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CHRISTOPHER GIST'S JOURNALS
WITH HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL NOTES
AND BIOGRAPHIES OF HIS CONTEMPORARIES
WILLIAM M. DARLINGTON [1815-1889]
PITTSBURGH, J. R. WELDIN & CO.,
[ Pages 267-296. Page numbers will appear in the text in brackets in bold print.]
[Transcription is Verbatim.]
[Footnotes appear in smaller font.]
Extracts from An Analysis of Map.
Pownall's Account of Lead Plate.
Ensign Ward's Deposition.
Letters and Speeches to Indians.
 LETTER FROM ROBERT ORME TO GOVERNOR
(P. R. O. America and West Indies.)
FORT CUMBERLAND July 18 1755
My dear Governor
I am so extremely ill in bed with the wound I have received that I am under the Necessity of employing my friend Capt. Dobson as my scribe. I am informed that Governor Innes has sent you some account of the Action near the Banks of the Monongahela about seven miles from the French Fort. As his Intelligence must be very Imperfect, the Dispatch he sent to you must consequently be so too; you should have had more early Account of it, but every Officer whose business it was to have informed you was either killed or wounded and our distressfull Situation put it out of our power to attend to it so much as we would otherwise have done. The 9th instant we passed and repassed the Monongahela by advancing first a party of 300 men which immediately followed by another of 200, the general with the Column of Artillery, Baggage and the Main Body of the Army passed the river the last time, about one o'clock, as soon as the whole had got on the Fort side of Monongahela we heard very heavy and quick fire on our front, we immediately advanced in order to sustain them but the Detachment of the 200 and 300 gave way and fell back upon us, which caused such confusion and struck so great a panic into our men that afterwards no military Expedient could be made use of that had any effect upon them, the men were so extremely deaf to the exhortations of the General and the Officers that they  fired away in the most irregular manner all their ammunition and then ran off leaving to the Enemy the Artillery, Ammunition, Provisions and Baggage, nor could they be persuaded to stop till they got as far as Gists plantation nor there only in part, many of them proceeding even as far as Col. Dunbar's Party who lay six miles on this side.
The Officers were absolutely sacrificed by their unparalleled good behaviour; Advancing before their men sometimes in bodies and sometimes separately, hoping by such an example to engage the soldiers to follow them, but to no purpose. The General had five horses shot under him and at last received a wound through his lungs, of which he died the 13th instant at night. Captain Monies and myself very much wounded. Mr. Washington had two horses shot under him and his clothes shot through in several places, behaving the whole time with the greatest courage and resolution.
Sir P. Halket was killed upon the spot and according to the best calculation we can as yet make about 28 Officers were killed.
Col. Burton and Sir John St. Clair with 35 Officers wounded and out of our whole number of Officers not above 16 came off the Field unhurt. We imagine there are killed and wounded about 6oo men. I have the pleasure to acquaint you that Captain Polson (who was killed) and his company behaved extremely well; as did Captain Stuart and his light horse, who I must beg leave to recommend to your protection and to desire you will be so kind to use your best endeavours to serve him as he has lost by the death of the general the rewards he really deserved by his gallant and faithful attendance on him.
Upon our proceeding with the whole convoy to the Little Meadow we found it impractable to advance in that manner; a Detachment was therefore made of 1200 men with the  Artillery, necessary ammunition, Provision and Baggage, leaving the remainder with Col. Dunbar, with Orders to join us as soon as possible; with this Detachment we proceeded with safety and expedition, till the fatal day I have just related and happy it was that this Disposition was made, otherwise the whole must have starved or fallen into the Hands of the enemy as numbers would have been no service to us and our Provision was all lost.
Mr. Shaw put into my Hands a letter from you directed to the General who was then incapable of any business, it contained Notes for £2600 from South Carolina. I am at a loss to know what to do with them, forgetting the particular appropriation of the Vote of Assembly, though I think I recollect its being voted at the Service of the Expedition in general at the disposal of General Braddlock; these Bills are made payable to him or Order, for which reason they are not negotiable. I desire your advice on this subject, and as it may save time, beg the favor of you to write to Governor Glen about it.
As our number of horses were so much reduced, and those so extremely weak, and many carriages being wanted for the wounded men occasioned our destroying the Ammunition and superfluous part of the Provision left in Col. Dunbar's Convoy, to prevent its falling into the Hands of the Enemy.
