Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink.


Prepared Pursuant to Chapter 361, Laws of the State of New York, of 1885.

by Frederick Cook, Secretary of State
Auburn, N. Y. Knapp, Peck & Thompson Printers

[Note: Transcription is verbatim.]


Illustration taken from
Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. 15,
where Beatty's Journal also appears,
Pages 218-253.

LIEUT. (afterward Major) ERKURIES BEATTY, was born October 9, 1759, son of Rev. Charles Beatty, who came to America from Ireland in 1729. He was an apprentice in Elizabethtown, N. J., at the beginning of the revolution, and served with the Jersey troops; was at long Island August 9, 1776, under General Sterling, and served as a Sergeant at White Plains, October 28. He was commissioned an Ensign in the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment, with rank from January 3, 1777; was promoted to Lieutenant May 2, and was engaged in the battle of Brandywine, September 11th, of the same year. He was badly wounded at Germantown, but rejoined his regiment at Valley Forge in January, 1778. He was at Monmouth June 28 of that year, and shortly after accompanied his regiment to Schoharie, N. Y. He was with Colonel Van Schaick in his expedition against the Onondagas in June, 1779, and with his regiment accompanied General Clinton down the Susquehanna to participate in Sullivan's campaign. He was at the surrender of Cornwallis October 19, was mustered out of service November 3, 1783; then acted as clerk in the war office for several years; 1786-8, was Paymaster to the western army; 1789-90, commanded at Vincennes, on the Wabash; Major under St Clair but sent back with a detachment before the defeat; resigned January 11, 1793; he married the widow of Major William Ferguson, who was killed at St. Clair's defeat; resided thereafter at Princeton, N. J., where he died February 8, 1823. His son, Charles Clinton Beatty, LL.D., founder of Steubenville Female Seminary, was still living in 1880. The original journals of these expeditions are now in the archives of the New York Historical Society, New York City, which society has kindly furnished the following literal copies for publication in this volume.


Journal of an Expedition to Ononoaga, April 6th, 1779.

Marched of from the Middle fort with a Comp'y. from the 4th P. Reg't. and a Comp'y. from the Rifle Corps about 9 o'clock proceeded on to Cobus Kill 12 Miles from Schohary arrived there at 4 o'Clock when we was Joind by Capt Johnston Compy of Col. Dubois's Regt. from the lower fort Schohary when he took the Comd. staid here all Night. Next morning we proceeded on with the 3 Companies to Mohawk River to Conogoharie 25 Miles where we staid all Night. Nothing material happend on our March, the next day marchd on to fort plank 6 miles where we got waggons sufficient to Carry our m[ens] packs then proceeded on within 4 Miles of Fort Herkimer where we staid all Night. Next morning started early arrived at Fort Herkimer where we Join'd Capt. Bleeker Compy. from Col. Gansevorts Regt. Capt. Fowlers Compy. from Col. Livingstons Regt. & Capt. Lane's Compy. from Col. Aldens Regt. staid here & got breakfast then Marched of of Capt. Bleeker taking the Command, marched on 13 Miles when we encamped all Night in the woods, the next morning got of early went on to old fort Stanwix 6 Miles where we breakfasted, then proceeded on to Fort Schuyler 16 Miles where we arrived about 5 o'Clock and was saluted with three pieces of Cannon from the fort four Companies Encampd on the Glacis and the other two quartered in two houses that was there. The officers quartered in the Garrison which consisted of Col. Vanschaiks Regt. & a Compy. of Artillery.


APRIL 14th, 1779.—Rested all this Day nothing material happening—

15th.—This day about 63 Oneida Indians came into the fort with their baggage & squaws they all fired coming in & was saluted with 3 pieces of cannon from the fort after some Ceremony they went out and lay about 1/4 of a Mile from the fort.

16th.—This Morning the Sachems apply to Col. Van Schaick to go on the Expedition with us but the Col. told them that we was not going on any Expedition which almost satisfied them, this afternoon about 20 More came in of the Tuskeroras & Oneidas.

17th.—It snowed last Night and partly all this Day nothing material happening.

18th.—Snow'd by spells this day The Indians applyd to Col. for to go on an expedition by themselves which was granted them and they Drawed provision, then they petitioned for two officers to go with them but no Men, which was granted them Lt. McClellan of Col, Gansevorts Regt. and Ensign Hardenburg of Col. Van Schaicks Regt. was ordered to go with each to take a Sergt. and 20 Days provision with them and they marched of about 1 o'Clock about 60 of them leaving their Sachems & Squaws behind them, this Day arrived at the Fort 30 Batteaus with stores from Schenectady We Recd. orders to Draw 3 Days provision and hold our selves in Readiness to march to morrow morning at Day Break.

19th.—last night the Batteaus was carried into wood creek about 3/4 of a Mile from the fort and this morning flights of snow fell but we march'd of about sunrise with 3 Companies from Col. Van Schaicks Regt. when Col. Van Schaick took the Comd. with his other field offices Lt. Col, Willet & Magor Cochran sent a proper Guard with the batteaus and we proceeded down wood creek by land till we arrived within about 2 Miles of Lake Oneida 22 Miles from the fort staid here 3 or 4 hours for the boats where they Arrived about 3 o'Clock when we immediately embarked & proceeded into the Oneida lake the wind blowing very high all Night, about day break we stopt and Collected our boats then [17] proceeded on till about 1 o'clock when we stopt about 2 hours & Drawd provisions then proceeded on to the Onandaga landing at the farther end of the lake which is across 33 Miles and in breadth 13 Miles where we arrived about 3 o'Clock. Immediately Disembarked, Drawed Rum, turned out a sufficient Guard to leave with the boats then formed the line of March Viz The Men to March in two Columns about the Distance of 100 Yards each Capts. Graham, Gray, Hicks & Renshaw with their Companies to form the Right & Capts. Louie's, Johnston Fowler & Bleeker to form the left and the Rifle Compy. to divide upon each flank The Main body to march two deep and in case of intiruption to file of to Right and left and Join the line and the Rifle men to keep on the flanks, in this Manner we march'd of thro the woods with the greatest silence about 14 Miles when we stopt about dark and laid down without any fires and the strictes orders to keep silence.

21st. this morning set of about Day Break on the same line of march and went about 6 Miles when we halted, Capt. Graham with his Compy. was sent forward as an advance party then proceeded on to the Onandaga lake about 8 Miles in length & 4 in Breath waded an arm of it about 4 foot deep and 200 yards wide and came to Onandaga creek, small but deep, had to cross it on a log. Capt. Grahams Co Just as he had crossed the creek caught an Indian who was shooting Pidgeons & made him prisoner, And we got some Information from him, then proceeded on till we come within about one Mile of the Town when we Recd. word from Capt. Graham that he had caught one Squaw and killed one and had taken two or three Children and one White man and one or two made their escape and alarmed the town The Col Immediately sent me forward to order him on as quick as possible and make as many prisoners as he could & he would support him with the main body. I overtook him at the first town and delivered my orders and he Immediately pushed on about two miles to the Next town where he made a small halt and took a great many prisoners, soon after Magor Cochran with Capt. Grays Compy. came up and ordered me to stay with the prisoners and their two Compys. to push on to the next town about one mile forward which they did and made more prisoners and killed some particularly a Negro who was their Dr. they then plundered the houses of the most valuable things and set fire to them and Returned to the middle town where I was. Capt. Bleekers Compy. had come up by this time and left the main body at their first town we then collected all our prisoners plundered this town and sett fire to it then marched of to the main body which lay at the first town, we stayd there about 8 hours and killed some five horses and a Number of Hogs & plunderd their houses and set fire to them and Marched of about 4 o'clock in the same line of march as we came only the front changed and a Compy. to guard the prisrs. who was to march between they two Colums marched on about 2 Miles from the town down the Onand'ga creek when about 20 Indians who Lay concealed on the oppisite side of the Creek fird upon us, but the Rifle Men soon Dispersed them killing one of them, we then march'd on and crossd the Onandga Creek in two. places for fear the enemy should attack us but we met with no interruption, crossed the arm of the lake and encamped by the side of the lake about 8 Miles from the town— We killed about 15 took 34 Prisoners, Burned about 30 or 40 Houses, took 2 stand of Coulors, and we had not one man killed or wounded—

22nd. Marched of early this morng and arrived at the boats about 4 oClock stopt about one hour to Draw rum then embarked and went 7 Mile to a large Island in the lake where we encamped and Drew provision.

23d. The next morng the wind blowing we did not sett of till about 9 oClock but the wind begin to Lull and we arrived into wood creek about 4 oClock when we Disembarked left 2 Compys. to guard the boats up the Creek & we proceeded on to Fish Creek about 7 Miles where we Encamped.

24th—Rained a little last Night set of early this morning small showers of Rain fell today we arrived at fort Schuyler about 12 o'clock when we were saluted by 3 Pieces of Cannon from the fort and each Compy. took their old Quarters.

25th. This Day we was busy in collecting the plunder and making an equal Distribution of it to each Comy, and Recd. orders to hold ourselves to embark tomorrow morning early to go down the mohawk River—

[18] 26th. This Morning Capt. Louies & Capt. Fowlers Compy. was ordered to march down to Fort Herkimer to guard some waggons and afterwards to join their Regt. the other 4 Companies embarked with the prisoners about sunrise and proceeded down the River to fort Herkimer where we arrived about dark, part of the boats was ordered to go forward 6 Miles to the carrying place and wait there in the morning till the Rest came up.

27th. set of early this morning and went to the carrying place, some showers of Rain falling, had our boats carried over as Quick as Possible and proceeded down the River as far as Major Funda's within 24 Miles of Schenety where we stayed all night.

28th. set of early this morning and arrived at Schenectady about 12 oClock when each Compy. Recd. orders to Join their Regts. as soon as possible, put the men in the barracks & staid all Night.

29th. This morning about day break set of with Capt. Grays compy. and the Rifle compy. leaving the prisoners with Capt. Bleeker to Guard to Albany, proceeded on till we arrived at middle Fort Schohary Just being out 3 Weeks.



Sullivan's Expedition, June 11th, to Oct. 22d, 1779.

JUNE 11th, 1779.

FRIDAY.—Marched from Schohary with 4th P. Regt. & Rifle corps 8 o'Clock leaving 15 Men from each Corp with proper officers for the safety of the Place the rest arrived at Schenectady at Sundown where we encamped—

SATURDAY 12th.—Lay encamped all day.

