, and the place totally destroyed. The infantry then moved on towards another Indian village called Newtown, distant from Chemung seven or eight miles, in pursuit of the savages, who with their cattle were supposed to have taken that route. Proceeding about one mile, they came to the place where the savages had passed the night, but being apprized of our approach they made their escape, leaving behind their blankets, fires burning and dogs asleep by them. General Hand having by Major Edwards, requested General Sullivan to allow him to go on to Newtown, General Sullivan consented, provided General Hand would engage to return next morning to Tioga. General Hand then determined instantly to push forward. Captain Bush's infantry being on the right flank, and the advance party but a little in front, the light corps thus moving forward soon came to a very high hill or rather ridge, which ran along on their right. The Indians, who had fixed themselves there for the purpose, immediately discharged a very sharp volley upon our advanced party, which wounded Captain Franklin, their guide, Adjutant Hinton, and a few others, killed a sergeant and some privates. The 11th Pennsylvania regiment hereupon, in a moment, pushed up the hill with an astonishing rapidity. The savages as they were advancing gave them another well directed fire, but seeing the determined spirit of our troops, suddenly fled. The light corps pursued them some distance and were pushing for Newtown, but General Sullivan arriving, thought it best for them to return in order to destroy their  fields of corn which were very fine indeed and supposed to be in the whole nearly a hundred acres. From the quantity of corn and potatoes stored there Chemung was judged to be designated for a magazine to supply their future wants. As General Poor's brigade were destroying an upper field they were fired upon by the Indians. He had one man killed and two or three more wounded. The whole business of laying waste their ground and burning their villages was completed before one o'clock, P. M., the detachment having marched, going and returning, above thirty miles. The 11th Pennsylvania regiment had six killed, viz., one sergeant, one drummer and four privates. Two officers badly wounded, viz., Captain Carberry and Adjutant Huston. Slightly wounded six privates. The main army had one man killed and a few wounded. The dead bodies were brought to camp on horses, and all the wounded got in safe. Several Indian curiosities were picked up by the soldiery and some of the officers, such as painted scalps, etc. Tarried for my own part in my quarters all day and felt very lonesome.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 14th. Attended to the grave the bodies of the six killed of Hubley's regiment. They were all as decently as possible interred together. Pronounced a funeral oration and went to prayer; the regiment very solemn and attentive. The scene was exceedingly affecting. Informed Mr. Kilpatrick of the enemy's leaving Northumberland county, after ruining all the settlements on the West Branch.
SUNDAY, AUGUST 15th. The forenoon being very cloudy, this, together with parading the troops, and cooking, prevented preaching to the respective brigades. Early in the afternoon as a number of gentlemen were sitting with General Hand, we heard the discharge of several guns across the Tioga, and immediately afterwards the Indian scalp warhoop. Upon our repairing to the banks several savages were by different persons discovered retreating along the mountains, taking with them four or five horses. A detachment from the light troops in the upper and two Jersey regiments from the lower encampments went in pursuit of them. But agreeably to the old adage it was similar to looking for needles in a hay stack. Their footsteps were plainly seen but their persons were invisible. They killed and scalped one of our men, a lad employed as a driver; his body was brought over soon afterwards. One of our soldiers was wounded and a bullock was shot. The Indians are enemies fruitful in stratagem, secret in their designs, and capable of taking every advantage which the situation of the ground or our own inattention may give them. I forgot to mention the supposed loss of the enemy in the battle on Friday. A jacket of one of them was picked up bloody and shot through. Also a hat. One or two were seen to fall and afterwards to be carried off by the others. From these circumstances it is imagined that they had seven or eight killed and wounded.
