Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink.


Prepared Pursuant to Chapter 361, Laws of the State of New York, of 1885.

by Frederick Cook, Secretary of State,
Auburn, N. Y. Knapp, Peck & Thompson Printers,

[These journals are reproduced verbatim.]

Lieutenant Thomas Blake, 1st NH Regiment
Sergeant Moses Fellows, 3rd NH Regiment
Major Jeremiah Fogg, 2nd NH Regiment
Major James Norris, 3rd NH Regiment


LIEUTENANT THOMAS BLAKE was of Dorchester, Mass. He was the son of Samuel and Patience Blake, and was born October 7, 1752. In 1775 when the alarm, consequent upon the attack of the British at Lexington and Concord reached him, he immediately joined the continental army at Cambridge. In November, 1776, he was commissioned as Ensign in Colonel Stark's First New Hampshire Regiment, with which he continued until its dissolution in January, 1784. In 1778 he was promoted to a Lieutenant and was afterwards Paymaster and Regimental Clothier. His journal of the marches and campaigns of the Regiment for about five years was published in the "History of the First New Hampshire Regiment in the War of the Revolution, by Frederick Kidder, Joel Munsell, Albany, 1868," from which the following, embracing what relates to the Sullivan expedition, is extracted. After the Revolution he settled in Boston, Mass., where he died February 16, 1840.

Dec. 4. [1778] We began to build our huts, which we finished in a short time, and tarried in them till the 10th of April, and then marched to the high lands on North river, where we went into huts and staid till May 9th 1779, then marched for Easton in Pennsylvania, where we arrived the 18th, and took quarters in the Court House and other spare buildings.

May 19, 1779. Gen. Sullivan arrived at Easton, being appointed to command of the western army.

May 28.—Col. Cillys regiment marched to Wyoming 12 miles.

May 29.—Marched to Pocono point 15 miles.

May 30.—Marched to Tuckhannock 10 miles.

May 31.—Marched to Locust hill 6 miles, where we came up with Col. Courtlands and Col. Spencer's regiments, who were cutting a road through to Wyoming. We pitched our tents and went to work with them, and a detachment of 200 men from the three regiments marched forward to Wyoming. We worked on the road till June 7, and moved our tents 8 miles.

June 9.—Moved 2 miles and encamped.

June 11.—Moved 5 miles to Bullock's house.

June 14.—Marched to Wyoming 7 miles, and 65 from Easton.

June 17.—Col. Cilly's, Courtland's, and Spencer's regiments marched up the river to Jacob's Plains 4 miles and encamped.

June 23.—Gen. Sullivan came in to Wyoming, also 5 other regiments.

[39] July 4.—Col. Cilly's and Courtland's regiments crossed the river and marched down two miles toward Wyoming, and encamped with the rest of Gen. Poor's brigade.

July 5.—Gen. Poor made an entertainment for the officers of the brigade in commemoration of American independence, and after dinner the following toasts were drank: 1. United States. 2. July 4, 1776, the memorable. 3. The grand council of America. 4. Gen. Washington and the army. 5. The king and queen of France. 6. Gen. Sullivan and the Western expedition. 7. May the councillors of America be wise and her soldiers invincible. 8. A successful and decisive campaign. 9. Civilization or death to all savages. 10. To the immortal memory of those heroes that have fallen in defense of American liberty. 11. May the husbandman's cottage be blessed with peace, and his fields with plenty. 12. Vigor and virtue to all the sons and daughters of America. 13. May the New World be the last asylum of freedom and the arts.

July 27.—Gen. Poor's brigade marched down to Wyoming and encamped with the rest of the army.

July 31.—Having all things in readiness, the army began their march up the river. We marched to Lacawaneck 10 miles.

Aug. 1.—Marched to Quilutamack 7 miles, and met with so much difficulty in passing some large mountains that ran down to the river, that the rear did not come up till sunrise next morning, for which reason we lay still the second day.

Aug. 3.—Marched to Tunkhannick 12 miles.

Aug. 4.—Marched to Vanderlips farm 13 miles.

Aug. 5.—Marched to Wylusink 10 miles.

Aug. 6 & 7.—Lay still.

Aug. 8.—Marched to Standingstone 11 miles.

Aug. 9.—Marched to Shesheck 16 miles.

Aug. 10.—Lay still.

Aug. 11.—Forded the river, and marched to Tioga 5 miles, and there encamped on the point between the Seneca and Tioga branches.

Aug. 12.—Toward night we had orders to prepare for a march, and left Tioga just after sunset with one days provision, leaving all our tents standing, and our baggage in them, with a few men least able to march. Marched all night though very dark and bad traveling; and just at day break next morning reached Chemong, a small Indian town 14 miles from Tioga; but they being alarmed before we could surround the town made off. They had previously moved all their women, children and effects, leaving only about fifty of their warriors as a guard. Gen. Hand's brigade followed them up the river about two miles where they had posted themselves in a very advantageous position. They gave the brigade a shot and ran off. In the meantime we set fire to all the buildings in the town about twenty, then marched, crossed the river, and destroyed three or four fields of corn, cutting and throwing it in heaps, the corn being then in the milk. While at work on the last field, we were fired upon across the river by the Indians, killing one and wounding four of our men. The whole of our killed and wounded this day was about 15 or 16. We were not positive of killing more than one of the Indians. In the afternoon we marched back to Tioga.

Aug. 15.—A party of Indians came down to the south side of the river, opposite the encampment, and fired upon some men that were tending cattle, killed one and wounding another.

Aug. 16.—A detachment of 900 men commanded by Gen. Poor, marched up the river to meet Gen. Clinton's brigade who were to meet us at Tyoga from the Mohawk river.

Aug. 17.—The Indians killed one man near the encampment.

Aug. 22.—Gen. Clinton's brigade with the detachment sent to meet him, came in.

Aug. 26.—Three Indians belonging to the Oneida tribe came in to join our army and assist our guides. The same day the army began to march into the Seneca country, leaving a garrison of 500 men; marched 4 miles and encamped.

Aug. 27.—Marched 6 miles.

Aug. 28.—Thence to Chemong 4 miles.

[40] Aug. 29.—We marched about 4 miles, where our advanced guard were fired upon by the enemy from a breastwork they had thrown up, of about a quarter of a mile in length, extending from the river to a large range of mountains, which lay parallel with the river. The army halted, and Gen. Poor's brigade marched back of the mountains in order to cross the range in rear of the enemy. In the meantime we kept a few men firing before the breast work, in order to arouse the enemy. Gen. Poor's brigade marched round about three miles, and as we attempted to ascend and cross the mountain, were fired upon by the Indians, who gave at the same time a most hideous yell which resounded in the mountains as if covered with them.

The brigade formed line and marched up, receiving a constant fire from them; but as soon as we reached the top they fled, and those at the breastwork at the same time. We had 4 men killed and 32 wounded. There were 11 Indians left dead on the ground. They took off their wounded, as appeared by the blood where they crossed the river. We took two prisoners during the action, a white man and a negro, who informed us there were 600 Indians, 200 Tories and 14 British troops all under the command of Col. Butler. That they had been waiting some time for us, intending to cut off our provisions, and to hinder our further progress into their country.

Aug. 30.—We lay still, and in the evening sent the wounded men down to Tioga in boats.

Aug. 31.—Marched 10 miles.

Sept. 1.—Marched to French Katharines 13 miles.

Sept. 2.—Lay still

Sept. 3.—Marched 10 miles and encamped on the north side of Seneca lake.

Sept. 4.—Passed Appletown and marched 13 miles.

Sept. 5. — Marched to Kondar—6 miles.

Sept. 6.—Marched 4 miles

Sept. 7.—Marched round the end of Seneca lake to Kanadasaga 13 miles.

Sept. 8.—The army lay still; a detachment went up the south side of the lake to destroy a town.

Sept. 9.—Marched 8 miles.

Sept. 10.—To Kennendaughque 12 miles.

Sept. 11.—To Hanneyauyen 13 miles; here we left a garrison of 100 men with part of the flour and ammunition.

Sept. 12.—Marched 11 miles.

Sept. 13.—After marching 2 miles we came to a town called Keneghses where the army halted to build a bridge over a large sunken place for the troops to cross. In the meantime, part of the riflemen went forward to the next town. On their return within about a mile of the army, they were fired upon by the enemy who had posted themselves on a hill ready to give us a shot as soon as we came out of the swamp. They killed 13 of the riflemen and took two prisoners. Our men being alarmed by the fire, the light troops marched to their relief, on the appearance of which the enemy quit the ground leaving 70 of their packs. After this we marched to Gaghaheywarahera; the whole of our march to day being 9 miles.

Sept. 14.—We marched 2 miles and forded the Chinesee river, then 3 miles down the river to a large town called Chinesee Castle, and here found the two men that had been taken the day before cut to pieces in the most barbarous and inhuman manner possible to be conceived. In this town were 180 houses and an exceeding large field of corn, which took the army until the middle of the afternoon next day to destroy, after which we marched about 4 miles.

Sept. 16.—We marched to Keneghses.

Sept. 17.—Marched to Hannauyan

Sept. 18.—Marched to Kennendaughque.

Sept. 19.—Marched to Kanadasaga.

[41] Sept. 20.—A detachment of 500 men commanded by Col. Butler were sent off to go up the lake (Keyuga) on the northeast side; the army marched a little past the end of Seneca lake.

Sept. 21.—Another detachment of 200 men under command of Col. Dearborn left us to go up the southwest side of Keuga lake. The army marched 3 miles past Kendaia; and

Sept. 24.—We met some of our boats 5 miles above Newton, where we halted until the detachments came in; and

Sept 29 & 30.—Marched to Tyoga.

Oct. 4.—The army marched for Wyoming, making 14 miles.

Oct. 5.—The whole army went on board the boats, except a sufficient number to drive the horses and cattle, and arrived at Wyoming, on

Oct. 7.—About noon.

Oct. 10.—Marched for Easton where we arrived

Oct. 15.—And encamped near the river.

Oct. 27.—Marched toward the North river, and

Oct. 30.—Pitched our tents at the mouth of the cove.

Nov. 6.—Marched to Plimpton and encamped.

Nov. 24.—Marched 15 miles toward the North river

Nov. 25.—Marched to the river and crossed.

Nov. 27.—Marched to Crumpond.

Nov. 28.—Marched 12 miles

Nov. 29.—Marched to Ridgbury.

Dec. 1.—Thence to the place pitched upon for building our huts for the winter, which was about half way between Danbury and Newtown.


MOSES FELLOWS, of Salisbury, Vt., was Orderly Sergeant in Capt James Gray's Company of Scammel's, 3d N H. Regiment. This company was of Salisbury men. He has worthy descendants, grandsons, residing in that vicinity. The original journal is in possession of A. Tiffany Norton Esq., Lima, N. Y. The following is a literal copy, the first thirteen pages are missing.

CHOUDER CAMP: our Course To Day about Northerly. No house from where we marched this morning to wioming.

JUNE the 21st marched 20 miles through a rough Country and a new Rode, the Land Coverd with Pine Hemlock Spruce &c: we Eat Breakfirst at a Small river Cald Tunkhannah. Passd another Stream Cald Tobehannunk and another the Leahigh; we passed what is Cald the Shades of Death a Glomey thick Part of The Swamp.

22d we marched but 5 miles to Day to a Disolate house where one Mr. Bullock once Livd But was Drove off by the Savages.

23d we marched to the fort at Wyoming 7 miles where Sevral Regt are Encamped: Our General Course to day we Past north w., the whole Country from Eastown to Wyoming is very poor & Barren and I think as never will Be Settled; it abounds Chiefly in Deer and Rattle Snake; the Land At Wyoming on Both Sides the river is Good, But the Good Land Extends But a Small Distance from the river; the inhabitance have been very much Distresed by the (several pages missing).

The next Day being the First of august & in the afternoon we marched About 8 miles & came to a place called tunkhannak & their we tarrid all night and the Next Day it being the 2st Day of august we Drew Five Days allowance & on the __ Day we marched at 7 o'clock and marched 12 miles to a Place Calld whywomick on Susquehanah River; the Path was Very Good Considering Such a rough Country but a vast sight of hills Exceding Steep: the forth Day we marched Fourteen miles & Came to a Place Calld Disolate farmes. This way was No road but an old foot Path & high hills, never was known, for their was mountains Seven miles Long & Exceding Steep, after we Left these mountains We Came on a trackt of Land Such I never Saw before: the 5th Day we marched 10 miles and Came to a place Calld Wildlucit; know Person would Have thout of Seein Such Lands as here was for such a Groth I beleive never Was known, for button wood Trees was Eight or nine feet Though: & the Land was all Intervail; the next Day being rainy & our troops Could not march

7th We marched at 7 o'clock, Proceeded 3 miles to a Disolate farm upon the mouth of a Small River Calld Wesuking, where our Light troops Encampt last night; Halted an Hour & then Proceeded to a Large Tract of Beautiful Cleard Intervail Covered with very High Grass, this is with in 4 miles of Tioga and is Called Shesheamunk: it has Ben Inhabited By Both Indians & white People: we marched over a Large Body of Excellent Land this Day, the weather Being very warm and our men Gave out With fatigue Especially those on the Right flank Who were obliged to Cross Several High mountains.

[87] 11th we march'd at 8 o'clock In the morning & marched one mile & Came to the Main River & their we all forded across & a tedious time we had for the warter was up to our Brest & the Current run very swift Indeed and we had Exceding Hevy packs at the Same Time & after we waided a cross we marched one mile further & Came to Place where Queen Easter had her Palace: But it was Burnt Down we marched one mile Further and Came to another Large River but Not Equal to the other: we forded that With Little or No harme & marched one mile further and Came to tyoga; this days march was only four miles: the Next Day being the 12 Day of august we Lay Still: Likewise the 13 day: this Day we had intelligence of the Enemy were about moving of, in Consequence of which the main Body of our army Marched at 8 o'clock this Evening in order to suprise the enemy at Chemong By Day Brakes; on our march We Passed Several Defiles and thick Swamps and Arrived near the town by Brake of Day: and marched into the town with fixt Bayonets and our Peaces charged; this Town Consisted of about thirty or forty houses: these houses was Considerable Convenient But they had know Chimeys or no flores Except the Earth: and about Sunrise found the town abandoned two or three Indians only to Be Seen and they making their Escape; about sun rise the Whole town was Burnt; on Examination we found that a part of the Enemy Had Encamp'd about 50 or 60 rods from the town Last Night: and from all appearance the Inhabitance Had Left the town But a Fue hours Before we Arrived: Genl. Hands With Some Lite Troops Persued them about a mile, When they were fired on from the top of a hill by about 30 Indians Who Run off as soon as the fire was Returned; they unfortunately for us wounded three officers killed Six Privates and wounded Seven: The Enemy were persued But Escaped: Distroyed 40 acres of Indian Corn: when a Small Party of Indians and tores Fired upon our men across the River & kild one man and wounded five more of our N. Hampshire troops; after Compleation of The Distruction of the town and Corn we Returned to tioga where we arive at Dark very much fatigued: Having marchd 24 miles within 24 houers: the Weather Exeding Hot.

16th Day 1000 Chosen men under the Comand of Genl. Poor were ordered up the River to meet Genl. Clinton who is on his Way to Join us with his Brigade & is in some Danger of Being attacked By the Enemy Before he can form a Junction With our main armey, and on the 21 Day they riv'ad to our Camp where we Received them with Great Joy and Saluted them with 13 Canon fired and a tune on Col. Proctors Band of musick.