As the whole of the Artillery is lost and the Terror of the Indian remaining so strongly in the mens minds, as also the Troops being extremely weakened by Deaths, Wounds and Sickness, it was judged impossible to make any further attempts; therefore Col. Dunbar is returning to Fort Cumberland, with everything he is able to bring along with him. I propose remaining here till my wound will suffer me to remove to Philadelphia, from thence I shall make all possible Dispatch to England.
I am Sir &c
 Robert Orme entered the army as an ensign in the 35th Foot. On September 16, 1745, he exchanged into the Coldstream Guards, of which he became a lieutenant April 24, 1751. He accompanied General Braddock to America, was present on the battle-field and assisted the removal of the General from the field. After his recovery from his wound he embarked for England. October, 1756, he resigned his commission in the Guards; he married the Hon. Audrey Townshend, only daughter of Charles, 3d Viscount. Capt. Orme died in February, 1781.
George Croghan, with a company of Indians, Andrew Montour and Christopher Gist and his son, were on the battlefield. Christopher Gist was the General's guide and with his Indians penetrated undiscovered to within half a mile of the fort.
Sir Peter Halket, of Pitferran, Fifeshire, a baronet of Nova Scotia, was the son of Sir Peter Wedderburne, of Gosford, who assumed his wife's name. In 1734, he sat in the House of Commons for Dunfermline, was Lieutenant Colonel of the 44th at Sir John Cope's defeat in 1745. Released on parole by Charles Edward, he was ordered by Cumberland to rejoin his regiment, but honorably refused. The King approved of his course. He married Lady Amelia Stewart, second daughter of Francis, eighth Earl of Moray. He had three sons: Sir Peter, his successor, also in the army; Francis, Major in the Black Watch, and James, who was killed with him.
Colonel Thomas Dunbar was Colonel of the Forty-eighth, superseded in November, 1755, because of his injudicious retreat, and sent into honorable retirement as Lieutenant-Governor of Gibraltar; he was never again actively employed. He died 1777.
Sir John St. Clair, remained for a long time in service in America. 1756, he was made a Lieutenant-Colonel of the Sixtieth regiment. 1762, he was made a full Colonel. At the defeat of Braddock he was shot through the body.
 EXTRACTS FROM "AN ANALYSIS OF A GENERAL MAP OF THE MIDDLE BRITISH COLONIES."
THE COUNTRY OF THE CONFEDERATE INDIANS, &c.
"The greatest part of Virginia is composed with the Assistance of Messieurs Fry and Jefferson's Map of it."
"In the Way to Ohio by Franks Town, after you are past the Allegeny Mountain, the Ground is rough in many Places, and continues so to the River. Hereabouts the Laurel Hill springs from the Mountain, and continues though not large, in a very regular Chain, I belive to the Ouasioto Mountain. For though the Allegeny Mountain is the most Westerly, on the West Branch of Susquehanna, it is far from being so back of Virginia."
"The Map in the Ohio, and its Branches, as well as the Passes through the Mountains Westward, is laid down by the Information of Traders and others, who have resided there, and travelled them for many years together. Hitherto there have not been any Surveys made of them, except the Road which goes from Shippensburg round Parnel's Knob and by Ray's Town over the Allegeny Mountains."
"Mr. William Franklin's Journal to Ohio has been my principal Help in ascertaining the Longitude of the Fork of Ohio and Monaungahela; but however I must not omit mentioning, that the Latitude of this Fork is laid down from the Observation of Colonel Fry and is at least ten Miles more Northerly than I would otherwise have thought it was.
"Mr. Joseph Dobson gave me an Account of the Distances from Creek to Creek, as they fall in, and of the Islands, Rifts and Falls, all the Way from the Fork to Sioto; and Mr. Alexander  Maginty and Mr. Alexander Lowry, gave me the rest to the Falls, as well as confirmed the others. The River from the Fork upwards, is mostly from Mr. John Davison."
"The Routs across the country, as well as the Situation of Indian Villages, trading Places, the Creeks that fall into Lake Erie, and other Affairs relating to Ohio and its Branches, are from a great Number of Informations of Traders and others and especially of a very intelligent Indian called The Eagle, who had a good Notion of Distances, Bearings and delineating. The situation of Detroit is chiefly determined by the Computation of its Distance from Niagara by Mr. Maginty, and its Bearing and Distance from the Mouth of the Sandusky."