MONDAY, AUGUST 16th. This morning agreeably to orders of the 14th, nine hundred picked men, with a suitable number of commissioned and non-commissioned officers under the command of Generals Poor and Hand marched off the ground in order to proceed upon the main branch, to meet the troops and boats, which, under the command of General Clinton, were to leave Lake Otsego, on the 9th instant. The detachment took with it eight day's provisions. The light troops being much reduced by draughts from them upon account of this expedition, were by reason of our advanced and dangerous situation joined by two pieces of artillery from the park under the command of Captains Craig and Ernes. Visited the sick and wounded in the general hospital. By this day's orders the soldiery were positively forbidden to go out of the lines of the encampment under any pretext whatever. A captain and fifty men were posted on the west side of the Cayuga, to guard the horses and cattle and secure the camp. The troops were forbidden to imitate the Indian whoop, as also to discharge their guns wantonly. A single gun is to be considered as an alarm. P. M.—An express arrived, also a person from Philadelphia. The person from Philadelphia, mentioned that Count d'Estaing had obtained a victory over the British fleet off the Island of St. Vincents. By a letter from General Clinton to General Sullivan, the latter was informed that the 16th of August (this day), he should leave Onohocassage, about sixty miles up the river from Tioga. The block houses, (which were directed to be built a little in the rear of the infantry encampment, for the security of the peninsula, and where a garrison with the flying hospital on the army's marching  from this are to be left, are going on with a good deal of rapidity), were this evening called by the name of Fort Sullivan, out of respect to the illustrious character who with his army first took possession of this post on behalf of the United States.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 17th. Last night the light corps were several times alarmed by the sentries. Twice I got up. Small parties were sent out by Colonel Hubley to reconnoitre the environs of the camp, and returned each time with an account of the sentries mistaking either horses or some other moving objects for Indians. Two guns were discharged by the party on the west side of the Cayuga, and one by the advanced front guard of infantry. In the country of so lurking an enemy, we cannot but expect frequent mistakes of this kind. P. M.—Six soldiers of the German regiment having obtained leave to go a small distance to search for some of their missing horses, were, between two and three hundred yards from our advanced sentries, fired upon by about twelve secreted savages. They returned the fire; four got into camp safe. A party being sent out by Colonel Hubley, met one returning to the regiment shot through the arm and all the bones above his elbow shattered. I went immediately to see him, and found the poor fellow, though full of pain, very patient; the sixth was killed by three or four balls through the body and head, and scalped. His body was found and brought in. He formerly lived in Fifth street, near Market street, Philadelphia. His name was Philip Helter, by trade a biscuit baker.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 18th. Very early this morning by reason of yesterday's occurrence, several small parties with certain directions were sent out different ways under enterprising officers to bring in if possible or kill some of the dastardly cruel lurking foe. Last night a sentry discharged his musket at an imaginary Indian which caused the infantry to appear under arms; got up myself, soon retired again to my tent and slept very sound till sunrise. At eleven o'clock, A. M., preached a sermon at our encampment in commemoration of the death of Captain Davis and Lieutenant Jones, vide observations, of Thursday, July 29th. Present, General Sullivan and family; General Maxwell and family; the 11th Pennsylvania regiment, artillery; members of Lodge No. 19, with many other gentlemen of the army. A short time after sermon attended to the grave the body of Philip Helter, addressed the soldiery and went to prayer; the day being very sultry, was, after so much preaching, a good deal overcome. The parties sent out in the morning returned without doing anything material. This night one gun was fired which occasioned a small alarm.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 19th. Parties, as yesterday, sent out; returned towards evening in eodem modo. This night a musket discharged at some fancied enemy. Rainy all night.
FRIDAY, AUGUST 2oth. Early this morning, arrived Lieutenant Boyd, of the rifle corps with a letter from General Clinton to General Sullivan. Lieutenant Boyd informs us that their army and our detachment met the day before at ten o'clock A. M., eight miles this side of Chenango. The same evening Owegy, an Indian village twenty miles from hence was by the army laid in ashes. Lieutenant Boyd left them at Owegy, eleven o'clock, P. M., they resolving to be here the next, viz., this day. However, the day being throughout very stormy, without doubt prevented their proceeding. Lieutenant Boyd spent the day with Major Sproat, and purposes tarrying with us till General Clinton gets in. General Clinton's troops had met with no opposition on their march, when Mr. Boyd came away. They burnt every house they came across, without exception, and destroyed all the corn and grain.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 21st. No new occurrence.
SUNDAY, AUGUST 22nd. This morning arrived General Clinton with his army and our detachment. The majority of General Clinton with his army and our detachment. The majority of General Clinton's troops came down in batteaux, in number, two hundred and seven, and they of the small kind; upon their passing by the light corps encampment they were saluted by the discharge of thirteen rounds from two six pounders. As our detachment with Colonel William Butler's command marched through, they were received by the remaining part of General Hand's brigade under arms and welcomed by the band of music and drums and fifes, playing alternately. At twelve o'clock rode to the lower  camp, and to my great satisfaction saw Mr. Gano; found him hearty and well. The provisions brought by General Clinton, did not as to quantity turn out so much as we expected, owing to their necessary consumption of the same at Lake Otsego, where they were obliged to continue idle about a month as we were unprepared to meet them sooner at Tioga. The consequences which must result may be easily supposed. The first grand design of the expedition must in a great measure prevail (fail). No preaching to-day by reason of the troops arriving and preparations making for speedy departure. With General Clinton came only two of the Oneidas.