The 26, our armey marched at 12 o'clock acording to the order of march Heretofore Laid Down, Col Procters artilery in Senter, Genl. Hand Brigade in front, Genl Poor Brigade on the Rite of Col Procter, and a rite flanking Division on the rite of Genl Poor; and on the Left of Colo Procter Genl. Maxwil Brigade and another flanking Partey on theire left, and Genl. Clintons Brigade In the rear of the whole armey, and the Pack horses & Cattle marched in Betwixt the Coloms within the two flanking Divisions.

We marched the 26th at 12 oclock, Proceeded 5 miles and Encamped.

27th we marched, much Impeded by the Artilery and amunition Waggons threw thick wood and Dificult Defiles, Such Cursing, Cutting and Diging, over seting Wagons, Cannon and Pack Horses into the river &c is not to Be Seen Every Day—the army obliged to Halt 7 houers at one Place, for what we Should have Been Beter without the heavy artilery, at 10 o'clock we arived at a large Place of Corn Containing about 80 Acres as Good as I ever beheld, with Great Quantities of Squashes Beenes &c. As Genl. Clinton Brigade did not Git up last night and Having all the Corn to Cut down this afternoon we did not march until 2 o'clock, our Brigade & Part of another & the artilery Baggage & Pack horses & Cattle forded the River twice this afternoon, the warter was waist Deep and Very rapid. Some of our Baggage & flower and ammuntion Was Lost In the ford. Our march to Day not More than three mile, at 10 o'clock in the Evening the rear of the baggage Past the last ford; the armey Encamped at Chemung. By a Small Scout of ours that Came in the afternoon We are Informed that their is a Large Encampment of the Enemy About 4 miles from Chemong a Small Party of them fired on a Party of ours that was Setting fire to Some Houses But no Damage.—

29 the army marched at 9 o'clock, Proced 5 miles Where our light Troops Discovered [88] a Line of Breastwork about 80 Rods In their front, Which upon Reconnoetering we found to Extend about Half a Mile with a Large Brook in front of the Breastwork on their right a mountaing on their Left a Large Settlement In their rear Cald new town, their workes were very Seasonabley artfully maskd With Green Bushes, that I think our Discovering of them was very accidentaly as well as fortunate, the Ground they ocupied was well chosen; Scurmishing on Both Sides was Commanded mmediately after our first Discovering their Work which Held until our disposion was made, Which is as folowes; the artilery to form in front of the works, While Genl. Poors Brigade with the Right flanking Devision and the rifle men turned The Enemy Left, By ascending the mountaing and fell in with the Enemy Rear, Supported By Genl Clinton Brigade; Genl Maxwell Brigade formd a Corps Reserved; Genl. Hands Brigade and the Left flank Covered the artilery to Persue the Enemey when they Began to Retreat; at 3 o'clock Genl Poor Brigade Began their rout By Colums from the Right of the Regt, Passd a very thick Swamp Secured with Bushes for Near a mile that the Column found Great Dificulty In keeping their order But By Genl. Poor Good Conduct we Proceeded in much Better order than we Expected we Posibely Could Have Done, after Passing the Swamp we forded a Large Creek on Both Sides of which there was a Considerable Number of Houses which Apred to Be lately Built and no Land Cleard about them, after Passing this Crick We Soon Began to asend the mountain where we Were Soon Salluted By a Brisk fire and an Indian Yell or a war Hoop, the Riflemen keept up a Scattering firing which we formed the Line of Battle, then we advanced with Fixed Bayonets without Firing a Shot altho they kept up a Steady fire upon the whole of the way up the Hill, Which is about Half a mile; Col Reeds Regt which was on the Left of the Brigade was more Severely atacked Which Prevented His Being able to advance as fast as the rest of the Brigade; after the Brigade Expected Col Reed Regt. Had Gained tbe Submit of the Hill We Commenced a heavey fire upon the Enemy which they were not able to with stand But Were oblige to take to there Heels;—Colo. Reed Still Sustaining a heavy fire from a Large Body of the Enemy which Prevented His asending the Hill, Induced Colo Derbon, as he was next to Him, to reverse the front of the regt and move to his asistance, as Genl Poor was on the right of the Line and at such a Distance as Rendered it Imposible for Colo. Derbon to obtain Seasonable Orders Whether to go to the asistance of Colo. Reed or not, but he moved With out, found a body of the Enemy turning Colo. Reed Right which upon Receiving a full fire from our Regt Left the field of action with Precepiation, Which Proved a very Seasonably relief to Colo. Reed, who had at the very moment that Colo. Derbon Commanded the fire on those that were turning His Right, Being Reduced Extremely of Retreating or Charging Bayonets upon Double his numbers that had formed a Semicircle Round Him, He put the Latter in Practice, the Enemy finding themselves So Severely Handled Quit the field of action and made the Best of their way off about 5 o'clock, our troops that were in action Discovered Greatest Bravery and Good order; Half a hour Befor the action became Serious With us the artilery Began a very heavy fire which obliged them to Retire and being Persued By our Lite troops about 3 miles so as to oblige Enemy to Leave a Great Part of their Packs &c.; our Whole Loss killed and wounded in Genl. Poor Brigade was
I majr. wounded.
1 Capt. Do
1 Lt. Do Died the Same night
non Commisond Privates 2 klld 29 wounded.

The number of the Killd & wounded in the whole armey Exept Genl. Poor Brigade was 4 wounded; The Enemey Loss found on the Ground 11 Indians Wariers Dead & one Squah, 1 tory Prisoners one negro from Which prisoners we Learns that the Enemy Strength was 200 whites and 600 Indians and that they Had a Great many Kild and wounded and the Remainder most Horridly Pannic Struck; at Sun Set the army Encamped on the Ground Lately occupied By the Enemy where we found a number of new Blankets Inserted with many Packs trinkets.

[89] 30th Remained on the Ground this Day Distroyed a vast number of acres of Corn & Burnt about four houses; the army By a Request of Gen. Sulivans have agreed to Live on Half alowance of meat and flower When we Can Get Corn; this Night all our wounded With 4 of our Heaviest Pieces of artilery and all the amunition Waggons were sent off by Warter to tioga which Will Enable the armey to march With much greater Ease and Rappidity; our Course from Chemong about North w.

31 we marched at 10 o'clock, the Right Colum on the Hill, the Left By the River, the Land Very Good Several Large Fields of Corn; we Proceeded 9 miles to where there was a Very prity town Calld Kannawahalla Which from appearance was abandand this morning. Some Boats Was Seen Going of by our advance Gard, a Large number of feather Beds were emtied In the houses, our Soldiers found Several Chest Buried filld with varity of Household furniture and other things; after halted Here about an Hour we Proceeded up Between the two Rivers on a fine Plain about 5 miles and encampd, the whole armey forming a Holow Square which Enclosed our Horses and Cattle; a Detachment of our army persued a partey of the Enemy up the allegany River about 9 miles; Could not overtake them But found & Distroyed Several Very Large Cornfields.

SEPR. 1st. We marched at 9 o'clock, after the Detachment Before mentioned Joind and Proceded 3 miles on a plain, then Passd a narrow Defile Between a high mountain and a Deep marsh, then Proceeded one mile & Entered What is Cald the 9 mile Swamp and a most horrid Road for the artilery Between and Pack Horses were obliged to ford thirty times, the rite hand Hand Colom were obliged to march over the mountains the whole way, our advance guard Arived at a Town Cald French Cathrene at Dusk, found fires Burning and Every appearance of the Enemy Having Left the Place but a fue minits, the main army at dark Was 2 miles from the town, In one of the thickest & Most Miry Swamps I ever Saw, it was with the Greatest Difculty we Got through the mire to the town where we arived all But Genl Clinton Brigade at 10 o'clock Very much fatigued; this town Contains about 30 Houses Some of Which were Very Good for Indians Houses, there is a number of fruit trees in the town, the Streame we forded So often runs through the town and into Connadaga or Sineca Lake the South End of which is But 3 miles from this Town.

2d we found an old Squaw In the Bushes that was not able to go off, By whome we learn that Butler with the tories Went from this Place with All the Boats the Day Before yesterday, the Indians Warriors moved off their famelies & Efects yesterday morning and then Returned to the Town where they Staid till Sun Set. She Says that the Squaws and Indians were Loth to Leave the town and were for giving themselves up, But the warriors would not agree to it. She likewise Says that Butler met a reinforcement of Indians here who would

* * * (pages 50 & 51 missing) * * *

Battle their and was adopted into a family in this town Where he Has Lived or rather Stayed until Now; he appeared Quite overjoyed at meating Some of His old acquaintance of Wyoming Who are Volonteers In this army; he Says the Savages were very much Distressed for Provision from april till Corn was fit to Eat, that their Whole Dependance was Hunting, he Say the Indians Were Very much alarmed & Dejected at their Being Beat at new town, they say they had 7 warriors killd And a Great many Wounded which were [sent] To Conadasaga By water; Distroyed the town orchard Cornfield &c.

6 Day we marched & Proceded 5 miles and Encamped; Opposite to the Shore the Ground we Encamped on we Discovered a Settlement Where we Could See a number of Indians Driving Horses; pased the ford march about 3 miles by the Side or rather the north End of the Lake and to a Small Settlement which We Distroyed & Proceeded 2 miles further to the Capital of the Sineca Cald Connadasaga Where we Rived at Sun Set; here We Expected to have taken Some Prisoners, two Brigades Being ordered to march round the town, one on the right the other on the Left but found no Persen in or about it Exept one White Child about 3 years old Which we Suppose is a Captive; this town is Cald the Sineca Castle; in the Center of the town has Been a Stockade fort & a Block Hous Which are gone to ruin; their was left in the Houses a Great number of Skins, Some Corn and Many of their Curiosities.

[90] 8th the armey Lay Still to Day, the Rifle men were Sent to Distroy a town about 8 miles from here on the Side of the Lake, Gaghasieanhgwe; we found a Very large fields of Corn and Grass about this town, A Considerable Quantity of Hay In Stacks which We St on fire; one of our Scouts Burnt a town yesterday Cald Long falls 10 miles N. E of this, town on the way to Cayyuga.

9th By Reason of the Heavy Rain last night we were Not able to move this Morning till 12 o'clock for Geneses; what Corn, Beans, peas, Squashes Potatoes, Inions, turnips, Cabage, Cowcumbers, watermilions, Carrots, pasnips &c. our men and horses Cattle &c could not Eat was Distroyed this Morning Before we march; ___ all the Sick and Invalids were Sent Back this morning under an Escort of 50 men to tioga; we Proceded about 3 miles, the Great Part of the way through Old fields that are Grone up with Grass. Trees & Bushes, then Entred a thick Swamp through which we Proceeded with Great Dificulty 4 miles, then Crosst a Stream & Encamped in an old field. Before we marched this We totally Distroyed the town & orchard.

10th the armey marched at 8 o'clock. Proceded 3 miles through a thick Swamp, then Came to Large fields that have Been Cultivated formerly But are Grone over with Grass, and trees, these field Continued about 5 Miles with Intervail; after Leaving the fields, one mile we Came to a Very Pleasant Pond or Lake Cald Connondaguah, We forded the outlet of the Lake, marched About Half a mile and Came to an Indian town Cald Connondaguah Consisting of about 30 Houses Which were much Better Built and Situated than any I have Seen Before; the army would Have marched Six miles further to day after Burning the town, finding at Some Distance from the town Several Large fields of Corn we were ordered to march to the fields and Encamp, Which we did at 3 o'clock p. m. Several Parties Were ordered out this afternoon to Distroy the Corn.

11th the army marched this morning at Sun rise to an Indian town Cald anyayea or Honneyayeu, Consisting of about 8 or 10 Houses, as Situated on a Large Body of Cleared Land, a Small Lake around it Several Large Corn fields; the Greatest Part of which We have marched to Day is Covered over With Grass and Some Scattering trees, it had Been the appearance of being formerly Cultivated

12th the weather being foule the army did not march until 12 o'clock; a Small Post is Established Here at Which the Provision, Pack Horses &c will Be Left until we Return; What is nesseray for to Cary With us to Geneses (25 miles and Back Here); Piece of artilery Will Be Left also; the armey marched 11 miles this afternoon over an Exelent Body of Land and Encamped at Sun Set.

13th marched at 7 o'clock proceeded 1-1/2 miles and Came to a town Cald Kagnegasas Consisting of about 18 Houses Situated on a fine Piece of Intervail where we found Large field of Exelent Corn with a Great Plenty of Beans & Squashes, Potatoes, mush milions; Here the armey Halted 4 Houres to Build a Bridge over a very bad Crick & destroy the corn and at this town Lived a very noted Warior Cald the Great tree who Has Pretended to be very friendly to us and to His Exellency Genl. Washington and from Congress; [so in the original] a Party of Rifle men & some others 26 in number under the Command of Lt. Boyd of the Rifle men was Sent Last night to reconnoiter a town 7 miles from this and was ordered to-return at Day Break, they killed and Scalped an Indian of the town in the morning and Returnd about Half way to Camp where they Imprudently halted and Sent 4 men To-report to the Genl what they Had Discoverd; after Laying Still Some time they Had Discoverd Some Small Indian Scouts Between them and Camp Which they Persued until they Had Killd one of them, they were then attackd By a Body of two or three Hundred and Indians, Lt Boyd Sustaind the fire for Some time But Being nearly Surounded attempted to make His Escape But was So Closely Presued that himself & 19 men were taken and kild; the enemy left all their Packs, Hats and many other things Where the action Commenced, which we found; Immediately after the army marched on, we Pro-ceded to the above Mentioned town and Encamped; this town is Cald Gaghehewarahare it Consists of above 22 Houses and is situated on a Small River the Falls into the Geneses River 2 miles from the Town.

[91] 14th we marched at 12 o'clock; after fording Small river Which this Town Stands on and Passing a Small Grove we Enterd upon the Great Geneses flats which is a vast Body of Cleard Intervail Covered With Grass that was from 4 to 8 feet High, these flats Extend 12 or 14 miles on the River, our army moveing in the order of march Laid Down appeard to great advantage, after marching about 2 miles we came to what Is Cald Genese Lake or River the Largest we Have Pased Since we have Left Sisquehannah, after fording the River and Pased over a Body of flats we asending a hill marched 3 miles and Came to the Great town Chenese; this town is Situated on a Beautiful Tract of Land in a Bow of the River and Consists of about 130 Houses the Greatest Part of Which are Verry Compact. When we Entered the Town We found Lt. Boyd & one man Dead and most Horribly mangled, they were Laying near a tree which we Suposed they were tyed To While they were massacred as their was Blood & other Signs near the tree; it appeared they first whipt them and Very Severely, then Cut Out their tongues & Plucked out their Eyes and nails, then Stabd them With Spears and after Venting all their Hellish Spite Cut off their Heads and Left them, this was a Horrid Spectacle to Behold Indeed, and from which we are taught nesesity of fighting those more then Devil as Long as we have Life Rather then to Surender Ourselves prisoners; it appears that the Savages Left this Place in a Great Hurry as they Left a Quantity of Corn Gathered and Some Husked hung up to Dry and Some Laying in Heaps husked and unhusked

15th at 6 o'clock the whole Army was turned out to destroy the Corn one Regt. from Each Brigade With the riflemen and artilery to guard the army while the Corn was Destroyed. We were from 6 to 2 o'clock Very Bussy until we Compleated our Work; it is thought we have Destroyed 15,000 Bushels of Corn, Besides Beans, Squashes, Potatoes in abundance, a great Part of this Corn was Planted By the tories under Butler and Intend's for a magasine to aid them to Carry on their war against our Fronteers as we are informed By Some Prisoners; the method we took to Gather it into the Houses Puting wood and Bark with it then set fire to the Houses; thus it was effectually Destroyed. Some we hove into the River; this is the End of our journey we are now turning of our face homeward; a woman With her Child came to us this day who was Brought a captive from Wyoming.