SUNDAY 13th.—Crossed over the River encamped oppisite Schenectady and was supplyed with 36 Batteaus to go up the Mohawk River with a quantity of provision, Small Showers of Rain fell today.

MONDAY 14th.—Showers of rain almost all day embarked in our boats at 2 o'Clock, proceeded up they River very strong water, went 3 Mile up when we encamped on the shore.

TUESDAY 15th.—Rained all Last Night which made it very disagreeable in our tents embarked this Morning 8 o'Clock proceeded on 10 Mile midling strong water encamped on the shore.

WEDNESDAY 16th.—Embarked this morning at Sunrise went on 13 Miles to Major Fundas where we encamped.

THURSDAY 17th.—Embarked this morning sunrise went up very good water all day atrived at Conojoharie at Sundown 17 Miles where we found Col Gansevorts Reg't. encamped we immediately unloaded our Boats and encamped on the left of Col. Gansevorts Regt.

FRIDAY 18th.—lay in camp very Quiet all day Nothing Material happening.

SATURDAY 19th.—Struck Tents very early Marched of for Springfield very bad road passed on the road a Number of Waggons with Batteaus & provision going on to the Lake likewise a New York Regt. which was encamped on the Road side 6 Miles from Conojohaira arrived at Springfield 4 o'clock P M 17 Miles which had formerly been a pretty little Settlement but the Indians at the distraction of Cherry Valley had likewise Distroyed it, it lies within 4 Miles of lake Osego and about 6 or 8 from Cherry Valley here we encamped in a very pleasant place—

SUNDAY 20th.—lay in camp all day nothing material happening great Number of Waggons passing all day to the lake with provision & Batteau—Came here this evening & en-[19] camped two Companies of Col. Aldens Regt. N. E. on their way to join their Regt. laying at the Lake.

MONDAY 21st.—This morning Major Parr with near 100 men properly officered went on a 3 Days scout likewise to clear out the branch of the Susquehana which comes out of the Lake Otsego to make it passable for Boats, likewise the two Companies of Col. Aldens Regt. moved to their Regt. nothing else material happening a Number of Waggons passing to the lake with Boats and provisions, we send out parties every day to keep the Roads in Repair.

TUESDAY 22d.—This Morning the Colonel and a Number of Officers besides myself went on a fishing party across Lake Otsego catched a few fish and Returned in the Evening but got very wet as there was showers of Rain fell in the afternoon—on the lower end of the lake (which is about 8 Mile in lenth and 2 in Breadth) we found two Companies of Col. Aldens Reg't. who had made a Dam across the neck that runs out of the lake so as to Rais the water for to carry the Boats down they creek.

WENESDAY 23d.—This Day about 2 o'Clock Major Parr arrived with his party brought no news of any consequence but that they the branch of the Susquehana which he went down about 10 Miles from Lake Otsego was passable for Boats, lay in Camp all Day nothing of consequence happening sending out fatigue parties on the Roads as usual likewise great number of Waggons passing to the Lake.

THURSDAY JUNE 24th.—Lay in camp to Day Nothing of Consequence hap-pening.

FRIDAY 25th—This Morning Capt. Simpson with 40 Rifle Men went on a scout likewise Lt. Bevins with 20 Musquet Men went on a scout. Showers of Rain fell to day and exceeding warm weather, not many waggons Pass'd to day.

SATURDAY 26th. — Rained almost all last night but very warm all Day, about 9 o'clock. Col. Dubois Regt. Arrived here with 2 Pieces of Artillery likewise a Quantity of Amunition for the expedition and some Cloathing, staid & eat Breakfast and Proceeded on to the lake then to take Part, this afternoon Capt. Simpson with his party and Lt. Bevins with his arrived at Camp but brought no news of Consequence, this evening a Number of Waggons arrived here on their way to the Lake with amunition likewise our P: Mr.

SUNDAY 27th—This morning sent a escort with the amunition to the lake, to day about 2 oClock one of the Rifle Officers sent his waiter about one Mile from Camp to get Sallad, but the waiter was unhapily made prisoner by a few Indians after having fired three Shot which we heard in Camp Imediately went out Scouts but could see Nothing

MONDAY 28th—This Day the Col. and a Number of Offrs. with myself went to see Col Dubois and his officers who were encamped at Lows Grove on the uper landing, found them all very well and they provided a very good dinner for us suitable to the place & time, there was about fifty offrs. dined together, after Dinner we had a song or two from different Officers and Returned home a little before Sundown, we were all very sociable at dinner and Spent our time with the Officers very agreeable—little flights of Rain fell to day in the morning nothing material happening—

TUESDAY 29th. Lt. Boyd with a Scout went out to day and Lt. Cotin with another party, a Number of Col. Duboiss officers came to see us to day and dined with Col. This evening the flying Hospital arrived here with a Number of Hospital Stores and all the surgeons that is going on the expedition and here encamped.

WEDNESDAY 3oth. This morning Capt. Henderson with a large escort went to convey the Hospital to the landing.

THURSDAY JULY 1st. This day fell some Rain about 2 oClock, Genl. Clinton arrived at our Camp with the Adjt. Genl. and a Number more officers and encamped, about Dark Col. Gansevorts Regt. Arrived, here and encamped in front of us, this evening we Recd, orders to march tomorrow morning early.

FRIDAY 2d. Accordingly this morning we struck our tents early, the Regt. marched by Cherry Valley to the lower end of the lake. The baggage of the Detachment went to Springfield landing with a proper Guard with the Col. & the Qr. Masters & myself, put the baggage on board Boats & Proceeded to the lower end of the lake where we arrived about 3 oClock and found the Regt. there before us, we Immediateley took out our Baggage and [20] encamped on the Right of Crohans House a very pleasant place in the evening the Genl. arrived with Col. Gansevorts Regt. & the Hospital & a great deal of Provision, they encamped on the left of us

SATURDAY 3d. This morning Major Church with a Number of Boats went to bring Provision from Springfield landing, about 10 oClock Col. Dubois Regt. came here with more Provision & encamped in the rear of Col. Gansevorts Regt. two Hours after Col. Wisenfills Regt. arrived here with Provision and encamped in the rear of us, likewise the Artillery and stores came with Col. Dubois Regt. and encamped between our Regt. & Col. Gansevorts, made a Magazin of Crohans House.

JULY 4th. Last night we were alarmed by the of our Gentries firing at Indians who was crieping up to them, we Remained under arms one Hour then went to our tents with orders not to pull of our Cloaths, there was several shots fired before morning, and at Day break we tracked a number of Indians Round about our pickets but never one of them returned our fire. Major Parr with his Rifle men went on Scout this morning. This Day three year being the Day that Independence was declared it was celebrated by firing a Feu De Joy all the troops was drew up on the Banks of the Lake in one line with the two Pieces of Artillery on the Right there was 13 Pieces of cannon fired and three Volleys of Musquetry one after another and three Cheers with every fire it was done extraordinary well and with great exactness, afterwards the troops was drew up in a Circle by Colums on a little hill when Parson Granoo [Gano] preached us a sermon suitable to the occasion from the 4 Chapter of Exodus and 12 Verse, afterwards the troops was Dismissed, Col. Rignier Adjt. Genl. gave an invitation to all the officers to come and drink Grog with him in the evening accordingly a number of officers (almost all) assembled at a large Bowry which he had prepared on the bank of the lake but however we sot on they ground in a large Circle and closed the Day with a Number of Toast suitable & a great Deal of Mirth for two or three hours and then Retirned to our tents, the whole Day was Conducted extremely well considering the place, a great deal of provision came over they Lake here to day—Weather very warm—This afternoon Lt. Evans Rifle Regt. Returned from a Scout being down the Susquehannah as far as Yaukams but brought no news of consequence.

JULY 5th. MONDAY To day Col. Aldens Regt. came over with the last of the Provision and Stores of all sorts and encamped in the center of the second line behind the Artillery likewise a few of the Oneida Indians come over with the Regt. and encamped on the Banks of the lake the all soon got Drunk & made a terrible noise.

6th. TUESDAY This forenoon the Adjt. Genl. Reviewed the front line very particularly, This afternoon was a high wind and some Rain, Prayers now every evening from Parson Gano.

WENSDAY JULY 7th. This Day the Adjt. Genl. Reviewd the second line, took a party with some more of our Officers and went a fishing three or four mile from Camp catched a number of Trout in one of the branches of the Susquehanna—all the Off'rs of the Line met this eving at the large Bower and took a Sociable Drink of Grog given by Col Gansevorts Officers.

JULY 8th. To day at one of the Pickets two of the out Gentries fired at two men they saw creeping up to them, they did not Return the fire but Immediately Ran away, T. D. D. W. The Gl.—Nothing of consequence happened to Day.

JULY 9th FRIDAY a little Rain fell last night, but to day was a warm day.

10th. SATURDAY Lay quiet in Camp all Day.

11th. SUNDAY, This Day being a very Rainy Day did not go out much, therefore heard no News

12th. MONDAY Rained very hard most part of all last night but this morning cleared up very cold considing the time of years likewise a high whisting wind last Night, all still to day.

13th. TUESDAY Drew arms for the Men in the Regt. that was wanting and other nessecary things for the good of the Service which kept us buisy almost all Day—

14th. WENSDAY—This Day did not do any thing.

[21] 15th. THURSDAY To day three men Deserted from our Regt. likewise some more from the other Regts.

FRIDAY 16th. Nothing material happened to day

SATURDAY 17th. No News—

SUNDAY 18th. To day some of our men found a very fine Chest of Carpenters tools, and some Books, Map & Number of Papers, the chest was concealed in a thicket of Bushes covered with bark, near one of our pickets, it is supposed it was they property of Crohan who formerly lived here But is now gone to the Enemy therefore they Chest is a lawful prise to the men thet found it.