MONDAY, AUGUST 23rd. A. M. Visited the sick and wounded. Dined at home. Colonel Butler and other gentlemen being with us. P. M., spent with Dr. Gano at General Clinton's Marquee. About five o'clock in General Poor's brigade, a soldier flashing his gun, it went off, and at a considerable distance shot an officer, as he was standing at a tent door; he instantly expired; upon calling to look at the body, was informed that he was a married man, his wife and five children residing in New Hampshire; a sad misfortune. By this day's orders the 4th Pennsylvania regiment and Rifle Corps are annexed to General Hand's brigade. Two hundred and fifty men properly officered, exclusive of boatmen to be left as a garrison at this place, Colonel Shreve appointed to command. Myself ordered to officiate as chaplain to the garrison at Wyoming. This is in consequence of the dispersed state of the 3rd Pennsylvania brigade and the majority of those who are together, being attached to the light corps, whose duty, after they leave Tioga, will be such as to render my presence unnecessary, as no opportunity for preaching can possibly occur. These considerations caused me to comply without much hesitation.
TUESDAY, AUGUST 24th. This day nothing material occurred except the universal hurry throughout the whole in preparing for a march. Accordingly, P. M., tents were struck, horses loaded, and every movement necessary for the new movement took place. Owing to the numbers of the pack horses being lost or otherwise missing, General Clinton's brigade was poorly supplied.
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 25th. The troops which were this forenoon to march agreeably to yesterday's directions, were by reason of their not being properly equipped, ordered to hold themselves in perfect readiness to proceed at all events. At eleven o'clock arrived three Oneidas, one a Lieutenant commissioned by Congress; upon their advancing to the infantry encampment a sentry presented his firelock; the Oneidas clubbed theirs and ventured in by making signs of good faith. Upon their marching through the several brigades many officers and soldiers, laboring under the same belief with the sentry, particularly as they were escorted by a guard, gathered around them; they informed us that one of their young warriors was lately killed in Canada, by the British, and that a number of their tribe had since gone to revenge his death. P. M.—Heavy rain. In the evening an express arrived; intelligence by him received that Colonel Broadhead, from Fort Pitt, had marched with a number of troops and friendly Indians with an intention of forming a junction with General Sullivan, near Genesee. He also brought several newspapers, which announced the victory obtained by the French fleet over the British off Grenada, and that Island, together with Tobago, was in possession of our allies.
THURSDAY, AUGUST 26th, Early this morning rode to the lower encampment; they appeared in great hurry and confusion; soon returned to my quarters. Late in the forenoon the whole, exclusive of the garrison, marched. Many articles went up the Tioga in boats; as they set out under great and divers inconveniences, their return must be so sudden as will in all probability prevent effecting much. Twenty-seven days provisions only. Artillery passing through an uncultivated country, etc. However ardent my wishes are, yet my fears more than counterbalance. The Rifle and Light Corps moving off with the sound of the horn, appeared highly pleasing, the main body following in their rear about one mile, added a peculiar grace. Would to God they were better supplied. Captain Bush, Dr. Kinnersley and myself erected our living abode within the lines of Fort Sullivan, proposing to spend our time as comfortably as possible together, until some of the boats set off for Wyoming. The command of the garrison being committed to so vigilant and worthy an officer as Colonel Shreve, affords much confidence and good hu-  mor in all those who are to continue with him, although their sufferings may be great and duty must be hard. Captain Wool has charge of the two garrison six pounders. Colonel Dubois and Lieutenant Colonel Reignier com-manded the flanking division on the right of the army. Colonel Ogden and Lieutenant-Colonel Willett, that on the left.
FRIDAY, AUGUST 27th. The Army yesterday moved but three miles; marched again this morning about seven o'clock. The great parade and regularity which is observed, must unavoidably in the end, letting alone all other obstacles, greatly defeat the purpose of the expedition, considering the coyness and subtilty of the Indians. The garrison at Fort Sullivan is very short of provisions, the salted beef much tainted. Divers cattle which since our arrival at this post have strayed away, were this day discovered by a scouting party sent out by the commandant. The party could bring none in, as they were apparently as wild as deer. The past night very cold, this morning, till late, exceedingly foggy; and from about eleven o'clock, A. M., till four, P. M., very sultry.
SATURDAY, AUGUST 28th. A party which was directed to search after strayed horses and cattle, early this morning drove into the fort twenty-four of the latter, A great blessing indeed, as there are in the garrison about twelve hundred souls, men, women and children included, and previous to the twenty-four cattle being drove in, but five were left and those but poor. About dusk, sixty boats, most of them having many of the garrison on board, set off for Wyoming for provisions and other necessaries; took passage myself with Captain Bush, on board the "Adventure," where were fixed as conveniently as circumstances would permit Captain Carberry and Adjutant Huston, who owing to their wounds and much pain were exceedingly uneasy; spent a very disagreeable night, as I had to sit or stand in a cramped posture.
Note. Rev Dr. Rogers left the army to return to Philadelphia during the night of August 28, 1779, an account of his return journey being in his journal which ends Sept. 6, and which is here omitted as not being pertinent to this publication.
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