* * * pages 74, 75 of journal missing * * *

At Diferent Places This morning which Employed the armey till 11 o'clock to Distroy. We Crossed the Crick at Gaghehegwarahare and at 4 arived at Kanaghsas and Encamped —13 of Lt. Boyd Party Were found to Day dead and scalpd near to gether and as they were all shot it appears they Bravely fought till Every man was kild and of Consequence kild a number of the Enemy; Honyose oneida Indian who was one of the Party among the Dead and Very much mangld

17th we Marched at Sun rise Proceded to anyaye where We Left our Stores and found all Safe to our Great Joy as we were much afraid that the Party that Cut off Lt. Boyd would have found out the Cituation of our Small Garrison and make an atempt to Suprise it Which Would have been a fatal affair to our army; our Soldiers in High Spirits and are Willing to make great marches; the Reason is obvious we are Going Homeward.

18th the armey march at 8 o'clock, Proceded to Kanandaguah & in camped.

19th. we marched to Kannadasagea the 13th in this town we found hung up about 10 or 12 feet from the Ground on a Pole Set up we Suposed, two dogs Which is their method of Sacrafising to their Imaganary Gods of war in time of Danger.

the following to Be added to the 15th. this woman informs us that the Dogs spoke of yesterday were Sacrificed on hearing of the Battle of Newton and of Desolation of their Country as we march thrue it.


MAJOR JEREMIAH FOGG, the oldest son of Rev. Jeremiah Fogg, of Kensington, was born in 1749, graduated at Harvard College in 1768; spent several years as a teacher, in Newburyport, where he commenced the study of law with Theophilus Parsons, the most eminent jurist of the time. At the commencement of hostilities, in 1775, he entered Col. Poor's regiment as one of the staff officers and continued in the service through the whole war. At the close of the revolution, he returned to Kensington, took a prominent part in the political movements of the country, was for several years a member of the New Hampshire Senate, and died in 1808, at the age of 59. He married Lydia Hill of Cambridge.

The following is from a printed copy of his journal, 150 copies of which were published, Exeter, N. H., from the News Letter Press, 1879. He held the position on the roster as captain in the second New Hampshire regiment.


Major Jeremiah Fogg, of Col Poor's Regiment N. H. during the expedition of Gen. Sullivan in 1779, against the western Indians.

August 13, 1779.—Col. Cilley's regiment with several others were afterwards sent to destroy a field of corn near that place and were fired upon from the same hill. One man was killed and several wounded, but it is uncertain whether by the enemy or our own men, as the fire was very irregular. At two o'clock we set off for Tioga, after burning the town and destroying all the corn on our way. Several colts were taken here. Arrived at Tioga at 8 o'clock, much fatigued, having marched nearly 40 miles and had no sleep for 36 hours.

14th. Very warm. This being the place assigned for Gen. Clinton to join the army, and Gen. Sullivan being apprehensive of his being in danger, detached Gen. Poor, with 900 men and 8 days' provisions, with orders to proceed up the river, as a reinforcement in case of an attack. Gen Clinton had, previous to this, received orders not to move from the head of the river, until Sullivan had marched 9 days from Wyoming, a reasonable time to reach Tioga.

15th. This day a party of Indians appeared near Gen. Hand's encampment, scalped one of our drivers and wounded one more. Parties were sent off in pursuit of them, but ineffectually.

16th. After making a proper disposition of the troops, the General marched at 10 o'clock and encamped at MAWKUATOWOUGUH (alias Red Brook) 12 miles from Tioga situated on that river, where there is some good interval.

17th. Marched, at 6 o'clock, passed through exceedingly good land, and at 2 o'clock arrived at Owegy, lately inhabited by the savages, but on the destruction of Onondaga it [93] was abandoned, as were all the settlements on the river above Tioga. This is a pretty piece of land through which runs a creek about three rods wide. A small party were sent up to explore, and about a mile up the creek found 12 horses, but no Indians.

18th. Marched at half past 6, passed through good land, but badly watered, arrived in season at Choconut Flats, formerly a pretty settlement of fifty houses, seven of which, only, were standing. Three miles short of this, is Choconut Creek about three rods wide. Several parties having been sent with information of our march to Gen. Clinton, we began to fear he had not decamped from the head of the river, as we had arrived nearly at the place where we should probably meet him without any account from him, but to our great joy at sunset we heard his evening gun, about 8 miles distant, which we answered with a Cohorn. From this place is a path across the mountains to Wialusing distant 2 day-march, 14 miles.

19th. Marched at eight o'clock, but soon met a sergeant from Gen. Clinton, with a letter informing us that his army would be at Choconut brook by five o'clock. Consequently we countermarched, and before night, arrived at Owegy, and burnt 19 houses. Gen. Clinton had about 1800 men, 208 boats and one month's salt provision, with two Oneida Indians.

20th. Rained violently, which rendered it exceedingly bad for men without tents. Remained on the ground all day.

21st. Encamped at MAWKUHTOWONGUH.

22nd. Very pleasant, arrived at Tioga about one o'clock to the great joy of our soldiery, as by bad economy they had consumed eight days' bread in five. On the arrival of the boats 13 cannon were fired. The prospects of affairs at this period, seems to promise a speedy movement. Hitherto nothing has appeared, but a suspicion of embarassments and, even now, no great things are expected. Gen. Clinton proceeded from Albany, with 1800 men and three months provisions, reckoning from the middle of June, transported the whole, together, with 208 boats by land to Schenectady, from thence by water to Cannajoharie on the Mohawk river, then by land to lake Otsego 18 or 20 miles of very bad road, where he continued six weeks, waiting for Gen. Sullivan's orders. On the ninth of August he marched about half his troops, the rest embarked on board the boats, and proceeded down the river, those by land keeping pace with them as a guard. The water in the river by this time had become so low as to render the navigation totally impracticable without having to resort to artifice. Therefore, previous to his quitting the lake, he built a dam at its mouth till the water was raised three feet higher than was natural. The night before embarkation he hoisted his gates, which afforded a sufficiency of water for his purpose. Four of Col Cilley's regiment sent express on the 15th to Gen. Clinton, with five days provision, are not yet heard of, and are supposed to have taken a wrong branch. A fine jaunt. Every department is busy in preparing for the march. In our absence up the river a party of savages fired on four men, near Gen. Hand's encampment scalped one and wounded another.

23d. Unfortunate day—a hapless youth, as he was carelessly handling a musket charged with a ball and five buckshot, discharge it and the whole passed through a tent in which were several officers. Three of the shot struck Capt. Kimball, Paymaster of the First Regiment; one passing through the centre of his body immediately put an end to his life. He was possessed of every qualification to render him dear, useful and agreeable to his friends, and his integrity, capacity, good temper and strict attention to duty were such, that all must mourn his loss. Man knoweth not his time. Capt. Kimball had served in five campaigns, and though his duty seldom called him into danger, yet at a time, when there appeared the least danger, his life was required, while others exposed to ten thousand angry balls are spared.

24th. Capt. Kimball was buried with the honors of war. A soldier in the York Brigade, was badly wounded by the accidental discharge of a musket. Misfortunes, according to the ancient whim, seldom come single. Our army paraded and the baggage was out, but we found a great want of bags and horses, and spent the chief of the night in cutting up tents and making bags.

[94] 25th. Three Oneidas came from their castle—men of integrity and sobriety. One, who was before with us being a worthless fellow, introduced himself to them, but was received with a most peculiar air of coldness and silent contempt. Want of horses presents our marching this day, and parties are sent out to collect those astray. Received intelligence that Count D'Estaing had been engaged with Byron, to the advantage of the Count; and that Lt. Vincents, Grenada and Tobago were taken by our allies. Two runners came in from Col. Broadhead informing us that he had marched five hundred men towards the Genessee.

26th. After much difficulty, by the middle of the day, the army got in motion towards Kanasadaga, with nine pieces of artillery and their appendages; the transportation of which, to Genesee, appears to the army in general, as impracticable and absurd as an attempt to level the Alleghany mountains. Our army is supplied (at least nominally) with thirty days' provisions and encamped three miles from Tioga, where appeared to have been a body of fifty Indians in ambush, with a view to fall on men that might be sent to mow grass. After the encampment, we were alarmed by unusual cry of the army, caused by the appearance of a doe, running through the lines; she happening to run near our quarters, we attempted to seize and confine her, but found her too full of springs! The first salutation I met with was her head against my forehead, which knocked me down, stunned me and prevented my further pursuit. She ran over me treading on me in several places. This days' march must have been attended with very little difficulty, as the ground was level and dry, admitting the army to march, exactly, on the order on paper.

27th. Marched about 8 o'clock, and kept our order until arriving at a mountain, where we were obliged to deviate. The right column commanded by Gen. Poor passing over it; from the top we had a most romantic prospect. Unfortunately the river rose this day four feet, and prevented our crossing it, so that the wagons were obliged to go through the narrows, where was a bank twenty feet high, almost perpendicular, the ascending of which delayed us till dark. After seven hours' digging, with the assistance of a regiment with drag-robes, the artillery and pack-horses ascended the bank. The rear did not move from its yesterdays encampment. Several other defiles retarded the movement of the artillery, and we had not got three miles at 10 o'clock at night—the most disagreeable day's march since we left Wyoming. A universal cry against the artillery. Encamped in the most beautiful piece of land seen in this country, resembling the flats of the Raritan. Here was an immense quantity of corn, some of whose stalks measured fifteen feet. Beans and squashes were in abundance, and a greater quantity of which was never eaten in twenty four hours by the same number of men.

28th. This morning we had a dainty repast on the fruits of the savages. Our friends at home cannot be happier amid their variety of superfluities, than we were while sitting at a dish of tea, toast, corn, squash, smoked tongue, &c. After destroying sixty or eighty acres of corn, the army marched. Three brigades went over the mountain on the east side of the river, while Maxwell crossed, with the artillery, and baggage, and re-crossed near Chemung. Two Indians were discovered and fired on by soldiers on our flanks, but they missed them. Crossing the river was attended with some difficulty, horses, drivers, and bags of flour were carried off in the current, but the water was not deep enough to drown them. Our Indian scouts returned, informing us, that a number of fires were discovered within ten miles of Chemung. Capt. Wait was sent to the top of a high mountain to lay during the night and to make discoveries of the fires, but could discern nothing but smoke which appeared to be half as great as the smoke of our encampment. Arrived at Chemung about six o'clock.

29th. After collecting our horses and cattle, which had gone astray, we marched towards the enemy, whom we expected to fight before night, and, in two miles discovered a fortification. The riflemen advanced and began a fire on them, while the artillery was carried to an advantageous piece of ground. At the same time, Gen. Poor's and Clinton's brigades attempted to gain their left and rear, by a circuitous march in which we passed through a new town of about forty houses, and, with difficulty crossed a brook and ascended a tedious mountain; but previous to this our artillery had begun a heavy [95] cannonade on their works. Just as we were beginning to ascend the mountain, the enemy began a scattering fire from the top. The troops immediately formed a line and pushed forward, reserving their fire till they arrived at the summit of the mountain, when the enemy gave way in the centre and at the same time attempted to gain our left. Col Reids regiment, by misfortune, had separated nearly a gun shot from the main body and received the chief of the fire but returned it with equal fury, charging them at the same time. Col. Dearborn, being informed of Reid's detached situation, wheeled his regiment to his assistance and at the critical moment gave a full volley on the enemy's flank, which completed their rout.

Col. Cilley's Reg. killed 1 Lieut. , wounded Lieut. McCally and 1 private
Col. Reid's Reg. killed 1 Corp., wounded 6 private
Col. Scammell's Reg. killed 2 Corp., wounded 6 private
Col. Alden Reg. killed 1 private, wounded 7 private
Covering party killed 1 private, wounded several.

In the action, six Indians were left on the ground dead. One Tory was taken prisoner who told us, that their whole force was 6oo Indians commanded by Brant and 200 whites commanded by Butler; among which were a British sergeant, corporal and 12 privates. A negro was afterwards taken, who gave nearly the same account, except the the number of Indians, which he thought to be only 400. Indeed the affair of the day was conducted with much propriety and forebode a full execution of our plan. The New Hampshire Brigade may at least add a new feather to their caps. Although the enemy galled us, killing three and wounding forty; yet we convinced them that they may in vain attempt to withstand an army like ours.

In the circuitous march to gain their rear, my horse stumbled under me and broke his neck.

30th. Reconnoitered the ground and lines of the enemy. They had chosen an advantageous piece of ground and with logs and some digging extended their works from a small eminence on their right, looking the river and intervals to another on their left, near a swamp. The whole work was blinded by a body of green bushes, placed artfully in front. This morning died Lt. McCally of Col. Cilley's regiment, in consequence of an amputation performed yesterday. He was a brave, ambitious and worthy officer.

In the evening our wounded, together with all the wagons and four pieces of the heaviest artillery, were sent back to Tioga by water, to the great satisfaction of the army.

Went over the field of battle to view the slain. No army can have higher spirits than ours resulting from victory and a consciousness of superiority, while our enemy are fleeing from their country.

Scarcity of provisions and the extensive plan before us, induced the General to address the army, requesting them to comply with half allowance, while corn and vegetables could be obtained. So great and noble was their spirit, that scarce a dissenting voice was heard in camp; while manifesting their consent by an universal hurrah! A wag observed, that he had seen men shout for joy in a time of plenty but not for half allowance.

Present prospects forebode success, although hitherto, nothing but a succession of clogs and embarrassments have attended us. Eight days' flour was this day dealt, which relieved a number of horses for Gen. Clinton's brigade.

31st. Very cool and clear. Having now disencumbered ourselves of the wounded, wagons and heavy artillery (equally agreeable) we proceeded with four light three pounders and a small howitzer; burning Newton on our way, which consisted of fifteen or twenty houses. Our wing passed over hideous mountains and ravines; some of the banks of the latter were thirty feet, almost perpendicular. After we had passed the mountain, we came on to a platt of fine land, at the crotch of the river five miles from Chemung.

Some of our light corps discovered a party of the enemy in boats, going up the main branch, but could not overtake them. A number of arms, hats and trinkets were found scattered on the way, which indicated the confusion and hurry in which they decamped. [96] This day's march of ten miles was performed with little difficulty; four of the last being an open pitch pine plain covered with good grass, in which we encamped.