MONDAY 19th. This morning Capt. McGowan went to Schohary there to stay till he gets his side cured, likewise I felt very unwell this morning which caused me to take a Vomit which worked me severely, in they afternoon I got a good deal Better but still continued a swelling in my face which was occasioned by the tooth Ach

TUESDAY 20th. This Day we heard that Spain had acceded to our Independance, and had Reinforcd Count De Estaing with seven or eight sail of Ships of the line, likewise that Spain had laid siege to Gibralter & that the French had taken the Islands of Gurnsey & Jersey, furthermore heard that the Enemys light Horse had made an Excursion into Connecticut from Rhode Islad. and had burnt 6 or 7 houses in Newhaven but was Repulsed by our people with loss unknown—It rained all last Night very hard & steady, and this morning till 10 oClock and it cleared up Warm, felt myself pretty well Recovered to day—

WENSDAY 21st. This Afternoon was brought in two of our Men, who Deserted from this place, & one was Imediately tied up and Received 500 Lashes & was again commited to the Guard house, the other was Ironed and closely confined there to remain to be tryed for his life at the Next General Court martial that Sets—

THURSDAY 22d. To day came in one other Deserter of himself and had a very plausable Story to tell but was commited to the guard house for tryal

FRIDAY 23d. Nothing happened to day

SATURDAY 24th. To day we heard that 563 of the Enemy was taken at Ver Planks point on the North River likewise one man was Released from the guard house

SUNDAY 25th. To day a small Rain fell all day

MONDAY 26th. Raind almost all last night and best part of this day

TUESDAY 27th. Some rain fell last night and a little to day by showers. To day we had the agreeable news confirmed of the prisoners taken on the North River—Genl. Wayn with 1100 men Surprised the Garrison at Stony Point killed 100 and took upwards of 500 Prisoners he had 4 [21] killed and 21 Wounded there was not a Gun fired on either Side. Genl. Wayn entered the Fort at 3 oClock in the morning the Garrison was commanded by Col. Johnston, likewise we heard that the Indians had taken 36 Men at Fort Schuyler who was at making hay & afterwards was pushing down they Mohawk River in consequence of which there was a Detachment sent off comanded by Col. Gansevort to Conojoharie consisting of 265 Men and 5 Captains with 3 Days provision—Likewise we heard that there was a Major 2 Captains one Sub. and 15 Men taken Prisoner by 7 Indians & one White man at Sabbath Day Point or near it, somewhere near Lake George, the officers and men went out to gather Huckelberries & was taken asleep—

WENSDAY 28th. This morning (agreeable to the Sentence of a Genl. Court Martial) at Troop Beating they three men was brought out to be Shot one belonging to our Regt. one to the 6th Massuts. & the other to 3d. N. York all found Guilty of Desertion, the troops was drawn up on the grand Parade the man belonging to the 3d. N. York Regt. was shot the other two was reprieved by the Genl. very warm to day

29th. THURSDAY Raind a little last night but none to day. to day we had a Newspaper which give a particular Account of Genl. Wayn taking they Fort at Stony Point they killed 60 of the enemy & took 400 Men besides 25 officers with Col. Johnston the Comdr. & one Capt. killed of the enemy Genl. Wayn got a slight wound in his Temple besides 5 other of our Offrs. & 50 Men & 25 killd of our men likewise we took 14 Pieces of Ordonance 700 Stand of Arms, Tents, Rum, Cheese, wine, and a number of other Articles of [22] Stores. Our troops took out the ordinance & stores and Destroyed the Fort and Returned with the Prisoners near our Grand Army. The enemy had 60 killed & about the same number wounded — Likewise we heard in the papers of 5 of the Enemys Provision Ship being taken with 20,000 Barrells of Different Stores safe arrived in Eastern ports — We heard from Fort Schuyler that Lt. Scudder was taken, with them 36 Men—We had the good news in Genl. Order to day —

FRIDAY, 30th. Nothing of Consequence happend to Day

SATURDAY, 31st. To day Small Showers of Rain fell this evening Col. Gansevort arrived with the comand had been as far as Fort Herkimer but brought no news of Importance

SUNDAY, AUGUST 1st, 1779. Raind almost all last Night, to day at 11 oClock the Officers of the brigade met agreeable to Genl. Orders (as has been this few days past) to learn the Salute with the Sword, the Genls. Curiosity led him out to see how they saluted after the was dismissed, they formed a Circle round the Genl. and requested of him to give them a Keg of Rum to drink, a demand, at the same time we little expected to have the favour granted us, but we happened to take the General in one of his generous thouts which he is but seldom posses'd of, and instead of one he gave us six, when we gratefully acknowledged the favour by thanks and Imediately repaired to the cool Spring where we drank two of our Kegs with a great deal of mirth and harmony toasting the Genl. frequently—and then Returnd to our Dinners, in the afternoon Parson Gano Give us a Sermon

MONDAY 2d, 1779. To day at 11 oClock the Officers again assembled at the Spring to finish the remainder of our Kegs which we did with they Sociability we had done the day before.

TUESDAY, 3d. (I had like to forget to mention that there was a Comand of 150 men under the command of Major Parr on Sunday morning went to Oaks Creek about 3 Miles from here with the cattle to pasture—I am informed there is a house there and about 50 Acres of clear land on which is excellent grass) Nothing of consequence as I know of to day the Rifle men went down by the side of the lake to try their Rifles which they did by Shooting at marks

WENESDAY, 4th. This morning 150 Men comanded by Major Church went to Oaks Creek to

[One leaf of Journal missing]

MONDAY AUGUST 9th. Agreeable to yesterday's order the Genl. beat at 6 oClock, the troops marched about 8, excepting 3 Men which was to remain in each boat to take them down the River The Infantry march in front which I now belong to, and the Remainder of the Battillions next marched on 16 Miles within 5 Miles of Yorkams* where we encamped on a Small improvement called Burrows farm. where there was a great many Rattlesnakes & very large, there was one killed with 15 Rattles on

TUESDAY, 10 Raind a little last night and this day till 1 oClock Marched of the ground at 3 oClock and went 5 Miles to Yorkams where we encamped the men in the Boats encamped on the farm which lies on the East side of the River and the Remainder on the other side Opposite, went on Guard to night

WENDSDAY 11th. Marched of this Morning Sunrise and proceeded on 14 Miles down the River where we encamped on a Small farm, passed Several small farms to day with very poor houses on them & some None, the Rifle Men in front saw fresh Indian tracks to day on the Path & found a Knife at one of their fires. To day we crossed a large creek called Otego, and passed several old Indian encampments where they had encamped when the was going to Destroy Cherry Valley or returning, likewise we passed one of their encampments yesterday—we encamped to night at Ogdens farm & very bad encamping ground.
These notes and those that follow are by Gen'l John S. Clark, Auburn, N. Y , and are taken from the Collections of the Cayuga County Historical Society, No. 1.

* JOACHIM VAN VALKENBERG, afterwards killed in battle near Lake Utsayunthe in 1781.

Van Hovenburgh's Journal says Burris Farms.

[23] THURSDAY 12th. March'd of this morning 7 oClock, had the advanced Guard to day proceeded down the West side of the river as usual, 12 Miles came to a Small Scotch Settlement called Albout* on the other side of the River 5 Miles from Unindilla, which we burnt but the people had gone to the Enemy this last Spring went on to Unindilla Crossed the River to the East side and encamped, the River was about middle deep when we waded it—This settlement was destroyed by our detachment last fall excepting one house which belonged to one Glasford who went to the enemy this spring, his house was Imediately burnt, when we came on the ground to day, we passed several old Indian encampts. where, the encamped when the destroy'd Cherry Valley the Road midling hilly.

FRIDAY 13th. This morning very foggy and a great deal of dew—Marched of 6 oClock went 2 Miles waded the River about 3 foot deep proceeded on to Conihunto † a small Indian town that was, but was Destroyed by our detachment last fall its 14 Miles from Unindilla ‡. A little below this town there is 3 or four Islands in the River where the Indians Raised their Corn on one of those Islands our troops encamped with the boats & Cattle the light Infantry went 2 Miles from Conihunto where they encamped a little after 3 oClock in the woods Middle good Road to day.

SATURDAY 14th. Marched this morning at 8 oClock very hilly road for the Right flank; arrived at the fording 2 Miles from Onoquaga § about 2 oClock which is 8 Miles from where we started, the ford being too deep to wade crossed in our Boats to the East side went over a high hill and got Onoquaga at 3 oClock where we encamped on very pretty ground. This town was one of the Neatest of the Indian towns on the Susquehana, it was built on each side of the River with good Log houses with Stone Chimneys and glass windows it likewise had a Church & burying ground and a great number of apple trees and we likewise saw the Ruins of an Old Fort which formerly was here many years ago. The Indians abandoned this town last fall when they heard of our Detachment coming to Destroy it, they had but just left it when we came in it but we did not catch any of them but burnt their town to ashes and the Detachment Returned. This evening we fired an evening gun

SUNDAY 15th. Very heavy dew this morning went on Guard the Army Remain at Onoquago to day quiet no news Stirring as I hear of particular.

MONDAY 16th. This morning a very heavy Dew & fog which is very customary in this country, was relieved of my Guard and the day proved Exceeding warm to day, a heavy shower of rain this afternoon at 12 oClock Major Church with the 4th. P. Regt. went out 5 or 6 Miles to meet 4 or 500 Militia who we expected to join us here but he returned m the evening and saw nothing of them.

TUESDAY 17th. Marched of from Onoquago this morning 8 oClock proceeded down the river 3 Miles to one of the Tuskorora towns which was burnt by our Detachment last fall, here waded the river about 4 feet deep to the west side went on one Mile when we came to another of they Tuskurora towns call Shawhianghto ± consisting of 10 or 12 Houses.
* ALBOUT.—A Scotch, tory settlement on the east side of the Susquehannah river, five miles above Unadilla, was burned Aug. 12, 1779, by Clinton's detachment. Most of the Scotch Settlers went to Canada at the beginning of the difficulties; those who remained were more in sympathy with the British than with the Americans. See Capt. Gray's map where the name appears as ALEOUT.

CONIHUNTO, called Gunnagunter by Van Hovenburgh, an Indian town 14 miles below Unadilla destroyed by Col. William Butler in 1778, It appears to have been on the west side of the river.

UNADILLA, an Indian town at the junction of the Unadilla with the Susquehana, destroyed by Col. William Butler in 1778. "Returning to Unadilla, that settlement, on both sides of the river was burned, as also a grist-mill and saw-mill, the only ones in the Susquehanna Valley."—Letter of Col. William Butler.

§ ONOQUAGA, an Indian town on both sides of the Susquehana river, eight miles below Conihunto near present Onaquaga, in the town of Colesville, Broome Co. When destroyed by Col. Butler in 1778 he mentions a lower or Tuscarora town three miles below, this would be near present Windsor. The old fort mentioned is probably one built for the Indians by Sir William Johnson in 1756. Rev. Gideon Hawley was a missionary here at an early date. See Capt. Gray's map.