SEPT. 1st. This morning frost was found in our camp. The army marched about 8 o'clock. The plain continued several miles and then we passed through a defile having an extensive morass and creek on our right and a high mountain on our left which is said to be a part of the Alleghany range. We then entered a swamp, which continued six or eight miles, full of morasses, ravines, windfalls and almost every obstacle to impede artillery, while there was a chain of mountains on either side, on which the flanks marched. The right column likewise marched on the mountain with great fatigue; passing a number of prodigious gullies. The land in general this day was as uneven as the sea in a tempest. After night came on, the army had several miles of woods and bogs to pass, which employed many of us five hours. Gen. Clinton's brigade, with the cattle, did not arrive until the next day. The whole night was a disagreeable scene of confusion; and darkness was almost perfect. Fires were built in many of the most difficult places, to build bridges and facilitate the passage. Many horses and bags of flour were lost in the bogs.

When the infantry arrived at Katharine's town fires were burning in the wigwarm and kettles of broth were on the fire. This town consists of twenty houses, took its name from a French woman of great interest named Katharine, who settled here and carried on merchandise. She owned a number of horses and cattle.

2d. Early this morning we found in a bark hut an awful object and upon examinstion it appeared to be Madam Sacho, one of the Tuscawora tribe, whose silver locks, wrinkled face, dim eyes and curvitude of body denoted her to be a full blooded antideluvian hag! Her language was very little understood by our interpreters. However, one of our Oneidas could understand her and communicated to them in his own language. She gave the following account viz: That she was left by necessity, and expected to have been killed and seemed thankful, that the good spirit had influenced our great chief to save her; that Butler and his whites had gone off two days before; that a reinforcement of Indians met him at this place, prepared for war; but those who had been defeated told them that we were too numerous, the woods were full of men, &c , that the squaws and the little ones were anxious for peace, but that Butler had told them that all would be put to death

The fatigue of yesterday prevented our marching this day, which was spent in eating and destroying corn and squashes. The grandeur of this town is by no means equal to its fame. Through it runs a pretty rivulet which enters Seneca lake, three miles from the town.

This day we passed through a good tract of land on the east side of Seneca lake. The right wing marched on the top and edge of a mountain from whence is a fine prospect of the lake for several miles. This lake is about thirty-seven miles long from two to six wide, running north nearly straight; and in it are no islands. It is a most beautiful of water.

This day's march was very pleasant, but at night we encamped without forage. Col. Smith was sent forward with a party, who discovered a man on horseback and four Indians; but they escaped him.

4th. Rain in the morning, which prevented our marching till eleven o'clock. Within four miles of this place, we passed a small settlement and a few acres of corn. Night coming on, we were obliged again to encamp without forage; excepting wild beans, of which our horses were very fond, and kind nature has been very bountiful in dispensing them throughout this country. Many horses have fallen this day under burdens.

One of the Oneidas was sent off this morning to rouse his brethren to take up the hatchet and join us at Kanadasaga.

We marched eleven miles this day and found exceedingly good land and marching.

5th. With much difficulty we collected our horses and cattle and marched at 10 o'clock. We passed one difficult ravine, but found the rest of the way good. Came once in sight of the lake near a house and small field of corn and arrived at Kindaia or Appletown at 2 o'clock. The village has twenty houses and eighty large apple trees, but only six fami- [97] lies have lived here since the destruction of Onondaga. From a captive whom we retook at this place, we learned that the enemy were in great confusion after the action at Newtown. Two of them had run from thence, in less than twenty four hours, proclaiming their defeat in the death hallo; being almost spent with fatigue, while their voices were scarcely audible by their continual vociferation. Some were for revenge, but the more timid and prudent were for escaping with their little ones, as they believed us to be 10,000 going to Niagara. Kindaia is pleasantly situated near the lake which is here about five miles across.

6th Our army by a general order the preceding day, discharged their pieces which terrified and dispersed our cattle and horses, and eighteen of the latter were never found. This accident detained us until 2 o'clock, so that this day's march has been only two miles. Encamped amidst a great plenty of pea-vines.

A party that had been sent in search of three servants who by mistake had gone to Cayuga lake, found there a small town, which they destroyed and brought off a horse.

7th. Between seven and eight, the army marched, had good level land all day, and about two arrived at the outlet of the lake, where we expected violent opposition; but were agreeably disappointed, notwithstanding which the greatest caution was used, in crossing the river, which is about three or four rods wide. Nature could not have formed a better place for an ambuscade, as the lake was on our left and an impervious swamp on our right for half a mile. Having passed the ford and defile, we marched to Kanadasaga, two and a half miles from the lake, an Indian settlement of about thirty houses, called the Seneca Castle. Here the English in the course of the last war, attempted to establish a post beginning a picket fort, but were compelled to desist, as the savages declined having any civilized people get a foothold in their territories lest in process of time, they should deviate from the lines and customs of their predecessors, by degenerating into a regular system of government, agriculture and mode of life, whereby they would cease to be Indians. To avoid such evils, every precaution has been taken to prevent a survey of the country, while maps of it hitherto taken, seem rather to blind than enlighten a traveller.

Notwithstanding the occult and evasive qualities of the Savages with which our general must before this time have been acquainted he made a disposition of his troops, thinking to surround and surprise the town, after having been five hours within three miles of it. Genl. Hand's infantry and Col. De Bois' flank men were to begin the investigation on the west, while the main body encircled them from each wing. But oh! sad mishap! When our commander advanced to complete his part, to his great mortification, he found the detachments either misled by their guides or else had mistaken a field of pompions for the town. But whatever might have been the cause, the whole party from the monkey to the rat, had armed themselves with almost every species of the vegetable creation, each man with three pompions on his bayonet and staggering under the weight of a bosom filled with corn and beans, when in accents more sonorous than those of an injured husband, he broke out "You d__d unmilitary set of rascals! what, are you going to storm a town with pompions! Turn aside, open to the right and left, that men unaccostomed to plundering, and such scandalous conduct may execute the design! Ye officers, never more show your heads with military characters." In an instant the whole band was disrobed of their vegetable accoutrements and armour, and pompions, squashes, melons and mandrakes rolled down the hill like hail-stones in a tempest.

No person was found in the town, save a child about three years old, emaciated almost to a skeleton, sitting on the green and playing with a young chicken. It is generally supposed to be a prisoner left by the savages, as a mother cannot forget her sucking child, besides it could speak and understand only Indian. A milch cow was found near it, which was probably left for his support.

The land between the Seneca and Cayuga lakes appears good, level and well timbered; affording a sufficiency for twenty elegant townships, which in process of time will doubtless add to the importance of America. The communication of the Seneca with Cayuga is passable with boats and is about twenty miles.

[98] Whether the God of nature ever designed that so noble a part of his creation should remain uncultivated, in consequence of an unprincipled and brutal part of it, is one of those arcana, yet hidden from human intelligence. However, had I any influence in the councils of America, I should not think it an affront to the Divine will, to lay some effectual plan, either to civilize, or totally extirpate the race. Counting their friendship, is not only a disagreeable task, but impracticable; and if obtained it is of no longer duration than while we are in prosperity and the impending rod threatens their destruction. To starve them is equally impracticable for they feed on air and drink the morning dew.

8th. The army remained on the ground, feeding on the produce of the country. A detachment under Col. Smith, was sent down the south side of the lake to destroy a small settlement, where were found a great quantity of fruit and some swine and fowls.

A council was held, on the expediency of proceeding to Genesee—a march necessary but to appearance, almost impracticable and, by many thought to be imprudent. Pimps and tale bearers were brought from every brigade, to ascertain the minds of the general officers, and some attempted to argue them into the propriety of an immediate return. How incompetent are men of inferior stations to judge in matters of such a nature, especially when they are not availed of any of the principles on which to form their judgement. One instance of this kind happened, in which the subject had well nigh been sent without the sentries, with orders for them to fire in case of his return.

"Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cantum." It was determined to go on the other sixty miles, notwithstanding we had only provisions (full allowance) to carry us back.

9th. After sending back Capt. Reid, with the invalid men and horses, the army marched at 12 o'clock; passed through many cleared lands and swamps and encamped seven miles from Kanadasaga. Col. Smith's party joined us.

10th. Marched at 8 o'clock, and in about seven miles, passed the outlet of a lake on our left, which to appearance was two miles wide and five long, near which was a town of thirty houses, called Kandaigua, which we immediately burned, intending to proceed further; but finding a large quantity of corn, about half a mile distant, we were obliged to decamp. From the structure of many of the buildings it appeared that some tories had lived here. When our advanced parties arrived three Indians were discovered in the town, and some fires were burning near by. Marched nine miles to day.

11th. The General beat at five, and the army marched at half past six. Passed through many fields of grass very high; and over hills, ravines and morasses, and encamped at Annaquayen thirteen and a half miles, consisting of eight houses, near which is a lake, half a mile wide and five long. This town took its name from a misfortune which befel an Indian here, viz:—the loss of a finger, which the word signifies.

Having now so nearly performed our march and many of our horses being unfit for service the General detached a Captain and fifty men, who took charge of the greatest part of our flour and ammunition stores in and near an Indian house. The bags of flour served as a defense against the enemy, by way of pallisade. The feeble horses and two pieces of artillery were likewise left.

12th. Rained in the morning which prevented our marching until 12 o'clock. The land through which we passed this day, was very hilly but not difficult. Encamped near Adyutro, a town of twenty five houses, a great quantity of corn, &c. Here, once lived the famous Seneca chief, called in English the Big tree, whose house was entirely built of cedar. Marched eleven miles.

13th. Very early this morning the army marched to the above town and halted for breakfast. We were detained here some time in making bridges over a rivulet and swamp.
The preceding evening a party of four riflemen and Honniose, an Oneida Indian, were ordered to reconnoitre the next castle and return by day-break. But by mistake twenty nine went, four of whom discovering four Indians in the town, killed and scalped one and wounded the second. The officer (Lt. Boyd) instead of returning, as was expected, sent four of his men to inform the General, detaining the remainder until the army should arrive; but, hearing some Indians had been discovered near by, marched down and was drawn into an ambuscade wherein Boyd, and about twenty men were cut off. Soon after [99] a party fired on Mr. Lodge, the surveyor and party, and mortally wounded one man; but by the timely firing of a sentry all the party got in.

The army then marched to the castle, called Gohseolahulee (which signifies spear laid up), of about twenty houses. From some appearances, we apprehended that the enemy would oppose us at this town and proper caution was taken; but we were once more agreeably disappointed. Here appeared the heathenish custom of offering sacrifices. Two dogs were found suspended on a pole, which signified that evil spirit was to be pacified by their skins, which would serve to make him a tobacco pouch and waistcoat. Marched seven miles.

14th. This morning the army crossed a creek about one rod wide, and soon entered upon a large flat of intervale, containing about twenty thousand acres, with not a stump nor a tree upon the whole, but grass from six to ten feet high. Here our whole army was seen in the same accurate order as on paper.

The Genesee river is about half a mile from our last encampment and is four or five rods wide and very rapid. The army forded the river in platoons and locked arms to guard against the rapidity of its current. A soldier who was on this extensive plat twenty eight years ago (1751) said that it had then the same appearance. After crossing the river we ascended an eminence, perhaps one hundred feet higher than the river, on the top of which is a plain of considerable extent and from which is a gradual descent each way. This tableland overlooks the country and intervale around it for many miles, and is I think, best calculated for a county seat, town or city, as to situation, of any place in America. Before sunset we arrived at Genesee, the grand capital and extent of our route, where were a hundred and twenty houses and as many acres of corn.

The remains of Lt. Boyd and one rifleman, taken the preceding day, were found with their heads cut off, and eyes and tongues out and every species of barbarity committed, that the united malice of all the infernal devils could dictate. The savages had the day before burned a house in the ashes of which were the bones of several men, which were doubtless savages killed by the riflemen. Burning with them is frequently a substitute for interment.

15th. This morning a captive woman and child at her breast came in from the woods having escaped from the savages. Can any greater transition happen to a human being except a pardon at the gallows? She was taken at Wyoming last spring with five children, where her husband was killed, and child was scalped before her eyes. This day was spent in destroying corn which had become so ripe that we were obliged to burn it in the kilns. Some corn-stalks were seventeen feet long. The whole army was employed, but at 3 o'clock we faced to the right about. A most joyful day! Marched back to the east end of the great flat and encamped. Marched five miles.

16th. Encamped at Adjutso, where we completed the destruction of a large quantity of corn. About a mile distant we found the bodies of thirteen men and the Indian killed on the 13th inst., so that of the twenty-nine that went out, eleven returned; sixteen were killed, and two are now missing. Marched seven miles.

17th. At day break our tents were struck and the army arrived at Annaquayen, at half past twelve and found our stores and little garrison safe; for which we had much concern. Marched twelve miles.

18th. Marched to Kanadaigue, passed the outlet of the lake and encamped on its side.

Bluback, the Oneida Indian, who had been sent home for purposes before mentioned, returned with a young sachem and a warrior, giving the following account: That he delivered the message of Gen. Sullivan to his brethren at Oneida, the requisition therein named was fully complied with, and the nation to a man turned out to join our army and marched to Cayuga; but meeting an impertinent Indian going from our enemy, informing them that our work was done and their services not wanted, they turned back; that the nation congratulated our chief on the success of his arms in this quarter, and begged that Cayuga settlement might be spared for the sake of the few righteous among them; that the corn would greatly alleviate the distresses of the friendly Onondagas, but the matrimonial connections of these tribes rendering the requisition suspicious, it was not [100] granted. He likewise informed them that Marquis LaFayette had arrived; that New-York was burned; with a number of stories calculated to gain their point; but all are supposed to be Indian tales. Marched ten miles.

19th. Marched to Kanadasaga, sixteen miles, and arrived about sunset. On our march we met an express with letters from Gen. Washington, together with newspapers informing us of Spain's declaring war with England and many other pieces of agreeable intelligence.

20th. Two detachments, one of six hundred men commanded by Col. Butler was sent on the east side of the Cayuga, to destroy the settlements, and the other under Col. Gansvoort of one hundred men to the Mohawk country for the same purpose. Soon after the army crossed the outlet of Seneca lake, and encamped four miles from Kanadasaga.

We now suppose ourselves at home and quite out of danger from the savages. Col. Smith was again sent out with a party on the west side of the lake, to accomplish the burning of the corn before cut down.

21st. Col Dearborn with two hundred men, was sent down on the west side of Cayuga lake to conclude the destruction of the country. Our army marched thirteen miles and encamped.

22d. This morning there was great appearance of a storm. Marched sixteen miles. A sore mortality among old horses, twenty died this day besides about sixty were shot by the rear guard.

23d. This morning the most able horses were selected to carry the ammunition, which moved with very little obstruction.

Dined at Katherinestown, where we found the old squaw just as we left her, twenty days before in her bark hut, with a quart of corn by her. It appears that there had been, a young squaw with her, whom we found dead forty rods distant; supposed to have been shot by some of our expresses, a few days before. The old one, from her appearance must have been ninety years old. Such is the enmity of our soldiery against the savages, that they would readily have murdered this helpless impotent wretch. But the common dictates of humanity, a veneration for old age and a regard for the female world of any age or denomination induced our General to spare her, giving her the choice of going with the army, or remaining in her wigwam, with a month's provisions; and she preferred the latter.

The army proceeded three miles further and then encamped. Marched twelve miles.

24. This day we passed through the swamp with little difficulty, and arrived at Fort Reid before night, where were one hundred head of cattle, a plenty of flour, spirits &c. Captain Reid had been ordered to this place (before known by the name of Konnawolla-hollah) with two hundred men and one piece of cannon, where he had thrown up some lines, being the point of confluence of the Tioga and Cayuga rivers.