Col. Pawling, commanding a regiment of New York levies, was to meet Clinton at this point, but arriving after the army had passed, they returned to Wawarsing.

± SHAWHIANGTO, a small Tuscarora town four miles below Onoquago, burned by General Clinton August 17,1779; it contained ten or twelve houses, located on the west side of the river, near present Windsor in Broome County.

[24] which we burnt, then marched on over a very barren mountaneous country 10 or 12 Miles came to a Tuskurora Settlement called Ingaren* consisting of 5 or six houses but a good deal Scattered, encamped at the lower end of the Settlement after burning the houses, here they had planted a good deal of Corn potatoes &c. which we destroyed a few Yards in front of our Compys. encamping ground there was a tanfat farm with several Hides in a tanning which they Soldiers got & close by it they discovered a little man in a hole which was laid there & a little dirt thrown over him just to cover him, we had his head uncover'd but he was to putrified, we could Not discover whether he was a white man or Indian but supposed to be a white man as there was a Scotch Bonnet found near him—marched to day 15 Miles

WENSDAY 18—Marched of from Ingaren 7 oClock: thro a very fine Rich country very well timbered but poorly Watered, scarce any, arrived at Chinango River at 4 oClock where we forded it about 4 feet deep & almost as wide as the Susquehana but not so deep, as soon as we got over we halted and Major Parr with 100 men went up the River to destroy the Chinango town which lay 4 Mile up the River but when we came there we found the town was burnt which consisted of about 20 houses it seems when the Indians Evacuated it last winter they destroyed it, therefore we Returned & found the army encamped 2 Mile below the Chinango River Marched to day 22 Miles and burnt several Indian houses on the Road, this evening came up the River 2 Runners who informed us that Genl. Poor with 1000 Men was within 9 Miles of us coming to meet us and that Genl. Sullivan lay at the mouth of the Tyoga and that he had sent part of his army up to Shamong which they destroyed and had returned to Genl. Sullivan with the loss of 9 Men killed and some more wounded which was in Small Skirmishing, the Indians had taken of all their things from Shamong excepting a few cattle which our people got.

THURSDAY 19th—Marched this morning 7 oClock went 2 Mile when we burnt 7 or 8 houses on the East side of the River, 4 Miles farther at the Chuggnuts we fell in with Genl, Poors army who was ready to march, they had Burnt this Settlement which lies on the East side of the River about 20 houses made no halt here but went on 4 Mile Genl. Clintons Army in front & Genl. Poors in the rear, came to a Midling large Creek where we made a halt for one hour then marched on 12 Miles without halting & arrived at Owego § about sun Down after a very fatiguing march of 22 Miles, this afternoon fell a Small Shower of Rain

FRIDAY 20 Raind a little last night and Succesively all this Day therefore did not move; went a party down to Owego town which lies one mile lower down and burnt it consisted of about 20 houses

SATURDAY 21st—Clear weather this morning but a very heavy fog, marched of a little after 7 oClock forded Owego Creek which is reckoned one third of the Susquehana at this place, it was about three feet Deep & about 50 Yards Wide went thro' the ruins of Owego town crossed a pretty large brook went 12 Miles halted at a Small brook one hour
* INGAREN, a small Tuscarora town, at or near Great Bend, in Susquehanna county. Pa. It was called Tuscarora by Van Hovenburgh, and described as being sixteen miles from the camp, four miles below Chenango river; and twelve miles by land and twenty by water, from Onoquago, where the army encamped on the 16th. Was destroyed by General Clinton, August 17, 1779.

CHENANGO, also called Otsiningo, an important Indian town located four miles north of Binghamton on the Chenango river, in present town of Chenango, near the present village of the same name. The twenty-two miles travel mentioned, evidently includes the march up the Chenango to this town, and from thence to the camp. Van Hovenburgh estimates the day's march of the army at 16 miles. Many writers incorrectly locate this town at Binghamton.

CHOCONUT, or Chugnutt, an important Indian town of fifty or sixty houses, mostly on the south side of the Susquehanna at the mouth of Big Choconut creek, on the site, of the present village of Vestal, in town of Vestal, Broome county. Burned Aug. 19, 1779, by Gen. Poor's detachment which encamped on the north side of the river near present Union where the two detachments united. Gen. Clinton's camp the same night, was six miles distant up the river.

§ OWAGEA, an Indian town of about twenty houses occupied in 1779; located on Owego creek about a mile from the Susquehanna near the present village of Owego, in Tioga county. Gen. Poor's detachment encamped Aug. 17th, on the site of present village, where was a small Indian Hamlet. Owagea was burned Aug. 19.

[25] for refreshment. Proceeded on 3 Mile further when we encamped at 4 oClock Opposite Fitzgeralds farm * in the woods it a very fine farm but no house on it nor any body living on it—On this ground where we encamped Mr. Sawyers a Man who was made prisoner by Indians Along with his Neighbor Mr. Cowley who both lived on the head of the Deleware. After the Indians having them so far on their Journey they rose in the Night killed the Indians which was 3 or 4 & made their Escape, we saw the bones of the Indians. Since we came on the ground to day we met with a bad Accident, two of our Boats of Amunition over set in the River & Damaged a good many boxes of Catridges & a few Casks of Powder—to Night went on Guard

SUNDAY 22d. Marched of this morning 7 oClock, proceeded on crossed to midling large brooks Arrived at Tyoga 11 oClock where we found Genl. Hands Brigade encamped one Mile above the mouth of the Tioga where the was building 4 Block houses they other troops was encamped on the point which was Genls. Poors &. Maxwells Brigades we encamped on the Right of the whole, on our coming in to Camp we was saluted by 13 Pieces of Cannon which was Returned by our two little pieces, on the River we found
* MANCKATAWANGUM, or Red Bank, here called Fitzgerald's Farm, appears to have been on the south side of the Susquehanna, in the town of Nichols, nearly opposite the village of Barton. Major Norris' Journal, in going up, says on the 16th the detachment "encamped near the ruins of an old town called MACKTOWANUCK."' Lieutenant Jenkins' Journal says "10 miles from Tioga at a place called MANCKATAWANGUM or Red Bank,'' and mentions encamping at same point on the return march. A table of distances in Canfield's Journal says "from the mouth of the Tioga (Chemung) to Mackatowando 10 miles." This would locate the Indian town at or near present Barton. On the Tioga county map, Mohontowonga Farm appears on the south side of the river opposite Barton, and an island in the river named Mohontowango.

Early in the spring of 1779, two men named Sawyer and Cowley were captured near Harpersfield by four Schoharie Indians, named Han Yerry, Seth's Henry, Adam and Nicholas. One of the captives was an Irishman, the other a Scotchman. They were refugees from Harpersfield, who had sought safety in Schoharie at the beginning of the difficulties. The prisoners could not speak Dutch, which the Indians understood, nor could the Indians understand English. When captured, they claimed by signs to be friends of the King, and were not only willing, but anxious to accompany their captors. The prisoners set off with such apparent willingness on the journey, that the Indians did not think it necessary to bind them, but permitted them to procure wood and water. They had been captives eleven days without finding a favorable opportunity for escape, but on arriving at a deserted hut at this point, the captives were sent to cut wood a few rods distant, using for this purpose an ax belonging to one of the prisoners. On such occasions, usually one cut and the other carried to the campfire: but this time, while Cowley was chopping, and Sawyer waiting for an armful, the latter took from his pocket a newspaper, and pretended to read its contents to his fellow, but really proposed a plan for regaining their liberty. After procuring a sufficient quantity of wood, and partaking of a scanty supper, they laid down for the night as usual, a prisoner between two Indians. When the Indians were sound asleep, the prisoners arose, secured the guns, shaking the priming from them, Sawyer securing the tomahawk of Han Yerry, and Cowley the ax. At a given signal, the blows descended, and the weapons sank deep into the brain of their victims, but unfortunately Sawyer in attempting to free his weapon from the skull, drew the handle from its socket. These two Indians were killed, but the noise awoke the others, who instantly sprung to their feet: as Seth's Henry arose, he received a blow partially warded off by his right arm, but his shoulder was laid open and he fell hack stunned: the fourth, as he was about to escape, received a heavy blow in the back from the ax; he fled to a swamp near by and died. On returning to the hut and consulting as to what course they should pursue. Seth's Henry, who had recovered, but feigned death, again sprang to his feet, caught his rifle and snapped it at one of the prisoners, ran out of the hut and disappeared. The two friends primed the remaining guns and kept vigilant watch until daylight to guard against surprise. They set out in the morning to return, but did not dare to pursue the route they came, very properly supposing there were more of the enemy in the vicinity, to whom the surviving Indian would communicate the fate of his comrades. They re-crossed the river in a bark canoe which they had used the preceding afternoon, and then directed their course for the frontier settlements. On the first night, Cowley, carried away by the excitement was deranged for hours, and his companion was fearful that his raving would betray them, but reason returned with daylight. As they had feared, a party of Indians was soon in hot pursuit—from a hill they saw ten or a dozen in the valley below: but they concealed themselves beneath a sheltering rock, and remained there one night and two clays. When there an Indian dog came up to them, but after smelling for some time, went away without barking. On the third night they saw the enemy's fires literally all around them. They suffered much from exposure to the weather, and still more from hunger, but finally arrived at a frontier settlement in Pennsylvania, and afterward returned to Schoharie, where they were welcomed as though risen from the dead. Sawyer is said to have died many years after in Williamstown, Mass., and Cowley in Albany. -Simms' Schoharie, 291, 2, 3.