On our march this day, we received intelligence that Col. Clark had taken Detroit with two hundred and fifty prisoners.

25th. A Feu de Joie for Spain's declaring war with England.

26th. Col Dearborn and party returned, who left us on the 21st near outlet of Seneca lake. His course was about east, twelve or fifteen miles when he struck Cayuga lake, ten miles from its mouth. From thence he proceeded on the west side, to the south end; in which route he burned five towns, containing fifty houses, destroyed a quantity of corn, took four prisoners two of whom he brought off, both females, the other two being superannuated and infirm were left. That lake extends nearly as far south as the Seneca, and ten miles further north, while the land is broken and the shore very irregular

27th. A large party under Col. Cortlandt was sent up the Tioga river to destroy corn.

28th. Col. Butler and party arrived from his expedition around the Cayuga. After leaving Kanadasaga, they marched twenty three miles nearly north east, keeping in sight of the stream that runs from Seneca lake, which is generally shallow and rapid, running into the Cayuga half a mile from its mouth. They forded the neck of the lake where it was four hundred yards across and three feet deep with a muddy bottom. From thence they proceeded on the eastern shore, destroyed one hundred houses, five hundred fruit [101] trees and an immense quantity of corn. The land was good and much like that between the lakes.

Large detachments this day were employed in destroying corn.

29th. The army marched eleven miles and encamped on the Flatt below Chemung.

30th. Arrived at Tioga about 3 o'clock, where we were saluted by thirteen cannon from the fort. From hence we have water carriage to Wyoming, a most fortunate affair as our horses are worn down and our men are naked.

Although we are, now, one hundred and twenty miles from peaceful inhabitants, yet we consider ourselves at home, and the expedition ended; having fulfilled the expectations of our country, by beating the enemies and penetrating and destroying their whole country. The undertaking was great and the task arduous. The multiplicity of disappointments, occasioning a long delay at the beginning, foreboded a partial, if not a total frustration of our design; but the unbounded ambition and perseverance of our commander and army led him to the full execution contrary to our most sanguine expectations.

The army marched from Tioga, with twenty pounds of beef and twenty seven pounds of flour, per man, with which they marched twenty days out through an enemy's country yet unexplored with five pieces of artillery; having a road to clear, through swamps and over mountains a hundred and fifty miles; after having marched three hundred from their winter quarters; a cruel, subtle and desultory foe to contend with; void of hospital stores and conveniencies for the sick and wounded; scarcely able to move for want of means of transportation, one battle, at the extent of our route, must have been attended with consequences, such as nothing but the event itself could ascertain; yet a march of three hundred miles was performed, a battle was fought and a whole country desolated in thirty days.

But let us not arrogate too much, for "The battle is not to the strong," is a proverb fully verified in this expedition; the special hand and smiles of Providence being so apparently manifested, that he who views the scene, with indifference, is worse than an infidel. The dimest eye must observe through the whole a succession of most fortunate events. The very evils that at first predicted a defeat, were a chain of causes in our favor. (I mean our delay). Had we marched when we wished we could not have had a general engagement; for a great scarcity amounting almost to a famine, the preceding year had prevented their embodying, until the growth of the present crop and we must therefore, have been harassed, daily by small parties much to our disadvantage. The artillery, which at first, seemed a clog and totally useless, served a noble purpose the action being general, their total rout together with the thunder of our artillery impressed them, with such a terrific idea of our importance that a universal panic struck both the sachem and the warrior; each finding full employment in removing his little ones from threatening danger. The place of action was likewise remarkable having water carriage for our wounded. Not a single gun was fired for eighty miles, on our march out or an Indian seen on our return. Then when we expected the greatest harassment a hundred might have saved half their country by retarding us until our provisions were spent; and a like number hanging on our rear in the return, would have occasioned the loss of much baggage and taught us an Indian dance. Their corn and vegetables were half our support, which we should have been deprived of had our march been earlier. And to say no more, the extraordinary continuance of fair weather has infinitely facilitated our expectations; having never been detained a single day; nor has there been an hour's rain since the the thirtieth day of August.

The question will naturally arise, what have you to show for your exploits? Where are your prisoners? To which I reply, that the rags and emaciated bodies of our soldiers must speak for our fatigue, and when the Querist will point out a mode to tame a partridge, or the expediency of hunting wild turkeys, with light horse, I will show them our prisoners. The nests are destroyed, but the birds are still on the wing.


JAMES NOTTIS, Captain in the Third New Hampshire Regiment, and afterwards Major. Original manuscript in the archives of the Buffalo Historical Society, N. Y. Published in July, 1879, Vol. I, No. 7, of the publications of that society, by Bigelow Brothers, Buffalo, N. Y.

The following has been carefully revised and corrected by Greorge G. Barnum, Esq., Corresponding Secretary, in accordance with a resolution of the Board of Councilors of the Buffalo Historical Society, which, by a resolution unanimously adopted, authorized the use of the "Norris Journal" in the present publication, together with any other document in its archives.

An imperfect copy of this journal, with several omissions and many important errors, said to have been found among Gen. Sullivan's papers after his death, was printed in Hill's New Hampshire Patriot, at Portsmonth, September 16, 1843.


(Title Page)

(Fly leaf)
EASTON JUNE 18, 1779.

June 18 Friday Morning June 18 1779. The N Jersey and N Hampshire Brigades with Procters Regt of Artillery, under the command of Major General Sullivan, began to march from Easton on an Expedition to the Western frontiers against the Savages. [224] About 12 o Clock the Troops halted for the day, at Hilliers Tavern is Easton—

19 Marched at 4 o Clock this Morning. & advanced as far as Brinkers where the Army halted to draw provissions & Refresh themselves, we came through a narrow pass of the blue mountain, calld the Wind-gap, a passage apparently designed by Nature for a Communication; and according to the description given by Cornelius Nepos. pretty much resembles the Straits of Thermopylae where 300 Greeks under Leonidas checked the progress of 800,000 Persians commanded by Xerxes—After having taken rest and refreshment, the troops marchd 9 Miles farther to Learns's Tavern near Pogono point and encampd, at this place a rattle snake was killd having 7 Rattles on his tail and a full grown bird in his Stomach, which would seem to confirm the Notion of Snakes having the power of facinating or charming their prey—The Land thro this days march is mountainous, rocky, barren, & uninhabitable; but well waterd and the Streams aboundjng with Trouts —

20 Marched at 8 oClock & enterd an exstensive Forrest, calld the great Swamp into which we advanced 5 Miles, & encamped on a small brook; the Genl gave this the name of Chowder Camp—The House we left this morning is the last of the Inhabitants till we reach Wyoming.

21 This days march of 21 Miles was as Severe as it was unnecessary. through a Wilderness, where there had been only an Indian path, till the Troops cut a road this spring for the passage of Sullivans Army—the fatigues of this Day might have been prevented by a longer march yesterday: but after crossing two Consideable Streams calld the Tobehanah & Tanckhannanck, there is no proper ground for an Encampment till we get through the Swamp After we had crossd the Creek, we come to the Lehi, the Western branch of the Delaware, & having passed this we enter a gloomy grove of Cypress, Hemlock, Pine, Spruce &c calld the Shades of Death, the growth of Timber in this swamp is amazing—

22 We moved but 5 Miles to a desolate Farm, the property of one Bullock, who had been driven of with his Familey by the Savages—here we found large meadows & plenty of grass for our horses—

23 Our next place of halting is Wyoming, distant 7 Miles, about 4 Miles from this Town we saw two Monuments set up by the way side in memory of Capt. Davis & Lieut Jones of 11th. Pensylvania Regt. with the following Inscriptions. "The place where Capt. Davis was murdered by the Savages April 23d 1779" & "The blood of Lt Jones— About 12 oClock we entered the Town of Wyoming, which exhibits a melancholy scene of desolation, in ruin'd Houses, wasted fields & Fatherless Children & Widows. These unhappy people after living in continual alarms, & disputing for many Years their possessions with the Pennsylvanians, at length were attacked by a merciless band of savages, led on by a more savage Tory, the Unnatural monster Butler: their Houses were plunderd and burnt, their cattle and effects conveyd away after they had capitulated; and the poor helpless Women childeren obliged to Sculk in the Mountains and perish or travel down to the Inhabitants, hungry, naked & unsupported, in a word Language is to weak to paint, & Humanity unable to bear the history of their Sufferings—the Refugees who joind the Indians to cut off this settlement, are said to have given proofs of more wanton and unnatural Barbarity than even the Savages themselves—The following is a deeper Tragedy than has been acted since the Days of Cain. A Young man by the Name of Henry Pensil, who had escaped the Fate of most of his Countrymen, & in the Evening after the battle had taken refuge on a small Island in the River, was discovered by a Tory who fiercely accosted him with the Appellation of a Damnd Rebel: the poor fellow being unarmed began to implore his pity, fell down upon his knees and entreated him not to stain his hands with his Brothers blood, "John, I am your brother, spare my Life and I will serve you:" I know you are my Brother replied the Villian; but you are a damnd Rebel, Henry, and we are of opposite sides and Sentiments in the mean time was loading his gun with great coolness, which after the most moving appeal to his humanity & Justice, with all deliberation he leveled at his breast and shot him! then Tomahawked, & [225] scalpd him! another young man who lay concealed in the bushes a little way off, & afterwards made his Escape, heard all that passed, and saw the Murderer, who stood up upon a log while he loaded his Gun, and knew him to be the Brother of his unfortunate companion: He also adds that the Savages came up soon after he had finished the bloody deed: and cursed his cruelty in the bitterness of their hearts & said they had a great mind to put him death the same way—

24 This Evening one of the Centries fired upon a Savage, who had crept up within 2 or 3 Rods of him in order to take him by Supprise but the fellow made his escape—

25 & 26 Nothing happened worthy Notice

27 The 2d & 3d N Hampshire Regts were ordered to move off their ground and pitch upon the plains af Abraham, 3 Miles higher up on the Western bank of the Susquehanna, in order to be more convenient to Cilleys and Courtlandts Regts. who composed part of Poors Brigade; and had been lying some time on Jacobs plains—The place of our Camp near an old Stockade fort, built by the Inhabitants and call'd Forty Fort from 40 Persons to whom the grant of the Wyoming lands was made By the Government of Connecticut—

28 Genl Sullivan recd a Letter from Genl Clinton, dated Schoharra, advising that he was furnished with 3 Months Provissions, 1700 effective men with him present, & 300 more at another post ready to join him, & was waiting his Commands.— Same Letter adds that he had taken & hanged a British Officer, a Spy, who was going from Butlers Army to N York—by the Same Express we learn from Genl. Clinton that the Oneida tribe of Indians had recd a Letter from Genl. Haldiman, Governor of Quebec, charging them with a breach of faith, & breathing out threatenings against them, if they did not declare in favor of Britain—

30th Cilleys & Courtlandts Regts were musterd—

July 1st. Michael Rosebury & Lawrence Miller, inhabitants of Sussex county of N Jersey being convicted by court Martial, held at East Town 3d June Genl Maxwell president, for enticeing Soldiers of the American Army to desert & sentenced to suffer death, were brought on with the Provost & this day led forth to the place of Execution where the former was hanged and the latter reprieved—

2d Rode out this Morning with Genl Poor & Lieut Col Dearborn about 4 Miles from Camp to view the ground where the battle was fought between the Savages and the people of Wyoming under Col Butler, we saw a Stockade fort with a covert Way to a fountain which our guide told us was built for a shew by some of the disaffected Inhabitants & given up to the Enemy immediately upon their Approach, we examined the Trees, where the line of Battle was formd; but found very few marks of an Obstinate Engagement: it appears indeed that the Enemy were superior in numbers to the Militia and soon after the Commencement of the Action turned their left flank, this brought on a retreat, in which the Savages massacred upwards of 200 Men—We saw more or less of bones, scattered over the ground for near two miles, & several Sculls brought in at different times, that had been Scalped and inhumanly mangled with the Hatchet A Capts Commission with 17 Continental Dollars was found in the pocket of the Skeleton of a man, who had laid above ground 12 months- Our guide shewed us where 73 Bodies had been buried in one hole this place may with propriety be called Golgotha—All the Houses along this River have been burnt; and the Gardens and Fields the most fertile I ever beheld, grown over with weeds and Bushes, exhibit a melancholy picture of savage rage and Desolation.

3d. Anniversary of the battle & Destruction of the Settlement of Wyoming—

4 Anniversary of American Independence declared by Congress July 4 1776 at Philadelphia: this Day being Sunday the Celebration was defferred till next day, when Brigadr Genl Poor gave an Entertainment to the Officers of his Brigade 87 of whom were present—

After Dinner the following 13 Patriotic Toasts were drank—
1 July 4th. 1776 The memorable/Erra of American Independence
2 United States
3 The grand Council of America
[226] 4 Genl Washington and the Army
5 Genl Lincoln & the Southern Army
6 Genl Sullivan & Western Expedition
7 King & Queen of France
8 May the Counsellors of America be wise and her Soldiers invincible
9 A Successful & decisive Campaign
10 Civilization or death to all American Savages
11 The Immortal memory of those Heroes that have fallen in the defence of American Liberty
12 May the new World be the last Asylum for Freedom and the Arts
13 May the husbandmans Cottage be blest with peace and his fields with plenty —

The whole of the entertainment seemd to be conducted with such joy and festivity, as demonstrated an independent elevation of Spirit on this important and interesting Occasion—

5th. Advices from Juniatta, the West branch of the Susquehanna, that a party of Indians had set upon and Scalpd 9 of the Inhabitants

6 Early this morning one Winslow, a Soldier belonging to the 3d N Hamp Regt. went to bathe and was drown'd—About 8 oClock an uncommon black & heavy cloud arose in the East with uncommon distinct claps of Thunder like the report of a Cannon followed by a severe showr of rain & hail some of the hailstones were as large as hens Eggs —

7. 8. 9. No News—

10 A Detachment of 150 Men from 1 & 2d N Hampshire Regimts was sent towards Easton to Escort some Stores and Repair the roads

11 Our officers recd their commissions from Congress on the new Arrangement—

12 Three Companies of the German Regt. deserted

13 We recd a Visit from Col Butler and his Lady & 1/2 doz Young Ladys from Wyoming with whom we pass an agreeable afternoon: Col Butler shewd us a death Mall, or war Mallet that the Indians left by a Man that they had knocked on the head: the handle resembles that of a hatchet, with a string drawn thro near the end to hold it by—It is made of the Root of a Tree with a large ball worked on the head of it, & looks not much unlike a four pound Shott in the Bill of an Eagle, with a tuft of feathers on the Crown: the end of the handle shows the face of a Wild-Cat —

15 We learn from the Eastward that the main body of the British Army have retired from Kings ferry on Hudsons River, leaving 6 Regts to keep that post—

16 Rode out with Genls Sullivan Maxwell & Poor & several other Gentlemen to View the ground where the two Butlers fought

17 By advices from Connecticut, the Enemy have made an incursion into that State, and burned Fairfield and plundered New Haven—

18 Nothing remarkable

19 ____ ____

20 ____ ____

21 We recd a Letter from Major Gibbs of his Excellencys Guard advising that in the night of the 15 Inst. B. Genl. Wayne with the Light Infantry had Supprized and taken the Fort at Stony point near Kings ferry on Hudson's River, by which important Enterprize upwards of 500 British & new Levies with all their Cannon, War like Stores and Baggage fell into our hands—