[26] Genl. Hands Brigade under arms with a Band of Musick which played Beautiful as we passed by them we encamped on a very pretty piece of ground and Spent the Remainder of the day in seeing our friends in the Different Regts., likewise when we arrived here our Infantry was Disbanded & ordered to join their Respective Regts., very heavy Showers of Rain this afternoon Marched 7 Miles to day

MONDAY 23d. to day we lay at Tyoga Spint the day in seeing our friends—to Day a Capt. of Genl. Hands Brigade was Shot by Accident dead

TUESDAY 24th. Drew some Cloathing for the men went to day to see an old Indian burying ground which lay just by our Camp there was about 100 Graves some of which our men had Dug up, they bury their Dead very curious after this manner. The dig a hole the length of the person they are to bury & about 2 feet Deep, they lay him on his, back in the grave with an old Blanket or blanket Coat round him and lay Bark over the Grave even with the Surface of the Earth so as to prevent the earth from touching the body, then the heap up the dirt on the top of the Grave in a round heap which is from 4 to 6 feet high, but the graves is very old and a number of them as this formerly was a very Capital town, but a few Years ago they Moved up the Tyoga to Shamong where the built that town & there is no houses here now but very pretty land—This afternoon our Regt. move up the River & joined Genl. Hand's Brigade with 4 Companies from the other Regts & had orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march to morrow—

TYOGA BRANCH WENSDAY 25th. Raind almost all Day had all our heavy Baggage Stored in the Garrison. Recd. orders to march to morrow morning 8 oClock the Rain Raised the River very much, I heard that three Oneida Indians arrived at Hed Qrs. this, evening from Oneida Castle, but what News the brought I don't know

THURSDAY 26th. This morning they freshet in the River had carried away a number of our boats down the River—marched of about 11 oClock leaving all our heavy baggage woman at the Garrison, carried on pack horses 27 Day provision likewise went with us. Pieces of Ordinance with three Amunition Waggons, four boats came up the River marched two mile up the Tyoga where we encamped 4 Mile from the mouth of Tyoga on very good ground but woods

FRIDAY 27th. Marched of this morning 8 oClock in the following line of march viz: Genl. Hands Brigade of Light Infantry in front in 6 Colums each, colum 2 Deep and 2 or 300 Yards distance from each; Genl. Poors brigade on the right in one Column by Platoons following Genl Hands right column. Genl Maxwells Brigade on the left in one column by platoons following Genl. Hands left Colum. Genl. Clintons Brigade fetching up the rear in the same line of March and Genl. Hands Artillery & Pack horses in the Centre. Col Ogden on one flank and 200 Men & Col. Dubois on the other with the same Number in order to gain the Enemys rear in case of an Attack; the Rifle Men in front of the whole reconoiting Mountains, roads, Defiles &c—Marched this Day 6 Miles within 2 Miles of Shomong where they had planted a great deal of Corn beans &c which we feasted very heartily on, there was several Indians saw on our March to day, but they made their escape, likewise Major Parr who was Advanced with the Rifle men saw a number of fires 5 or 6 mile a head which he supposed the Indians was at went on Guard tonight

SATURDAY, 28. Very heavy Dew this morning did not move to day till 2 oClock occasioned by our Amunition waggons breaking Yesterday & had to mend them before we started. Just as the Genl. beat there was a few of our Volunteers went across the river to burn a house they was fired on by 6 or 7 Indians, they imediately recrossed the river in a fright without even returning a Shot The Artillery Pack horses & Some troops crossed the river here to escape a very large hill which there was to cross and crossed at Shamong where the army encamped 2 Miles from where we came from to day this town was very beautifully Situated on the bank of the Tyoga but a good deal Scattered the land Excellent it lies near a West course from Fort Sullivan but a little to the North of West, it was burnt by Genl. Sullivans army Just after their Arrival at Tyoga which I before Mentioned

SUNDAY, 29th. Marched this morning 9 oClock, went about 3 Mile when we found the Enemy strongly Entrenched with Logs Dirt brush &c the firing Imidiately begun in front [27] with the Rifle Corp & the Indians made great halooing, orders was given then for the troops to form in line of battle which was done. Genl. Hands brigade in front but none of the troops advanced as we discovered the main body of the Enemy was here and had their front secured by a large Morass & brook, their right by the River & on their left partly in the rear was a very large hill, their lines extended upwards of a Mile the firing was kept up very briskly by the Rifle men & a company who was sent to reinforce them, likewise the Indians returned the fire very brisk with many shouts for about 2 hours while a disposition was made for to attack them. Genl. Clintons & Poors brigades was sent of round their left flank to take possession of the hill in the Enemys rear and extend their line intirely round them if Possible. after the[y] had gone about half an hour Genl. Hands brigade advanced in a line of battle with all our Artillery in the Centre within about 300 Yards of the Enemys works but in full View of them a very heavy canonade began & throwing of Shells the enemy returned the fire very brisk for about half an hour when the Enemy retreated up the hill in a great Disorder & as the got near the top received a very heavy tire from Genl. Poors brigade: the enemy then took round Genl. Poors right Bank by the river which Genl. Poors had not guarded as he had not time to, therefore they made their Escape leaving a number of their dead behind them. As soon as the Enemy left their works Genl. Hands brigad pursued them up the hill as far as where Genl. Poor was when we made a halt, the rifle men pursued them about one Mile farther and made a Negro prisoner, likewise saw some of their wounded going up the river in Canoes they fired on them but the All made their Escape wounded and all. The Army then returned down the hill & encamped about 2 Mile above the Enemys works, our loss about 40 killed & wounded among which is three Officers one of which is since Dead, their loss cannot be ascertained as they all carry their dead & wounded of, but there was 10 or 12 Scalps taken which was killed by Genl. Poors brigade on the hill, likewise made one white man prisoner & one Negro who informed us that their force was about 400 Indians and 300 Tories their chief commander Old Butler, other officers Young Butler, Brant & McDonald the others Indian Chiefs. Up the brook about one Mile from where the Indians had their works was a New Indian town midling large but poorly built, which was burnt by Genl. Clintons Brigade the most all Hutts. The Enemy left very little plunder behind but had Genl. Poor had a little more time to extend his Army round their rear to the river they would undoubtedly all been made Prisoners, or our Victory been a great deal more compleat, but it is generally believed the Enemys loss is very considerable—

MONDAY, 30th. Raind a little last night and partly all this day by Showers near half the Army out to day cutting up Corn which is in great Abundance here; the party out of our Brigade went over the River where the corn Chiefly grows, went up the River about 2 Miles then took up a large branch of the River (which bears near S. W.) one Mile burnt 5 houses and destroyed all the corn in our way. Our Brigade Destroyed about 150 Acres of the best corn that Ever I saw (some of the Stalks grew 16 feet high) besides great Quantities of Beans, Potatoes, Pumpkins, Cucumbers, Squashes & Watermellons, and the Enemy looking at us from the hills but did not fire on us. The Army lay on this ground all day and draw'd 16 Days flower and the Army was put on half allowance of provision which the men submitted to with a great deal of chearfullness.

TUESDAY 31st. This morning all the boats was sent down the River likewise in the boats the Amunition waggons & all the Artillery excepting four three Pounders and a little Cow horn the wounded & sick went down among which was Capt. Tuda which was very sick; the Army moved this morning 9 oClock fair weather proceeded on to Newtown which consists of between 20 & 30 houses very well built but very much scattered; halted at the Upper end of the town 6 Miles from where we encamp'd for refreshment by a large Creek which empties it self in the River here & runs about N: W: here the Rifle men was Detatched Col. Daytons Regt. & a company from our Regt. up the River to take some boats that was reported was seen in the River we went up the River about 7 Miles saw no Boats nor no sign of any & night coming on we turned about returned one Mile down the River and lay in a Corn field all Night; the Army left the River and went about [28] a N: W: course up the Creek I mentioned about 5 Mile where we encamped, midling good road for the Artillery to day and a very good path.

WENSDAY September 1st. lay very bad last night without any Blanket or Provision but roasted Corn, we Arose about Day break & Destroyed the field of Corn marched of about sunrise down the river one Mile & a half where we destroyed another field of corn, then Struck of a North course thro' the woods till we came on the path of the Army proceeded on and came to where the Army was encamped all Night, after marching about 7 Miles found the rear of the Army Just a moving of the ground kept on marching till we over took the Army about 11 oClock, when each corps fell into their Respective places in their line of march with the Army and went round the head of the Creek proceeded on over mountains, crossed some small branches of the Seneca waters then fell on pretty large Creek which empties into Tyoga Lake runs North course; went down this creek and crossed it 9 times as the Valley was very Narrow; at Dark we arrived within 1/2 Mile of Katarina town or Catharines town where we made a halt got our troops in good order as we expected the Enemy was yet in the town for we heard the Dogs bark & saw fires, but we proceeded into the town without any Interuption but very dark crossed the creek again to the East side and encamp'd, pulled down the houses for firewood in what situation the town lay in we could not see; the Soldiers catched 2 or 3 horses a cow or two some Calves & hogs and some trifles of other plunder the troops all encamp'd here excepting Genl. Clintons Brigade who lay about 3 Mile from here in the rear of all the Pack horses—the Army marched 13 Miles to day

THURSDAY 2d. This morning rose up and found our Brigade lying in the lower part of the town which consisted of between 30 & 40 houses on each side of the river very well built and on good land and midling compact; we burnt the chief of the houses last night for firewood the Pack horses began to come up & some of them had lost a great deal of provision & some horses was killed on the Road with fatigue of Yesterdays march this morning a very aged Squaw was found in a Corn field who was not able to get of with Age she was brought in and She told us that the warriors had stayed in the town till Near night before they went away likewise told us that a great many Squaws & Children was over a hill somewhere near Seneca lake 4 or 5 Mile of in consequence of which Col. Butler with a Detachment of 3 or 400 Men and the Cohorn went of about 12 oClock in pursuit of them and returned in the evening with[out] seeing anything of them there was another Squaw found in the woods who pretended she was lame & the Soldier came home to get some others to help fetch her in & when they returned the Squaw had hid away & the[y] could not find her: the old Squaw after She was examined at Hd. Quarters they was going to send her to the Indians but she was so old she could not ride, from her looks and what we could learn she must be I think above 120 years old, Our Indians built a house for her & we Gave her provision & left her. This Day we Spent here in refreshing our Men and getting up our provision but a great deal was lost, likewise Gen. Clintons Brigade came in about 12 oClock this town lies on what the Call Seneca Creek

FRIDAY 3d. Marched this morning 8 oClock left the Seneca Creek a little on our left and in about 3 Mile came to the head of the Seneca Lake which is a very pretty Lake they tell me it is 3 Mile wide and about 30 Mile long, we kept on the East side of the Lake & great part of the time had a pretty view of it from the hills and keep near it all the way—marched 12 Mile and encamped about 4 oClock past over 3 brooks to day running into the lake midling large the first was a beautiful brook falling down the hill from rock to rock from great nights the other two was near togather, most part of the land to day was Excellent we passed over; an Indian was seen by our Advanced Guard to day but made his Escape about one Mile in front of our Camp was a house the Indians had Just left & left their kettles on the fire boiling fine Corn & beans which we got but what is most remarkable the corn was all purple—came North course to day—great many large rattlesnakes was killed to day

SATURDAY 4th. Recd. orders last night to march to day 5 oClock without the usual Signals of Guns firing but it Raind last night & a little this morning which prevented our marching till 10 oClock when we Struck tents and marched keeping the Lake Just on [29] our left, marched 13 Miles & encampd on a Small brook at Dark within site of the lake; came near a North course but most Part to the East and last 2 Mile to the West; Destroyed several Indian houses & Corn fields to day on our march, passed 4 Brooks 3 of which was within 3 Mile of where we Started Extraordinary fine land we came over to day went on Guard to night

SUNDAY 5th. Had a very Disagreeable guard last night unloading Packs till near 11 oClock. Very fine day but did not march till 10 oClock as we was 2 or 3 Mile in front of the Army & all our Pack horses did not come till this morning marched to Kandaia two or 3 Mile Destroying two houses and 2 corn fields on our March. The Rifle men on entring the town retook one of our Prisoners who was taken at Wyoming last summer who informed us that the Indians left this place Thursday and he thinks there was about 1000 & he heard them say they intended to fight us at the next town. Just after they had taken him they was fired on by an Indian who knocked a Stick out of one [of ] their hands with the bullet but he made his escape without receiving a Shot. This town is very well built chiefly sqr and Logs and midling compact got a great deal of Corn & beans here for the Army to eat, we encamped here about 1 oClock & chief of the houses was pulled down for firewood. Came over very good land to day Course North West by North near the lake all the way

MONDAY 6th. Last night the whole Army Discharged their Pieces. This morning went very early round to see the Situation of the place the houses was chiefly all pulled down for firewood the Appletrees which is a good number & very old was either cut down or killd, likewise the peach trees but there were not many of them; among number of other Curiosities I went to see their burying ground which some of the1 graves is very curious, one in particular which I believe was some Chief or great man & was buryed in this manner; the body was laid on the surface of the earth in a Shroud or Garment, then a large Casement made very neat with bords something larger than the body & about 4 foot high put over the body as it lay on the earth and the outside & top was painted very curious with great many Coulours, in each end of the Casement was a small hole where the friends of the Deceased or any body might see the corps when they pleased, then over all was built a large shed of bark so as to prevent the rain from coming on the Vault, the chiefs of the [mss. torn] in the manner I described before. The town dont lay quite on the banks of the lake but about 1/2 Mile from it on a very pretty plain & about 20 houses named Kandaia & a small brook running thro it; Orders came out for a Regt. from every Brigade to go 3 or 4 Mile in front of their Brigades in search of Pack horses and Cattle as there was a great number run of last night from the firing & got straggled away but I believe Chief of them was found after a long hunt which prevented the Army from marching till between 2 & 3 oClock when we marched 3 Mile and encamped close along the edge of the lake in a Beautiful situation and opposite to us on the West side of the Lake we could perceive a small Indian town but the Name I dont know. This Evening came up 4 or 5 Pack horse Men which lost themselves Yesterday and told us that Yesterday they took the wrong path and went on till near night when they came to a Small Indian town on the Cauga Lake which the Indians had Abandoned, there they found there Mistake & came to us as soon as Possible after burning the houses they got likewise a very fine horse and a great number of Peaches & Apples which they brought to Camp. There was a Express Arrived from Tyoga before we left Kandaia and brought letters and News which Informed us that Congress had passed a resolve to allow the Officers 100 Dollars for each Retaind Ration in lieu of 10 which they formerly had; likewise that the sodiers Pay was raised.

TUESDAY 7th marched this morning 7 oClock thro a very fine level Country as Usual and the same course as formerly about North for near nine Mile when we came near the foot of the lake and outlett which I understand empties into Cauga Lake, here we halted as we expected the enemy to Attack us and reconoitered the Ground very well before we proceeded but found no Enemy there, we had to file off from our left and keep Close on the Banks of the lake Occasioned by a bad Marsh which was on our right likewise to cross the fording of the Outlett which is about 20 Yards wide—but Midling deep & Rapid [30] after we Crossed keep near West Corner along the Beach of the Lake for near a mile, where we found our Colums but soon finding a marsh in our front had again to file off from our left & march again along on the Beach for about 1/2 Mile when we again got in to our former position in Colums and then waited till the Army had time to Cross and came up when we marched on a little way & came to another marsh in front which prevented our marching any longer in Colums we again filed of to the left and marched along the Beach till we [came] to Butlers building which is two or three houses on the banks of the Lake in a very beautiful Situation here we again formed Colums and marched thro a Corn field near where the Men had orders to pluck Corn as they marched thro which the did; we then proceeded on towards the town near S. W. Course but our Guides being very bad the whole Army Got into the town before we did and was near Dark before we got in & quite Dark before we encamped. This is the Chief town in the Seneca Nation it lies about 1/2 Mile from the Lake and about a West course, it lies on a pretty level spot but no good Stream of Water near it, only one small Brook running thro it which affords but very little water, there is about 70 or 80 houses in it and built very Compact and the chief of the houses very good, likewise I heard there was 2 or 3 old Block houses in it but I did not see them as it was Dark when we came in and the men began Imediately to pull down the houses for firewood. I believe the Indians had left it several Days as there was not much appearance of their being here lately; on the first entrance of our Brigade a young Child I believe about 3 year old found running about the houses which One of our Officers pickt up and found it to be a White Child but it was so much tand & smoaked that we could hardly Distinguish it from a Indian Child and was Exceeding poor scarcely able to walk it could talk no English noth'g but Indian & I believe but little of that the Officer took great care of it and Cloathed it as it was naked when he found it & could give no Account of itself only said "his mamy was gone" The men got very little plunder The men got very little plunder or anything [in] the town as the Indians had taken everything almost with them the Chief [thing] the[y] got I believe was one or two horses The name if this town is Kanadasago Marched to day 13 Miles

KANADASAGO WENSDAY 8th. This morning came out orders that the men was to remain here all Day & for the Men to Clean their pieces likewise for all the sick lame &c to return to Tyoga properly officered; aft. 10 oClock Major Parr with the Rifle Corps & the Cohoun was going up the lake to a little town called Kushay to Destroy it. I with a number of others went Volunteers and got there about 12 oClock found it about 8 Miles from Camp and the town opposite to where we lay two nights ago, the town consisted of about 15 houses tolerable well built and all together we got here 5 horses and a great number of Potatoes Apples Peaches cucumbers watermelons fowls &c and found a great Quantity of corn here which we went about to Destroy, after burning the houses, but our party being to Small Major Parr sent for a Reinforcement to camp we all lay under a bark hutt to Night or shed—I believe the Indians had left it the same time they left Kanadasago it lies on the Banks of the lake very prettyly situated which is 4 Mile wide here.

THURSDAY 9th. KUSHAY Last night very hard thunder and lightening and Rain but Cleard up towards morning about 6 oClock the Reinforcement arrived consisting of 200 Men & informed us the Army was going to march this morning the Volunteers Imediately set for camp leaving Major Parr and the rest to Cut the corn, and Just as we got to Kanasdasago about 11 oClock the Army was Just a marching of after Destroying all the houses which remained & corn we marched a West course from Kanadasago thro most part [of] a Low swamp encamped about 5 oClock on a very pretty brook after marching 7 Miles; in the evening Major Parr Joined us from Kushay

FRIDAY 10th, Marched this morning 6 oClock each brigade was Ordered to leave a small Detachment behind to bring our Straggled horses & cattle, we marched thro a very low swamp chiefly timbered with Maple & beach about 5 Mile when we came to upland pretty good great part of it no trees on but great quantities of Wild Grapes growing, 3 Mile farther we came to a Small lake called Kanandaqua which is I believe about 5 Mile long & one wide runs N: & S: we crossed over the outlett which was about 3 foot Deep & about 20 [31] Yards wide, soon after we came to Kanandaqua town, which I believe the Enemy had Just left as the fire was Yet burning we halted here about an hour & burnt the houses which was about 25 and very Compact & Neatly built but no good water near it then the Lake, we went about one Mile farther to a number of cornfields and encampmed about 4 oClock came 10 Miles to day and about N: W: Course, went on Guard to Night—Hungry bellies and hard Duty now which I think we may call hard times—The Seneca lake I was told by the Surveyor is Just 30 Miles long and 4 Mile wide.

SATURDAY 11th. had the provision Guard last night which was very Disagreeable, this morning the troops marched at 7 oClock went back to the town & took another road, I remained on the ground with my guard to further on the stores till 11 oClock when I had leave several Boxes of Amunition behind which I hid, did not overtake the Army till they was encamped at Hanyaye about 5 oClock after marching 14 Miles near West Course Some part of the land to day good and some but Midling Hanyaye is a pretty little Compact town of 6 or 10 houses lying near the end of a Small lake running near N: & S: and about as big as the other Lake at Kanandaqua and plenty of Corn & beans, when the Rifle Men entered the town there was a few Indians Just made their escape left their Packs & Blankets & potatoes Roasting in the fire.

SUNDAY 12th. Thunder last Night and Rain and this morning it Raind till 10 oClock when it cleared up and the Army marched at 11 leaving all the heavy Baggage & pack horses excepting a few of the strongest which was took on to Carry spare Amunition & some Provision & tents what was left was stored in the Indian houses & a Capt. & 50 Men left with it; the Army on leaving the town crossed the outlet of the lake which was not very large and then formd their line of March and proceeded on very good land in general and course N: W by West 5 or six Mile then to the S: of West towards evening and encamped at Dark after marching 11 Miles—To day I heard there was an other town & Corn Destroyed on Kanandaqua lake nearly as big as Kandaqua and 2 or 3 Miles from it; on this days march a party of the Enemy kept just a head of us as we could Discover their tracks very fresh and the water muddy where they had crossed.