22d ____ ____

23 Made an excursion to Lachawanunch about 8 Miles on a party of pleasure with Lieut Col Dearborn, Capt. Fogg & Revd Mr Evans, staid out all night and returned next day a Guard of 20 men from Poors Brigade was sent up to this place to protect some of the Inhabitants till they mowed their grass and reaped their grain that grew spontaneously from last years crop ungathered wherever we rode the same sad Scene of Ruin and desolation appeared—

24 Genl Hand arrived at Wyoming from Sunsbury with 70 boats laden with provissions for our Expedition —

[227] 25 Five Soldiers belonging to the German Regt were sentenced by Court Martial to be shot for desertion—

26 The five deserters sentenced to surfer death Yesterday were reprieved

27 Genl Poors Brigade marchd from Forty fort to Wyoming in order to be convenient to fall in with the line of march—

28 Nothing remarkable—

29 Recd Orders to march towards Tioga next day Genl Sullivan recd a Letter from Northumberland—

30 Copy of the Letter

The Enemy yesterday made themselves masters of Freelands fort on the West branch of Susquehanna upon terms of Capitulation Viz. The men to remain prisoners of War; the whole Garrison to be plundered by the Indians; the Women to go free—the number of the Enemy appearing before the fort about 250, one third British, the residue were Savages, togather with a Corps de Reserve of 100 More at some distance; the whole under the command of Capt McDonald, we have now at Northumberland about 150 to oppose the Enemy & protect the Women & Children, whom it is impossible to get off—We expect to be attacked every hour as we are the most frontier garrison & fear without some speedy Assistance, must fall a prey to Savage Tyrants—The Enemy have collected all the Cattle & every thing Valuable as they came on—We beg leave to give it as our opinion that a party of men thrown across the Country will retake the plunder and every thing else.
Wm. Cooke D Q M. G—

N. B. The number killd in Action were Capt. Hawkins Boon & 40 men, after the Capitulation, who were on a Scout and had not heard of the Surrender of the Garrison—

The Accts. we recd from the Delaware at Minisings on the 29th are more favorable than at first Represented—The Tories & Savages made a descent upon that Settlement & having burned several Houses, Barns &C. were attackd by a Regt. of Militia who repulsed & pursued them a considerable distance—Forty men were killd on our side the Colo & Major included—The Enemy's loss unknown We hear Genl Clinton with the main Body of the British Army is moving up Hudsons river

The Army Under Genl Sullivan recd orders to march to-morrow Morning

31 After a great deal of trouble in fitting and loading the boats & in fixing the Pack Horses for the march, we moved from Wyoming at 1 oClock, in the following order

Genl Hands Brigade a mile in front to act as light Troops Genl Maxwells & Poors, then the Pack Horses about 1200 in Number, followed by about 500 head of Cattle One Regt for rear Guard—200 men as a flank Guard on the Right & 60 men on our left by the River—

Col. Procters Regt of Artillery go by Water with about 120 Boats with provissions and Stores—a Capt & 60 men march on the opposite side of the River to Scour the Shore & prevent Ambuscades being formd—we marchd about 10 Miles and encampd near a Stream calld Lachawanunck which falls into the Susquehanna at this place—The land here is level and exceeding fertile, but now desolated and the houses burnt by the Savages; the Inhabitants having shared the fate of their Neighbors at Wyoming—

We have had a remarkably wet Season for a Fortnight past which still continues—

August 1st Sunday

We lay still this morning waiting for fair Weather & the Arrival of our boats—Afternoon 4 oClock we Struck Tents (the Weather being favorable & boats arriving) & marchd to Quilutimack 7 Miles the difficulty of the Way along the foot of the Mountain that jutted down upon the River, gave inconceivable Embaressments to the Troops as well as to the pack horses & Cattle, so that the former did not arrive at the place of Encampment before 9 oClock nor the latter with the Rearguard till next Morning—About 3 Miles from Quilutimack is a romantic fail of Water down a Precipice in the Cliff of a Rock 70 feet high—In this Days march we passd over a large tract of good land—

2d The Army lay Still on this ground to rest and recruit the pack horses & collect the Keggs of flowr, Ammunition and other baggage that was left behind from the perplexity [228] of the Way and darkness of the Night—The morning shewd us that the ground we encampd on had been inhabited and tilled, tho now over run with Grass and Thistles of a mighty growth—a wild enormous mountain lay close on our front & the River in our Rear—

We drew the Seine at this place and caught a number of fish consisting chiefly of Rock, Pike, 1 Garr, Chubbs & Suckers—next Morning at 7 oClock—

3d We proceeded 12 Miles farther, over a much better Country than we expected and encampd in an old Field, near the Mouth of a Small river that falls here into the Susquehanna calld Tunkhannuck—Nothing remarkable happened thro this days march —the Deer seemd to be plenty on this ground—a large Fawn that lay Sulking in the Bushes alarmd with the noise of the Troops attempted to make his escape, but being intirely surrounded was taken without a wound—Affording great amusement to the Soldiers & an agreeable Viand to several of the Officers —

4 The General beat and we struck Tents at 6 oClock this Morning and marchd 13 Miles by Actual Survey—we passd several places that were once the habitations of retirement and domestic peace—but now the solitary haunts of Savages. The last stood near a small rapid river calld Meshopping; we encamped 2 or 3 miles beyond this Stream on a desolate Farm, the property of one Vandelip who had joind the Savages and gone off—This day several large Rattle Snakes were killd—our little Fleet found great difficulty & Embarassment from the Shoals & Rapids, so that they did not come up with the Army till 10 the next day—Immediately upon their Arrival the Troops were put in motion—The land we passd over this day is fine to admiration & the growth of Walnut the Stateliest I ever saw —

5 Our next place of Encampment is Wyalusing, distant 10 miles the Ground rocky and Mountainous, particularly one tremendous ridge, over which our right Flank was Obliged to pass, that seemd to over look the World & threaten Annihilation to our prostrate Troops—After leaving this place the Scene opened into a fine, clear, extensive piece of Wood land; here the Genl apprehending an attack the Signal was beaten for the Army to close Column this order of march was observed till we left this forrest and gaind the Summit of a verry lofty Mountain; when another Signal was given for marching in files—From the Top of this height we had a grand prospective view of our little Fleet coming up the River at about 3 Miles distance—The green hills as far as the eye could reach rising like the seats of an Amphitheatre and the distance of the prospect gave the River and the boats the beautiful Resemblance of Miniature painting—After marching abt. 2 Miles we descended into the low grounds of Wyalusing where every one was amazed at the luxuriant growth of Timber chiefly Sycamore—few of the Trees being less then 6 feet in Diametre and to close this days march the more agreeably after passing half a mile of a piny barren, the plains of Wyalusing opened to our sight coverd with english grass, the greenest and Richest carpet that Nature ever Spread—There was once an Indian Town at this place consisting of about 80 houses, or hutts built in two parallel right lines forming a Street of 60 or 70 feet wide; with a church or Chapel in the Centre the plan of the Town is still to be seen from the old Ruins that Remain on the ground—The Natives it seems had actually embraced the Christian Religion which was taught them by a Moravian Missionary from Bethlehem for that purpose in the Year 1770 the Connecticut Company having purchased the lands on this River, the Indians retired farther Westward, and left this place in the possession of a few Americans, who have joind the Enemy since the commencement of this War—notwithstanding the Settlement has been over run by the Savages and the Town burnt—The Susquehanna at this place makes nearly a right Angle, and forms a point on which the Town stood, and where Genl Sullivans Army lay two Days encamped—

8th. Sunday Morning 7 oClock moved on towards Tioga, and Encamped on a piece of low ground by the River, where there has been a Settlement & 4 families dwelt in the Year 1775—this place is calld Standing Stone Bottom—Capt Spalding who commands the Independent company in Genl Hands light Troops, lived at this place—distance 10 Miles—

9 Marched at 6 this morning & halted to breath near a cold stream, calld Wesawking [229] —about 3-1/2 Miles from last encampmen—Then pursued our rout without rest or refreshment 12 Miles farther the Weather hot and men much fatigued, this brings us to Sheshukonuck bottom a large meadow of near 150 Acres lying on the Susquehanna, covered with a vast burthen of wild grass—we rested here this Evening and next day and Wednesday Morning—

11 The Army recd orders to march to Tioga, about two Miles from Sheshekonunck plain the troop forded the river where the Stream was rapid and pretty deep, notwithstanding the men all came safe over, except one who was carried down the Current a considerable distance, and saved by Lieut Col Barber Adjt Genl at the hazzard of his own Life—The Cattle and pack Horses were as fortunate as the Troops—After advancing about one mile through a rich bottom covered with strong and stately Timber which shut out the Sun, & shed a cool agreeable twilight; we unexpectedly were introduced into a Plain as large as that of Sheshekonunck, call'd Queen Easter's Plantation—it was on this plain near the bank of the Susquehanna that Easter Queen of the Seneca Tribe, dwelt in Retirement and Sullen majesty, detached from all the Subjects of her Nation—The ruins of her Palace are still to be seen; surrounded with fruit Trees of various kinds—At end East end of the plain, the Tioga River forms a junction with the Susquehanna—At this place the Army forded & encamped about half a mile above on the Susquehanna—We now find ourselves happily arrived at Tioga, with our Army & Fleet, our Troops gererally in health and spirits, and fewer accidents happening on the march than could be expected in the same distance, thro a Mountainous, wild, uncultivated Country—It appears by the Number of hides lying on the ground that the Indians have lately had an Encampment at this place. By the place of burial seen here, one would be led to think this was once an Indian Town, but there are no Vestiges of Hutts or Wiggwoms—Whether through principle of Avarice or Curiosity, our Soldiers dug up several of their graves and found a good many laughable relicts, as a pipe, Tomahawk & Beads &c—

12th The Genl gave orders for a fort and four Block houses to be built at this place for the Security of the Fleet and Stores which are to be left here under a pretty strong Garrison, after the Army moves into the Indian Country—and this movement will take place as soon as Genl Clinton, who is coming down the Susquehanna, joins us with his Brigade—This afternoon Intelligence came by a small scout sent out yesterday, that the Enemy at Chemoung, an Indian Town 15 Miles distant up the Cayuga branch, were about moving off upon hearing of our Arrival at Tioga—in consequence of which the main body of our Army marched at 8 oClock this Evening in order to be ready by Day break for surprising Chemoung; our march was attended with difficulty & fatigue, having a thick Swamp and several dangerous defiles to pass,—We arrived however between dawning & Sun rise, but to our no small mortification found the Town abandon'd & two or three Indians only to be seen sculking away—According to the accounts of those who pretend to be acquainted with Indian Citys, this seems to have been a pretty Capital place—It consisted of about 40 Houses built chiefly with split and hewn Timber, covered with bark and some other rough materials, without Chimnies, or floors, there were two larger houses which from some extraordinary rude Decorations, we took to be public Buildings; there was little Furniture left in the Houses, except Bearskins, some painted feathers, & Knicknacks—in what we supposed to be a Chapple was found indeed an Idol, which might well enough be Worshipd without a breach of the 2d Commandt. on account of its likeness to anything either in heaven or Earth—About Sun rise the Genl gave orders for the Town to be illuminated—& accordingly we had a glorious Bonfire of upwards of 30 Buildings at once: a melancholy & desperate Spectacle to the Savages many of whom must have beheld it from a Neighboring hill, near which we found a party of them had encamped last night—And from appearances the inhabitants had left the Town but a few hours before the Troops arrived—Genl Hand with some light Infantry pursued them about a mile, when they gave him a Shot from the Top of a Ridge, & ran acccording to their Custom, as soon as the fire was return'd; but unfortuneately for us, the savages wounded three Officers, killed Six men and wounded seven more—they were pursued but without effect—Our next Object was their fields of Indian Corn—about 40 Acres of which [230] we cut down and distroyed—In doing this Business, a party of Indians and Tories, fired upon three Regimts across the River, killed one and wounded five—having compleated the Catastrophe of the Towns & fields, we arrived at Tioga about Sun set the same day, verry much fatigued having march'd not less than 34 miles in 24 hours, without rest in the Extreamest heat—

14th. No news to Day

15th. Nine Hundred chosen men under the Command of Brig: Genl Poor are ordered to march Tomorrow morning up the Susquehanna, to meet Genl Clinton, who is on his march to join Sullivans Army with his Brigade and is in some Danger of being Atackted by the Enemy before he can form a Junction with our Main Army; This afternoon a Small Party of Indian's fired on some of our Men who were without the Guards after some Horses and Cattle, Killd and Sculped one man and Wounded another, a Party was sent out in pursuit of them but Could not come up with them—

16th General Poor March'd with his Detachment at 10 o'Clock A M. proceeded in two Collams up the Suscuhannah River Over very rough Ground we Incampt Near the Ruins of an old town Call'd Macktowanuck the Land near the River is very Good—

17th We marchd Early this Morning Proceed 12 Miles to Owagea an Indian Town which was Deserted last Spring, after Planting, About the town is many Fruit Trees and many Plants, and Herbs, that are common in our part of the Country; Hear is a Learge body of clear Intivale Covered with Grass, Our March to day Very Survear and Fatigueing Esspecelly for the Left Collom (to which I belong) as we had to pass Several Steap Hills, and Morasses—

18th We March'd Early this Morning proceeded 14 Miles to Choconant the Remains of a Learge Indian Town which has been likewise Abandoned this Summer, here we found Plenty of Cucombar's, Squashes, Turnips &c, We found About twenty Houses, Which we burnt our Days March has been More Survear than Yesterday, as we had bad Hills and Swamps, one swamp of about two Miles so Covered with Large Pines, Standing and lying which appeard as tho' Several Haricanes had been busy among since which a Tremendius Groath of Bushes About twenty feet high has sprung up so very thick as to Render the passing through them Inpracticable by any troops but such as Nothing but Death can stop at sunset we were Very agreeably alarm'd by the Report of a Cannon up the River Which was supposed to be General Clintons Evening Gun—

19th Our Troops were put in Motion very early this Morning after Marching about one Mile Genl Poor Received an Exspress from General Clinton Informing him that the Latter exspected to be hear by 10 o'Clock A M. this day in Consiquence of which we Return'd to our Old Incampment where General Clinton, Joind us at 10 o'Clock with two Thousand Men—Including Officers, Boatsman &. c. he has two Hundred and Eight Beautoes with Provissions Ammunition &c after Mutual Congratulations and Complements the whole Proceeded down the River to Owagea and Incampt this Evening, the town of Owegea was made a burnfire of to Grace our Meating our General Course from Tiago to Choconant is about N. East—

20th We have very heavy Rain to day and no tents but we are obliged to ride it out—

21st We March'd early Proceeded within 10 miles of Tiago—

22d We March at 6 of the Clock and at 11 arrived in Camp where we were Saluted With thirteen Cannon and a tune of Colonel Procters Band of Musick—

23 We are preparing to March with all Possible Exsperdition about five oClock this afternoon a Very shocking acsident hapend in our Camp, a soldier Very accidently Dischargd a Muskett Chargd with a ball and Several Buck shott, three of Which unforti-nately struck Captain Kimbell of Colonel Cilleys Regiment who was standing at some Distance in a tent with several other officers in such a Manner that he Exspired within 10 or 15 Munits—is Universally Lemented as he was assteamed by all who knew him—one of the Shott wounded a soldier, in the leg who was some Distance from the tent that Captain Kimble was in