MONDAY 13th. March this morning 6 oClock and a very heavy Dew on the Grass and the morning very Cold, in about one Miles marching came to Adjutse town lying near a small Lake a little to the Northward consisting of 10 or 15 Houses; here we halted made fires & drew 3 Days beef, after a little time fatigue parties was sent out to Collect the Corn in houses to burn; about 10 oClock we heard a few Guns firing in front, the troops was Imediately formed and marched over the Inlett of the Lake a very bad morass & Creek and a large hill on the opposite side where we found the Indians who was formed on this hill had fired on the Surveyor & his party & had Mortally wounded one of his men; the Rifle Men Rushed up the hill & the Enemy made their Escape soon as Possible leaving behind them their Packs hatts &c which the Rifle men Got, our Brigade marched up to the top of the hill and formed the line of battle where we halted till the Army would get over, here one of our Men came in wounded who informed us that Lt. Boyd with his party 18 Riflemen & 8 Musquet men of our Regt. who was sent last night to reconoiter the next town was intirely cut to pieces, a little time after Murphy came in who told us a very strait story about it in this manner Lt. Boyd with his party went on without any Interuption till he got to the town about Day break when he found it Evacuated, he then sent 2 Runners back to inform the Genl. and he retired a little in the woods in sight of the town concealed to try if he could not catch a prisoner, he soon after saw 4 Indians come in to the town a horseback, he sent 5 or 6 Men to take them or kill them the men fired on the Indians killd & Sculped one and wounded another and took a horse saddle & bridle, he thent sent of two more Runners to the Army but they soon Returnd to him & informed him they had seen 5 Indians on the road, he then thout proper to return with his party to the Army which he expected to meet very soon, he had not gone far before he fell in with the same Indians which he fired on, they run on before him and he pursued them Slowly & every once in a while he would come in sight of them and fire on them & so they kept on till he came to this hill in front of an camp about 3/4 of a Mile where the Indians fired on the Surveyor when he heard our Drums and thought [32] himself intirely safe but to his great disappointment found a large party of Indians found them behind trees he Imediately formed his men for Action and began a very heavy fire which lasted some time but the Indians whose number was so far superior to him surrounded him and made prisoners or killed the whole excepting a few which came in, we found 4 or 5 of our men on the ground Dead & sculped and it is supposed that Lt. Boyd was made prisoner, the Enemy had a number killd as the men that was hid in the bushes saw the Indians carry a number of in blankets—After the Army had got over the Creek we marched on to Cossawauloughly town 7 Miles; our Advance Guard just after the entered the town saw some five Indians we all halted had our Pieces of Artillery drawn, in front then Advanced but found nobody in the town, when it was about Dark the 3 Pieces of Artillery was drawn up and fired all together with round shot to scour the woods. This town lies on a Branch of the Chenesee River and consists of about 25 houses very well built but almost new. the houses was Chiefly pulld down for firewood. Course N: W: one or two man of Lt. Boyds party came in to night

TUESDAY 14th. The whole Army was under arms this morning an hour before Day & remained so till sunrise; about 7 oClock fatigue parties was sent out to Destroy Corn which was there in great Abundance and beans, about 12 oClock we marched crossed over the branch of the Jinasee River and came upon a very beautiful flat of great extent growing up with wild Grass higher in some places than our heads, we marched on this flat 2 Mile and Crossed they Jinesee River which is about as big as the Tyago but very Crooked, left the flats and march'd thro the woods 3 Mile and arrived at Chenesee Town which is the largest we have yet seen; it lies in a Crook of they River on extraordinary good land about 70 houses very compact and very well built and about the same number of out houses in Cornfields &c: on entering the town we found the body of Lt. Boyd and another Rifle Man in a most terrible mangled condition they was both stripped naked and their heads Cut off and the flesh of Lt. Boyds head was intirely taken of and his eyes punched out. the other mans hed was not there, they was stabed I supose in 40 Diferent places in the Body with a spear and great gashes cut in their flesh with knifes, and Lt. Boyds Privates was nearly cut of & hanging down, his finger and Toe nails was bruised of and the Dogs had eat part of their Shoulders away likewise a knife was Sticking in Lt. Boyds body They was imediately buried with the honour of war.

WENSDAY 15th. The whole Army went out this morning 6 oClock to destroy corn and was out till 12 oClock, there was here the greatest quantity of corn & beans here of any of the towns some of it we husked and threw in the River the rest we Carried to the houses & burnd the whole we totally destroyed, about 10 oClock we Recd orders to begin our march home which we did leaving the towns in flames. To day there was a white woman & Child came into us but I believe brought no Inteligence of Consequence —Marched over the Chenesee River and encamped after Dark on the Edge of the flats nigh to Cossawauloughly town

THURSDAY 16th. The whole army was out this morning eating corn which we left as we was going, our brigade crossed the River to cut which we did and I believe there was a great Quantity destroyed and some houses burnt, Marched of about 10 oClock in the folowing line of March An Advance Guard of 100 Men in front Genl. Clintons brigade folowing in 4 Columns the other troops marching as usual Genl. Hands brigade fetching up the Rear, 2 Pieces of Artillery in the rear of him & the Rifle Men in the rear of they whole, the Cohoun with the Advance Guard—Capt. Henderson with 60 Men went in front of the Army to bury the Dead and Just as we came up he was a going to bury 14 Bodies in a most terrible mangled Condition they was buryed with the honour of war—Encamped to night at Adjutse

FRIDAY 17th. Marched this morning sun rise and a very cold morning with hard frost Arrived at Hanyaye 1 oClock where we encamped found our Garrison all in good order conisting of 300 Men instead [of] 50 which I mentioned Comanded by Capt. Cummings, they was encamped round the house where we had left our stores in, and the camp was abatted in, and round the house the had made a small Fort of Kegs and Bags of Flower and had three Pieces of Artillery in it and the house they had made full of loop [33] holes so as to fight out of it in Case of Necessity and upon the whole I think the was very safe—To day we passed a small Lake 6 Miles from here lying on a Parallel with the rest called Conyradice and about as Big I forgot to mention this Lake on our going we crossed the outlett of it but it was not very large This evening each man in the Army Drew 6 Pound of Flower which come very welcome as we can now sit down and eat a hearty meals Victuals with a Clear conscience, & before on our half allowance we Dare not—

SATURDAY 18th. This morning had to kill a great number of our Horses which was not able to carry packs nor even be drove on with the army—Very cold, marched 7 oClock from Hanyaye passed Kanandaqua and waded the otlett of the Lake and encamped a little before Sun down Close on the end of the Lake—On our March to day 2 or 3 Oneida Indians came to us from Fort Schuyler and brought us the very agreeable News of New York being in our Possession which is generally believed thro' the Army—A Number of our Pack horses which was not able to go any farther we Shot on the road to day

SUNDAY 19th. Marched this morning 8 oClock very much trouble with pack horses had to kill a number on the road, about Dark Arrived at Kanadasago where we encamped. To day express arrived from Tiogo who contradicted our late agreeable news but brought papers which Informed us that Spain had Declared war with England—went on Guard to Night

MONDAY 20th. This morning I saw the ruins of an old Stockade Fort very large which the Indians had here last war, likewise I am Informed that there was one at Kanandaqua and one between this and that on a brook—This morning a Detachment under the Command of Col. Smith went up the Kushe & a little above to Destroy some Corn thet was left there. A detachment of York troops and an officer from each of the York Regts. under the Comd. of Col. Gansevort was sent of to Albany by the way of Fort Schuyler I believe to bring on the officers baggage to the Main Army, likewise a large Detachment of 5 or 600 Men under the comand of Col. Butler set of about 1 oClock I believe to Cauga Lake to Destroy their Country. Col. Gansevorts comand went with Col. Butler, at 4 oClock the Army marched from Kanadasago crossed the outlet of the Lake & encamped after Dark by the side of the Lake—Col. Smith with his Detachment returned this evening

TUESDAY 21st. a Detachment this morning under the Comand of Col. Deerborn went to Cauga Lake to Destroy some small Settlements there and Corn—The Army marched this morning 7 oClock 2 Miles beyond Kandaie where we encamped about 4 oClock.

WENSDAY 22d. Marched this morning 7 oClock had a very bad Defile in front to pass which detaind us a good while encamped a little before Sun down within 9 Miles of Catharines town, very cloudy all Day

THURSDAY 23d. Very Cold last night but a fine clear day, marched about 7 oClock arrived at Catharines town where we Stopd. about one hour to refresh, then proceeded on 3 Miles up the Narrows where we encamped about sunset while we Stayed in the town we buryed the lame Squaw which I mentioned on our going, it is supposed she was Shot by some of our men likewise the Old Squaw that we left here had built or got built a neat little bark hutt where she lived, the General ordered to be left her almost a keg of flower and some meat which was done and I supposed she will live in splendour

FRIDAY 24. Clouday like for rain this morning march'd about 7 oClock up the Seneca Creek very swampy bad road crossed over the Dividing ridge and came on the waters of the Susquehana that is Spring Creek which empties itself into Tyoga a little above New-town at the mouth of this creek we arrived about 4 oClock where there was a Small Garrison established of about 200 Men who had come up from Tyogo with six days Provision for us, they had erected a Small Battery or Fort Just on the point where the lay with 2 Field Pieces and their Provision; on our coming to the place the Garrison saluted us with thirteen Pieces of Canon which was returned with the same Number from us and we [34] encamped here, and drew each officer & soldier one Jill of Whiskey after a fatigue of near one Month without a drop, likewise we drew full allowance of Beef for the first time.

SATURDAY 25th. In consequence of Spain Declaring war against Great Britain and of the late generous Resolution of Congress of raising the Subsistence of Officers & soldiers of the Army The General ordered a Feu De Joy to be fired by the army this afternoon at 5 oClock and likewise he ordered to be delivered to the officers of each Brigade one of the best oxen there was & 5 Gallons of Spirits: accordingly at 5 oClock the troops was drawn up in a single line with the field Pieces on the Right the Feu De Joy began with 13 discharges of cannon and then a running fire of the Musqitry from the right to the left of the line Intermixed with Field pieces but it did not please the General and he made the musquitry fire again afterwards the officers of each Brigade assembled and Supped together (excepting Genl. Poors) on their ox and five gallons of spirits and spent the evening very agreeable. The officers of our brigade assembled at a large bower made for that purpose Iluminated with 13 pine not fires round and each officer atended with his bread, knife and plate and set on the ground Genl. Hand at the head & Col Procter at at the foot as his officers suped with us in this manner we suped very hearty and then went to drinking our spirits, and the following Toasts was given by Genl. Hand —The 13 Sisters and their sponsers—The honorable the American Congress—Genl. Washington & the American Army—The comander in chief of the Western expedition —The Allies of America & the United House of Bourbon—The memory of Lt. Boyd and the Brave soldiers under his command who was unhumanly massacred on the 13th Instant—May the American Congress and the Legislatives of America be endowed with wisdom and be as firm as the Pillars of time—May the Citizens & soldiers of America be Unanimous in support of American Liberty—May Discord & Fraud be banished from the Shores of America—May the Kingdon of Ireland merit a Stripe in our Standard—An honorable peace or persistant war to the Enemies of America—May the Enemies of America be Metamorphised in Pack horses and sent on a Western Expedition-afterwards there was two or three Indian Dances led down by Genl. Hand and performed by the rest midling well then each officer returned to their Qrs after kicking up a Small Dust of Striking tents &c.

SUNDAY 26th. Did not feel very well this morning after my frolick but was ordered on detachment but it raind a little which prevented our going. Col. Dearborns Comand came in to day and brought in two squaws Prisoners and left one Indian and one squaw very sick on the Cauga lake, which they could not fetch along the Destroyed five Indian towns on the Cauga lake midling large and very well built in general and Destroyed a great quantity of Corn

MONDAY 27th. The Detachment that was a going yesterday Paraded this morning 7 oClock under the comand of Col. Cortland and went up the Tyoga 8 Mile and took some Boats with them and loaded them with Corn & pumpkins and sent down to the Army and Destroyed a great Quantity more and then returned a little after Dark—This evening Mr. Lodge the Surveyor came in & told us Col. Butler lay all night within 5 miles of here and would be in tomorrow likewise the Boats arrived here from Tiogo to transport the sick & baggage down

TUESDAY 28th. This morning all the sick was orderd to go down in Boats to Tiogo, and the Lame to ride down the worst horses, the same Detachment that was up the Tyoga yesterday was ordered up again to day and a very large comand was ordered to go down the Tyoga to Destroy Corn; Just as our Detatchment Paraded Col. Butlers Comd. came in and informed us that they had destroyed on the East side of the Cauga Lake three Capital towns and a great number of scattering houses and Destroyed a very great quanity of Corn the houses I am informed was much larger and better built than any we have yet seen, and it was a very old sittled Country as the had great number of Apple and Peach trees which they likewise Cut Down—Our Detatchment marched up the Tyago 5 Miles above where we was yesterday and burnt 2 or 3 houses and Destroyed a little Corn on each side of the river a little before night I went up the river about 5 Mile farther but found no Corn and returned where we found them encamped in one of the corn fields but had no tents

[35] WENSDAY 29th. slept tolerable well rose early loaded two boats with corn which we had with us and set of down the river about 7 oClock arrived where the Camp was about 2 oClock where we found the Army had left in the morning, here we halted about 2 hours collected some horses and killed a number more likewise sent down a Boat which the Army had left. Marched of from there with a Determination to join the army to night, at the time we arrived at shamung it was Dark however we march'd on thro the Narrows a very Dificult road to pass and arrived at the main Army about 12 oClock at Night which was encamped 3 Mile below shamong

THURSDAY 30th. Marchd this morning 9 oClock halted within one Mile of Fort Sullivan on the mouth of Tyoga and sent for our Musick & Coulours likewise found the men in a proper line of March then march'd on with Musick playing and Colours flying and encamp'd on the same ground we did before. When our troops passed the Fort the Garrison was paraded and saluted us with 13 Pieces of Cannon regularly fired, afterward the same number was return'd by us, then three Cheers from the Garrison—The officers of each Regt. had a Dinner paraded for them in the garrison where they Imediately repaired and Dined and took a hearty Drink of Grog and went to sleep—since we left this Col Shreve who commanded had a very strong picket fort made here surrounded with very good Abattees and the 4 Block houses for the four Bestions which Comanded each River and all the men was encamped in the Garrison —Just been from Tyoga thirty-five Days and from Tioga 136 Miles

OCTOBER 1, FRIDAY lay in camp all Day resting and Cleaning our selves

SATURDAY 2d. This Day a Number of officers was sent to Wioming to prepare for the reception of the Army and a Number others went on other business

SUNDAY 3d. Orders came out to day for to have all the Stores loaded in boats and ready to march to morrow morning with the Army, at six oClock The Hospital and sick to go down to the river this afternoon this Day a large fatigue Party was turned out to Destroy the fort, which they did effectually by pulling up the pickets and casting them in the river and burning the Abattees

MONDAY 4th.—This Day a little rain, Chief part of the Army march'd, only left a sufficient quantity to man the boats marched about 8 oClock crossed over the Tyoga and a little while after Crossed the river to the East side and proceeded on midling good road to Wysankin when they incamped I went in the boats and got to Wysankin two hours before the Army and all encamped together; this place was formerly a small settlement but Destroyed by the Enemy

TUESDAY 5th. The whole of the Army was ordered to go in Boats this morning and we set of about 9 oClock Down the River, our Regt. bringing up the rear of the Army and a little after Dark encamped on the shore, Our Regt. by themselves the Army Chiefly in front where we lay all Night

WENSDAY 6th. Started midling early this morning but did not overtake the Army or at least Head Quarters but passed a Number of boats encamp'd Just at Dark on a small Improvement where we staid all Night 24 Miles from Wyoming

THURSDAY 7th. Embarked tolerable early this morning passed several small improvements on the river which had been but now Destroyed by the Enemy Arrived at Wyoming about 5 oClock where we found Chief of the Army encamped, we imediately Disembarked and incamp'd in our proper place —Wyoming before it was Destroyed by the Enemy was a very pretty settlement and very large excellent land it lies on each side of the river and is very long Chief of the inhabitants have left the settlement what few there is here Erected small hutts where they live very uncomfortable I think, the Inhabitants had a very severe battle with the Enemy before they Destroyed but was Defeated by which means the Enemy got Possession of the settlement and Destroyed it the Inhabitants had a number killd which left a great many Widows in the place, since the Battle they havs erected a very good Fort and Continental Troops has been stationed at it which has keep it since.

[36] FRIDAY 8th. A large party was sent on to Eastton to day to repair the roads. I went up to see some of the Inhabitants to day which appeared very strange to me being so long from seeing any of them—

SATURDAY 9th. This day we Recd. orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march tomorrow morning early, likewise Genl. Sullivan Set of to Eastown leaving the comand of the Army to Genl. Clinton this being my birth day I with a few of our officers had a Sociable Drink of Grog this evening—

SUNDAY 10th. The Genl. beat this morning 8 oClock could get no waggons to carry our baggage therefore had to break up our Chests & and Carry our baggage on Pack horses The Army did not march till 3 oClock in the Afternoon when the[y] set of for Eastown the Army was very much Detained on Account of getting on the Amunition Waggons and some [of] the General & Field officers had to Carry their baggage as the horses was very weak and the road Exceeding bad up a very long hill good many waggons left behind and the baggage taken out and Put on Pack horses, a little after Dark got on the top of the hill about 4 Mile from Wyoming where we Encamped on very stony ground and the Army very much Scattered

MONDAY 11th. Marched this morning early came to Bullocks which is a house 7 Miles from Wyoming formerly a tavern but the Inhabitants had fled here we found the front of the Army who lay here all Night Just preparing for to march we halted & drew a Gill of Rum Each then marched on to the Edge of the Great swamp 17 Miles from Wyoming where we encamped on tolerable good ground.

TUESDAY 12th. Marched this morning 8 oClock Entered the great swamp which is a very bad road the waggons was sent on at Day break this morning and to halt at Locust hill about the middle of the swamp till the Army came up we arrived at Locust hill about 1 oClock where we found the waggons, here we halted and eat Dinner passd the waggons which come on in they rear. Just as the Army got thro the Swamp which is 12 Miles thro: a very heavy shower of rain come on which wet us very much, marched 3 Miles thro the Swamp and encamped a little before Dark on a pretty little brook 32 Miles from Eastown; a great many horses Died in the Swamp to day and a Great many waggons broken to pieces, and the baggage of the Army did not come up—To Day we met about 50 waggons in the swamp going to Wyoming for what baggage of the Army was left there, about one half was turned to fetch on our baggage the others went onto Wyoming.

WENSDAY 13th. Marched this morning 9 oClock those fresh waggons helped on the baggage midling well, in marching about 5 Mile came to Larnards tavern it being the beginning of the settlement of a Christian Country, which appeared to me very strange here, we halted in a field 1-1/2 hours to refresh Then marched on very good roads 9 Mile thro a thin settled country and about 5 oClock arrived at Brinkers Mills where we had a large Store of Provisions for this Army, and here the had a small picketed fort where they had store houses in to keep their provision, and a small Garrison of Militia, as soon as we was encamped I went out to a Country house and got an Elegant Dinner which I was very well pleased with likewise we Drew Provision this evening

THURSDAY 14th. Here we got a few more waggons almost sufficient to carry all they baggage Marched to day 11 oClock thro a middling good settled Country, Crossed the Blue Mountain encamped at Allens tavern 7 Miles from Brinkers Mills about 3 oClock. Here an officer from each Regt. was ordered to attend at Head Qrs. after taking the minds of the officers of their Regts. concerning the high prices of Articles whether they would give it or no, after a Consultation of an hour or two they came to this resolution that they would not Purchase of any tavern keeper any liquor or provision while on the march to Head Quarters Sickness Excepted—Orders came out for the solders & officers to be as Clean as possible to march into Eastown.

FRIDAY 15th. Marched this morning 8 oClock baggage all in the Center thro a very good road arrived at Eastown about 3 oClock—The Army marched thro the town in ample order and encamped in Diferent places, our brigade encamped up the Laihi about a Mile on very good ground—I was very much pleased to see the resolution of the officers so strictly adhered to, as I did not see a single soul enter a tavern which was a great Dis- [37] appointment to the Inhabitants, as they had laid in great stores and thought they would have a very fine market for it by this Army—Genl. Sullivan again takes the Comand of they Army

SATURDAY 16th. Lay in Camp all Day nothing material happening

SUNDAY 17th. Lost all my Cloaths last night stole from the Wash woman left me in a Deplorable condition not a second shirt to my Back—The whole Army went to Church to Day and heard a very Elegant Oration from the Revd. Dr. Evans Sutible to the Occasion—likewise Genl. Sullivan and the Western army had the thanks of Congress, went out in the Country to day and got Buckwheat Cakes, Butter, Milk and honey which was a very great rarity indeed

MONDAY 18th. To day the Regt. was Mustered for 4 Months and the Day was taken up Chiefly in making Muster rolls &c—Part of my Cloaths was found to day hid in the mountain but two of my best shirts is yet a missing


FRIDAY 22d. Went this Day to Bethlehem and saw the Curiosities of that Place and Drank some Excellent wine and returned home a little after Dark and so I believe I may here end my Journal with a belly full of good wine Given under my hand this 22d. Day of October in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy Nine



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