24th The Remains of the Unfortinate Captain Kimble was Inter'd at 11 oClock with the Honours of War—Attended by General Poor and almost all the officers of the Brigade with Colonel Procter's Band of Musick—the Army is Very busy in Prepairing to March—

[231] 25th We find Great Difficulty in Gitting Ready to March for want of a Sufficiently Number of Horses to Carry our Provitions Ammunition &c. However we are to Move to Morrow without fail with Twenty Seven Days Flower and live Beef Our whole force that will March from hear is about five Thousand Men officers Included, with nine Pieces of Artilery,—and three of the Anyda Warriers Arrived hear this afternoon who are a going on with ous as Guides—two Runner's Arrived from Colonel Broadhead at fourt Pitt —Informing that Colonel Broadhead is on his way with about Eight Hundred Men against the Western Indians—

26th Our Army March at 12 oClock in the order laid down in the Plan and Order of March & Battle a Garrison of about three Hundred Men left at this Place under the Command of Colonel Shreve the Army Proceeded about 4 Miles and Incampt—Mr. Lodge a Gentleman who Survey'd Marchd from Easton with us is going on with us in Order to take an Actual Survev of the Country who measured the Road as We go on—

27th The Army Marched at Eight oClock, our March was Very much Impeaded by the Artilery and Ammunition Waggons which we have to Clear a Road for through thick Woods & Difficult Defiles the Army are obligd to Halt Seven Hours to Day at one Defile for the Artilery & Baggage—at 10 oClock we arrived at our Incamping Ground a learge body of Clear Intervale where we found Seventy or Eighty Acres of fine Corn our March has not been more than 6 Miles to Day—

28th As we had the Corn to destroy before we March it was two o'Clock P. M. before we moved off the Ground by Reason of a High Mountain that shutt Down to the River so as to Render Passing with the Artilery Impractable we Wear obligd to fourd the River twice before we could git to Shumung with the Artilery Pack Horses and one Brigade the Water was so deep as Rendered fourding Very Difficult & Dangerous—A Considerable quantity of lower ammunition and other Baggage was lost in the River at 10 in the evening the Rear of the Army arrived at Shemung where we Incampt, our March to day has not been more than four Miles, a small Scout of ours arrived to day which Inform'd that they Discover'd a large Incampment about 6 Miles from Chemung a small Party of Indians fired on a small Party of our men to day that ware setting fire to some Houses over the River, but did no Damage—

29th The army March'd at Nine o'Clock A. M. proceeded 5 Miles where our light Troops Discovered a line of Brestwork about eighty Rods in their frunt, which upon Reconiting, was found to exstend half a mile in length on very Advantageous Ground, with a large Brook in frunt, the River on their Right, a High Mountain on their left, and a large settlement in their Rear, called Newtown; their works ware very Artfully Mask'd with Green Bushes, so that I think the Discovering them was Accadental as it Fortinate to us, Schurmishing on both sides Commins'd soon after we Discover'd their works which Continued until our Disposition was made which was as follows (viz)—The Artilery to form in frunt of their works, Coverd by General hand Brigade, General Poor's and Riflemen to turn the Enemys left, and fall in their Rear surported by General Clintons Brigade General Maxwells Brigade to form a Corps Deserve; the left flanking Division and lite Infantry to Persue the Enemy when they left their works at 3 o'Clock P. M. General Poor's began his march by Columns from the right of regt by files we Passd a very thick Swamp so Coverd with bushes for near a mile that we found great difficulty in keeping in order but by Genl Poor's Great Prudance and Good Conduct We Proceeded in Much better order then I Exspected we could Possibly have done—after Passing this Swamp we Inclind to the left, crossed the Creek that runs frunt of the Enemys work: on both sides of this was a large Number of New Houses, but no land Cleard; soon after we passd this Creek we began to assen'd the Mountain that coverd the Enemys left, Immediately after we began to assend the Mountain we ware surluted by a brisk fire from a body of the Indians who were posted on this Mountain for the Purpose of Preventing any troops Turning the left of their Works, at the same Instant that they began to fire on us, they rais'd the Indian Yell, or war hoop the Riflemen kept up a Scattering fire while we form'd the line of Battle which was dun Exceeding quick—we then advanced Rapped with fix'd Bayonetts with out fireing a Gun till we had gained the Summett of the Hill, [232] which was half a mile, altho' they kept a stady fire on us all the while; we then gave them a full Voley which obliged them to take to their heels, Colonel Reeds Regiment whis was on the left of the Brigade, was more servearly Attacted then any other part of the Brigade, with Prevented his advancing as fast as the Rest, as we assended the Mountain Lieut Cass of our Regiment Tommahawked one of the Indians with the Indians own Tommahawk that was slightly wounded, our Regiment being next to Colonel Reed's on the left and the Colonel finding he was still very warmly Engag'd nearly on the same Ground he Was first attacted ordered the Regiment to face to the Right about and moved to his assistance, we soon Discoverd a body of Indians, Turning his Right, which he Turned about by a full fire from the Regiment, This was a Very seasonable, Relief to Colonel Reed who was the very moment we fired on them that were turning his right, found himself so Surrounded that he was Reduced to the Necessity of Retreating or Making a Desperate push with the Bayonett: the latter of which he had put in Execution the moment we gave him Relief; The Enemy now all left the field of Action, with precepitation and in Great Confusion Persued by our Light Infantry above 3 Miles They left a Number of their Packs, Blanketts &c. on the Ground—half an hour before the Action became serious with General Poor's Brigade, the Artilery began to play upon their works—which soon made their works, too warm for them, we found of the Enemy on the field of Action 11 Indians Warners dead and one Sqaw, took one whiteman & one Negro Prisoners; from whom we larnt that Butler Commanded hear, that Brant had all the Indians that Could be Mustered in the five Nations that there was about 200 Whites, a few of which were British Regular's Troops, it seems that their whole force was about 1500.—The Prisoners Inform us that their loss in killd and wounded was Very Great—the most of which they According to Custome carried off—our loss in General Poor's Brigade, killd and Wounded is (vizt)

Majr 0 1 Majr Titcumb
Capt 0 1 Capt Clays
Lieut 0 1 Died the same night Lieut MacCaully
Ensn 0 0  
Serjt 1 0  
Privates 2 29  
Totals 3 32  

our loss in Killd and Wounded in the whole Army except Genl Poor's Brigade was Killd none wounded 4 Privates at Sunsett the Army Incampt on the Ground lately Occupied by the Enemy—

30th The Army Remaind on the Ground to day & Destroyd a vast Quantity of Corn and about 40 Houses—The Army by a Request of General Sullivan Agreed to live on half a Pound of Beef and half a Pound of flower Pr Day, for the future as long as it might found Necessary our Provisions being short—This night the sick and Wounded together with the Ammunition Waggons, and four of our Heavyest Pieces of Artilery, are sent back to Tiago by water, which will Enable the Army to proceed with much Greater ease and Rapidity our Course from Shemung to hear is about N. West—

31st We marchd at 10 o'Clock, The Right Collomn Marchd on the hill some Distance from the River The left Collomn and Artilery Marchd by the River The land we March'd over very fine found and Destroyd Several fields of Corn and Houses, Proceeded five miles to where the Alliganer and Kaiyugea Branches of the River unite—on the Point between these two Streames was a Very Prity town Calld Kannawalohalla, which from appearances was Deserted this morning—some Boats were seen by our advanced Party, going up the Allagana branch, a Number of feather beds were burnt in the Houses, our Soldiers found Several Large Chests Buried which were filld with a Great Variety of household furniture and many other articles: after halting hear an hour we Proceeded [233] between the two Rivers on a fine Plain about 5 Miles and Incampt a Detachment was sent up the Alagana Branch in Pursuit of the Enemy.

Sept 1st The Detachment that was sent up the River Pursuite of the Enemy Returnd this Morning, they Could not Overtake the Enemy, but found and Destroy'd Several large field of Corn —The Army Marchd at 10 o'Clock proceeded about 4 miles on a Plain then Came to what is Calld the Beir Swamp Which exstends to French Katoreen 9 Miles, the Groth is Pine, Sprue and Hamlock—Exceeding thick, a Small River runs through it which we had to Cross about twenty times on each side of this Swamp is a Ridge of Tremendious hills—which the Colomn were obliged to march on having a rode to open for the Artilery we proceeded very slowly at Dark when we had got within about 3 miles of the town we found ourselves in a Most horrid thick Mirery Swamp which Rendered our Proceeding so Difficult that it was 10 o'Clock in the evening before we arrived at the town where we found fires burning and every other appearance of the Enemys having left the town this afternoon, This town Consists of about 30 Houses and their is a Number of fruit trees in this town. the streams we Crossed so often to Day runs through this town and into the Seneca Lake, the South end of which is but 3 miles from this town.

2d The Army laying Still to day to Recrute and Destroy the town Corn &c a Very old Squaw was found in the Bushes to day who was not able to go off with the rest, who Informs us that Butler with the Torys went from this Place with all the Boats the day before yesterday, the Indian Warriers Moved off their familyes and Effects, yesterday Morning, and then Returned and stay'd till sun sett, she says the Squaws and young Indians were very loth to leve the town, but were for giving Themselves up, but the war-riers would not agree to it, Several Horses and Cattle were found at this Place, a Party of light troops were sent this morning to Indevour to over take some of the Indians, who left this place last evening, but Returnd without being able to Effect it—

3d The army March'd, at 8 o'Clock after proceeding 3 Miles over Rough Ground Came oppersit the end of the Lake and then found good marching the land very fine proceeded 9 miles and Incampt at 4 o'Clock P. M. near the side of the Lake This lake is about 40 Miles in Length and from 2 to 5 miles wide and Runs Nearly North, and South—

4th The Army march'd at 10 o'Clock proceeded 4 miles to a Small Village where we found several fine fields of Corn after Destroying the Village and Corn Marchd 8 miles further and Incampt, the land we pass'd over to Day is Exceeding good —

5th The Army Marchd at 10 o'Clock, proceeded 5 miles to and Indian town, Call'd Candaia or Appletown wheir is an old orchard of 60 trees and many other fruits. The town Consists of 20 Houses, Very Beautifully situated near the lake, in the town are three Sepulchres which are very Indian fine, where I suppose that some of their Chiefs are Deposited, at this town we found a man by the Name of Luke Sweatland who was taken by the Savages at Wyoming last Summer and was adopted into an Indian family in this town Where has lived or Rather stayd 12 months, he appeard quite overjoyd at Meeting some of his Acquaintance from Wyoming who are in our Army, he says that the Savages were very much stratend for food, from April till the corn was fitt to Rost, that his being kept so short on't for Provisions Prevented his attemping to Desert altho' he had frequent opportunityes by being sent 20 miles to the salt Spring to make salt, which spring he says afforded Salt for all the Savages in this part of the Country, he says that the Indians were very much allarm'd, and Dejected at being beat at Newtown they told him they had a Great many wounded which they sent of by Water, we Destroyd Great quantities of Corn here, an Exspress arrived this afternoon from Tiago by which we had Account that Abner Dearborn was Dead he was wounded at Newtown—

6th The Horses and Cattle were so scatterd this morning that the Army Could not march untill 3 o'Clock P. M. proceeded 3 miles and Incampt oppersit to where we Incampt on the other side of the Lake we Discover'd a Settlement where We could see some Indians driving Horses—

[234] 7th We took up our March at 7 oClock, proceeded 8 Miles and Came to the end of the Lake, where we Exspected the enemy would give us another Battle, as they might, have a very great advantage over us as we forded the outlett of the Lake, when we arrived in sight of the ford we halted, and Several Scouts were sent out to Reconitree, the Adjasent wood when we found the Course was Clear, the army passd the ford proceeded 3 Miles by the end of the Lake, and found a small Settlement which we Destroyd—the Village and proceeded 2 Miles from the Lake, and Arrived at a large town Calld Kannadasaga which is Considered as the Capital of the Senecas and is Calld the Senecas Castle. It Consists of about 40 Houses very Irreguallerly Situate in the Center of which is the Ruins of a Stockade fort and Blockhouse, here is a Considerable Number of apple trees and other fruit trees and a few Acres of land Covered with English Grass. Their Cornfields which are very large are at some Distance from the town, we found in this town a White Child about three years old which we suppose was a Captive in the Houses was left a Number of things some Corn and many of their Curiosities—

8th The army lay still to day the Riflemen were sent to Destroy a town about 8 miles from hence on the west side of the lake calld Gagssonghgwa we found a Number of Stacks of hay not far from this town which we set fire to—a scout of ours burnt a town to day about 10 miles from this N. East on the Road to the Kauyuga Settlement Calld Shaiyus or large falls—

9th By Reason of a Rain last night the army did not march till 12 o'Clock, all our sick inverlids were sent back this morning to Tiago under an asscort of 50 men we proceeded 3 miles through old fields Covered with Grass, then Entered a thick swamp, Called the ten mile swamp we proceeded four miles in this swamp, with Great Difficulty Crossd a Considerable stream of Water and Incampt—

10th The army Marched at 8 o'Clock proceeded through the swamp and pas'd a large body of Clear land March'd one mile and came to a small Lake calld Cannandaquah, we fourded the Outlet of this lake, proceeded one mile and came to a Very Pretty Town Called Canandaquah, Consisting of about 30 Houses, Much better built Then any that I have seen before, Near this town Discover'd Large fields of Corn, near which we Incampt —Several Small partys were Orderd out to Destroy the Corn this afternoon—

11th The Army Marched at six o'Clock 14 miles to an Indian Town call Anyayea Situate on a body of Clear Intervale Land Near a Small Lake of the same name This town Consists of 11 Houses near it was Several Corn field, the land we Marchd over to day is very good and a Great part of it very thinly Wooded and Covered with Grass it appears as if it had be Cultivated too before—

12 The weather being fowle the army did not March till 12 oClock, a Small fort assteblish'd here, where we leave our Provisions and Ammunition Except what will be Necessary to carry us to Chenesee (about 30 miles) and bring us back hear Again, one pieoe of Artilery is left hear at this Place, the Army Marchd 11 miles this afternoon over a body of Excellent land.

13 March'd at 7 o'Clock proceeded 2 Miles to a Town Calld Kaneysas or Yucksea, Consisting of 18 Houses Situate on an Excellent Intervale near a small lake we found a Large quantity of Corn, beens, Squash, Potatoes, Cucombers, Water Millions &c. &c. in & about this town the Army halted 4 Hour's to Destroy the Town, the Corn & to build a Bridge over a Creek—at this town live a very Great noted Warrier Calld the Great tree who has made great Pretentions of Friendship to us and has been to Philadelphia and to General Washington's head Quarters since the War Commenced, and has Received a Number of presents from General Washington and from the Congress—Yet we suppose that he is with Butler against us, a Party of Riflemen and some others 26 in Number, under the Command of Lieut Boyd of the Rifle Corps was sent out last night to a town 7 miles from here, to make what Discovry he could and to Return at day brake—4 of his men went into the town and found it abandoned, but found 3 or 4 scatering Indians about it one of which they killd & Sculp'd, then Return'd to Lieut Boyd—after sunrise who lay at some Distance from the town—he then sent 4 men to Report to General Sullivan what he had Discover'd and Moved on slowly with his party towards Camp after he had pro- [235] ceeded about half way to Camp he halted some time exspecting the army to meet him. he after halting some time sent 2 men to Camp who Discoverd some Scattering Indians and Return'd to Lieut Boyd again he then March'd on his party towards Camp Discoverd some scattering Indians one of which they Killd he soon found himself Nearly Surrounded and Attackd by three Hundred Indians and torys he after fighting them some time attempted to Retreat but found it Impracticable 6 or 7 of his Men did Make their Eascape the Remainder finding themselves Compleatly Surrounded ware Determined to sell themselves as dear as possible and bravely fight on till every Man was killd but 2 Whites was taken one of which was Lieut Boyd some of the men that made their esscape came to camp and Inform'd the General of the Matter, upon which General Hand with his light troops was sent to the Place of Action but too late, they left all their Packs, Hatts Baggage &c. When the Action it began which General Hand found after he had finished the Bridge, the Army March on proceeded 7 miles to the before mentioned town and Incampt, this town Consists of twenty two Houses, situate on a small River that falls, into the Chenesee River abt 2 miles below here and is called Gaghehegualahale.

14 The General Exspected to have found the Great Chenesee town within 2 miles of hear on this Side of the River but on Reconiting found that the town is 6 miles from here and on the other side of the River the Army was Imployd until 12 o'Clock in Destroying the Corn which we found in Great Plenty—At 12 oClock he marchd after fourding the small River that the town stands on, and passing through a small Grove of wood we entered upon what is Calld the Great Chenesee Flatts, which is a vast body of Clear Intervale 12 or 14 miles up and down the River and Several miles back from the River on both sides and Coverd with Grass from 5 to 8 feet high, and so thick that a man can get through it but very slowly—our Army appeard to Very Great advantage Moving on in the exact order of March laid down in the Plan—but Very often we that were on Horseback could see nothing but the Mens Guns above the Grass—After Marching about two miles on this flatt we Came to the River, which we forded pass'd over a Body of Flatts on the other side and assended onto Oak land and proceeded 4 Miles and arrived to the town which we found Deserted, here we found the Bodys of Lieut Boyd and one other Man, mangled in a Most Horrid Manner, from appearance it seems that they were tied to two trees near which they lay and first they were survearly whipt, then their Tongues were Cutt out, their finger Nailes Pluckt of, their Eyes plucked out, then Speard in Several Placess, and after they had Venterd their Hellish spite Cutt off their Heads and Skind them and then left them. This was a most Horried Spectacle to behold—and from which we are taught the Necessity of fighting these more than Devils to the last moment Rather than fall into their hands alive—This is much the Largest town we have met with it Consists of more than 100 Houses, is Situate on an Excelland Piece of Land in a large bow of the River; it appears that the Savages left this town in a Great Hurry and Confusion, as they left large Quantities of Corn Huskd and some in Heeps not huskd and many other signs of Confusion—

15th At 6 oClock the whole Army was turnd out to Destroy the Corn in & about this town which we found in great plenty, we were from 6 oClock to 2 oCk. P. M. in Destroying the Corn & Houses it is Generally thought we have Destroyd 20,000 Bushels of Corn at this place, The Method we took to Destroy it was to make large fires with parts of Houses and other wood and then piling the Corn on the fire which effectually Destroyd the whole of it a Woman with a Child came to us to day who was taken at Wyoming when that Place was Cutt off her Husband and one Child was killd and Sculped in her sight when she was taken, She Informed us that Butler and Brant with the Toryes & Indians left the Place in a Great Hurry the 13th Instant and are gone to Niagara which is 80 miles from hence where they exspect that we are going. She says the Indians are very uneasy with Butler and their other leders and are in Great Distress, we have now go to the end of our Rout, and are turning our faces Homeward, at 3 oClock we faced to the Right about and Marchd in High Spirits Recrossing the Chenesee River and Incampt on the Chenesee Flatts, this place Lays about North West from Tiago—

16th A Number of fields of Corn was Discovered this Morning at Different places [236] which Imployd the Army until 10 o'Clock in Destroying them At 1 oClock P. M. we Recrossed the stream Gaghehegwalahale and at 4 oClock arrived at Kanigsas or Chocksett and Incampt 14 of Lieut Boyd's Party were found Dead this afternoon near together Sculped, Honyose an Anyder Indian of Considerable note that was with Lieut Boyd's was among the Dead—

17th The Army marched at sunrise and at 10 oClock arrived at Anyoye where we found all safe—

18th The army Marchd at 8 o'Clock proceeded to Kannandaquah and Incampt four Onyder Indians one of which is a Schecam met us to day who say that 100 of the Onydars and Tuskororas set out with them to join us but meeting an Indian that Left us at Kannadasaga when we were advancing who told them we Marchd on so Rappadly that they could not Overtake us so as to be of any Service, they all Returned but these four—

19th The Army March'd to Kanadasagea an Exspress arrived from General Washington to day with Letters, by which we are assured that Spain has Declared War with England and that the Grand fleet of France and Spain, have formed a junction at Sea at several towns that our Army has Destroyed, we found Dogs hung up on Poles 12 or 15 feet High which we are told is Done by way of Sacrifice, that when they are unfortinate in war they Sacrifice two Dogs in the Manner above Mentioned to Appease their Amaginary God one of the Dog skins they suppose is Converted into a Jacket & the other into a Tobacco Pouch for their God, the Woman that came to us at Chinesee says that the Savages Hung up Dogs Immediately after the Battle of Newtown—

20th Five Hundred Men are Detachd under the Command of Colonel Butler who is to March round the Kaiyuga Lake and Destroy the Kaiyuga Settlement on the East end of the Lake 100 Men under command of Colonel Gannasvorth are ordered to go and Destroy the Mohawk Castle on the Mohawk River and to proceed from thence on to Albany, the army Marchd this afternoon Crossd the Outlet of the Seneca Lake and Incampt

21st Two Hundred men was Ordered under the Comm'd of Colonel Dearborn to Proceed to the West side of the Kieyuga Lake, from thence to the South end, to Destroy what Settlement Corn &c we might find in our way at 8 o'Clock we Marchd and proceeded N East Corse about 8 Miles and found 3 Wigwams in the woods and some small Paches of Corn Squash Water Millions Cucombers &c and about 15 Horses which we could not take. After Destroying this Little Village proceeded 4 miles to the Lake where we found a Very Pritty town, of 10 Houses and a Considerable quantity of Corn all which we burnt. We Discoverd another town about one Mile above this which we likewise Destroyd, Skannayutenates after Destroying this town we Marchd one mile & came to a New town Consisting of Nine Houses Which we Destroyd and proceed one Mile & found one Large House which we set fire to & march'd on 2 Miles, further and Incampt the Land we March'd through to day is exceeding fine—

22nd We marchd half an Hour before Sunrise proceeded about 5 miles and came to the Ruins of a town that a Party of our Men when the Army was advancing who missed their way and happend to fall in at this town We found a Large field of Corn and 3 Houses, we Gethered the Corn and burnt it in the Houses, this town is Calld Swanyawanah We March'd from this place five miles and found a Wigwam, with three Squaws and one young Indian who was a Cripple—We took two of the Squaws who ware about 40 years old and Marchd on about three Miles and found one Hutt and a field o Corn, which we Burnt and proceeded about four miles and Incampt—

23rd March'd at Sunrise proceeded without any path or track or any parson who was ever in this part of the Country before to Guide us, and the land is Horridly Rough, and Bushey that it was hardly Possable for us to advance however with Great Difficultie and fatigue we proceeded 9 Miles to the end of a Large Cape which we exspected was the end of the Lake but found it was not, from hear we Marchd off two or three Miles from the Lake and then proceeded by a Point of Compass 8 Miles and Came to the end of the Lake and Incampt this Lake is about forty miles long and from two to five miles in Wedth and Runs nearly North and South Parralell with the Seneca Lake and they are from 8 to 18 Miles apart—

[237] 24th Marchd at Sunrise proceeded about 3 Miles on the high land and Cam to a path which led us to two Hutts and some Corn fields after burning them Hutts and Corn Several Small parties was sent out Different ways to look for a large town we had been inform'd was not Many Miles from the end of the Lake—the parties found 10 or 12 Scattering Houses and a Number of Large Corn fields on and Near the Stream that falls into the Lake—after burning and Destroys Several Houses and Corn fields a Small Party was sent out and Discovered the town about 3 Miles from the End of the Lake on the above mentioned Stream the town and its Sububs Consisted of about 25 Houses and is Call'd Corcargonell and is the Capital of a Small Nation or Tribe Call'd ____ our Party was Imploy'd from 9 o'Clock a. m, 'till Sunsett—we Exspected to have met Colonel Butler with his Party at this Town—

25th March'd at Sunrise for Katareen's town where we was ordered to Join the Main Army We proceeded a Due West corse over a terrible Rough Mountain's Country about 4 oClock P. M. arrived at Katareens, but the army was gone forward, we proceeded six miles in what is Calld the Bear swamp and Incampt

26th March'd at Sunrise and at 12 oClock Join'd the Main Army at Kannawalohala which is four miles from where we fought the Enemy the 29th of August last, th e Army had a Day of Rejoycing here yesterday in Consequence of the News from Spain-

27th Some Detachments were sent out on the Allagana River to Destroy what Houses and Corn field they might find—

28th The Same party that was Sent Yesterday ware sent again to Day, further up the River to Destroy a tory Settlement—That a Small party Discover'd yesterday and a Large Detachment was sent off to Compleat the Distruction of Corn at and about Newtown at 12 o'Clock Butler arrived with his party in Camp, on their Rout the lake they Burnt and Destroyd Several towns and a Vast Quantity of Corn—

29th The Army Marchd to Shemung—

30 Arrived at Tiago where we Ware Saluted with 13 Cannon which we Answard with the same Number—Colonel Shreve who Commanded the Garrison made an Entertainment for the General and field Officers this afternoon the afternoon was Spend in festivity and Mirth Joy appeard in every Countenance, we now have finish'd our Campaign and Gloriously too—

Octr 1st We are Preparing to March to Wyoming

2d General Sullivan Made an Entertainment for all the General and field offs to day This evening we had an Indian Dance at Head Quarters the Anydo Sachem was Master of the Ceremonies

3d The Army is prepairing to March for Wyoming—

4th The Army March'd fifteen miles down the River—

5th The Whole Army Imbark on board Boats Except was Necessary to Drive the Pack Horses and Cattle—

7th Arrived at Wyoming in High Spirits During the Whole of this Survear Campaign our Loss in Kill'd, Died, of Wounds & Sickness Did not Exceed fifty men—

8th General Sullivan Received an Exspress This Evening from General Washington Informing him that Count De Easting is on the Coast Near New York with a fleet and Army—In Consiquence of Which General Sullivan's is Orderd to March the 16th Instant for Head Quarters—

9th Nothing new to Day—

10th The Army March'd for Easton &c.—

15th Arived their the Army has March'd from Tiago to Easton (156 Miles through a Mountainous Rough Wilderness) in 8 Days with the Artilery, and Baggage, a Most Exstrodinary March indeed—

16th, 17th, 18th Remaind at Easton, We are Inform'd that Count De Eastaing has taken Several Ships of War together with all the Transports and Troops, the Enemy had at and Near Georgia, he is Expected Dayly at New York—

25th Our Army is to March the 27th Instant toward Head Quarters—An Exspress arrived this Day from Head Quarters which Informs that the Enemy have evacuated Their port at Kings Ferry and have Retir'd to New York—

[238] General Sullivan's Army at Wyoming Consists of the troops following (Vizt)—Maxwell's Brigade Consisting of Ogdens, Daytons, Shreaves and Spencer's Regiments—

Poor's Brigade Consisting of, Cilleys, Reeds Scammells Courtlands Regiments—Hands Brigade Consisting of the German and Hubleys Regiments, Shots Corps and Spauldings Company—

Wyoming July 31st 1779 This day the Army Marchd for Tiago in the following Order-

Head Quarters Easton May 24th 1779 When the Army shall be fully Assembled the Following Arrangements are to take place;—

Lite troops Commanded by General Hand: Hubleys Regiment, Shots Corts, Six Compy of Rangers, Butlers Regiment, Morgans Corps and all the Volatiers that may Join the army—

Poor's Brigade to Consist of: Cilleys, Reeds, Scammills & Courtlands Regiments to form the Right of the first Line—

Maxwells Brigade to Consist of: Ogden's Daytons Shreeves and Spencers Regiments to form the left of the front line—

Clinton's Brigade to Consist of: Late Livingston's Dubois's Garmsworths and Oldens Regiment to form the second line of Reserve—

The Right of the first line to be Covered by 100 Men Draughted from Poor's Brigade— The lift to be Covered by 100 men to be Draughted from Maxwells Brigade;—

Each flank of the second line to be Covered by 50 Men Draughted from Clintons Brigade—

The flanking Divisions on the Right to Consist of the German Battalion and a Hundred men Draughted from the Whole line—

The left flanking Division to Consist of Hartlies and Daytons Regiment, with a Draught of 100 Men—

The Order of Battle and the Order of March are Represented on the Annax'd Plan—and are to be attended to at all times when the Situation of the Country will Possibly admit and when a Deviation takes Place it must be Carried no further than the Necessaty of the time Requires Order of March the Light Corps will advance by the Right of Company's in files and keep half a mile in front—

Maxwells Brigade will advance by the Right in files, sections or Platoons as the Country will admit—

Poor's Brigade to advance by its left in the same manner—

Clintons Brigade will Advance by Right of Regiment in Platoons, sections or files as the Country will admit—all the Covering partys and Flanking Divisions on the Right will advance by the Left; and those on the Left by the Right—The Artilery and Pack Horses will March in the Center—Should the Army be attackted in front while on its march—the Light Corps will Immediately form to Repulse the Enemy—

The flanking Division will Indevour to Gain the flank and Rear of the Enemy—While the line is forming the Pack Horses will in all Cases fall into the Position represented on the annexed Plan—Should the Enemy attack either flank, the flanking Division will form a front and sustain the Attack till Reinforced, in which Case a part of the Light Corps is to be [239] Attachd to Gain the Enemys flank and Rear, the Covering Party of the two lines will Move to Gain the other flank Should the Enemy Attack our Rear the 2 lines will face and form a line frunt to the Enemy—the Covering Parties of the first line will Move to sustain it while the flanking Divisions face about and Endevour to Gain their flank and Rear Should the Light troops be Driven back they will pass through the Intervale of the Main Army, and form in the Rear. Should the Enemy in an Ingagement with the Army when form'd endanger either flank, the Covering Party, will Move up to Lengthen the line and so Much as may be found Necassary, from the flanking Divisions will Display outwards to prevent the attempt of the Enemy succeeding—

The Light Corps will have their Advances and flank Guard a good Distance from the Main Body—The flanking Divisions will furnish flank Guards and the second line a Rear Guard for the Main Army—

When we find the Light Corps Ingaged with the Enemy in frunt the frunt of the Pack Horses will halt and the Rear Close up—While the Column Moves at a small Distance Closes and Displays Columns which will bring the Horses in the position Represented in the Plan for Order of Battle, should the attack be made on Either flank or Rear the Horses must be kept in the Position they are in at the Comminsment of the attack unless other order's are then Given—


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