"As for the Branches of Ohio, which head in the New Virginia (So they call, for Distinction-sake, that Part of Virginia South East of the Ouasioto Mountains, and on the Branches of Green Briar, New River, and Holston River) I am particularly obliged to Dr. Thomas Walker, for the Intelligence of what Names they bear, and what Rivers they fall into Northward and Westward."
"The present, late and antient Seats of the original Inhabitants are expressed in the Map; and though it might be imagined that several Nations are omitted, which are mentioned by Authors, it may be remarked, that Authors, for want of Knowledge in Indian Affairs, have taken every little Society for a separate Nation; whereas they are not truly more in Number than I have laid down in a Map I published of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York and Delaware in 1749."
This Map and Analysis was printed in Philadelphia by B. Franklin and D. Hall, 1755.
The Maps of the Ohio Company Surveys of 1750-51-52 were copied from the original in the Public Record Office, London, by J. A. Burt, 1882, for William M. Darlington. They  are in outline, with fewer names than are given in the map here published.
Bonne Camp's Map.
Governor Pownall intended to publish a second edition of his "Topographical Description of North America." His own copy is full of inserted MSS. and marginal notes. On page 13 he has written this explanation of the name Chëonderoga. "This word denotes the fork of a river, or the confluence of two branches which go off in one united stream. This the French always translate Trois-Rivieres. The Dutch, who first improved this rout, using the letters tie.to express the sound che, as we do ye letters tion to express chon, wrote the word Tieonderoga, and the letter e in the correspondencies being mistaken for c, this place got the name of Ticonderoga. Custom has adopted this original mistake. And the using the real name in its true orthography looks so like affectation, that I cannot but think this explanation, by way of Apology at least, has become necessary. The situation on the Ohio, on which Fort du Quesne, afterwards called Fort Pitt was built, was by the Indians called Chëonderoga, and accordingly by the French called Trois Rivieres. It is recorded by that name in the famous Leaden Plate, which was buried there as a memorial of their possession. Until I had occasion to explain this it was always a matter of Puzzle to our Ministers, what Place in those Quarters the French meant to design by Trois Rivieres."
Here follows an exact copy of that plate:
COPY OF THE LEADEN PLATE BURIED AT THE FORKS OF MONONGAHELA AND OHIO BY MON'R CELERON BY WAY OF TAKING POSSESSION & AS A MEMORIAL & TESTIMONY THEREOF.
1753 or 2.
L'an 1749 Dv Regne de Louis XV Roy de France Novs Celeron Commandant D'vn Detachement Envoie par  Monsieur le M De la Galissoniere Commandant General De la Nouvelle France pour retablir la tranquillite dans quelques villages sauvagcs de ces cantons avons enterre cette Plaque A (3 (This is only scratched with the point of a knife, and scarcely legible, in a space which was left blank to be filled up when buried.) rivieres dessous la riviere au buf ce 3 Aoust) pres dela Riviere Oyo autrement belle Riviere pour Monument du Renouvellement de la Possession que nous avons pris de la ditte Riviere Oyo et de toutes celles qui y (This is so written in the plate.) tombnt et toutes les terres des deux cotes jusque aux Sources des dittes Rivieres ainsi qu'en ont jouy ou du jouir les precedent Roys de France et qu'ils sy sont maintenus par les armes et par les traittes speciallment par ceux de Riswick, D'Utrecht et D'Aix la Chappelle.
On the back is Paul Lebrosse Fecit.
In the year 1749, in the reign of Louis XV, King of France, We Celeron, commandant of a detachment sent by the Marquis de la Galissoniere, Commandant Chief of New France, to re-establish peace in certain villages of the Indians of these districts, have buried this plate at the Three Rivers, below Le Buf River, this third of August, near the river Oyo, otherwise the Fair River, as a monument of the renewal of the possession that we have taken of the said River Oyo, and of all those which fall into it, and of all the land on both sides to the sources of the said rivers, as the preceding Kings of France have enjoyed or ought to have enjoyed it; and which they have upheld by force of arms and by treaties, especially by those of Riswick, Utrecht and Aix-la-Chapelle.
 ENSIGN WARD'S DEPOSITION.
P. R. O. B. T. VIRGINIA No. 21.
ENSIGN WARD'S DEPOSITION before the
Governor & Council ye 7th of May 1754.
Rec'd with his Letter dated ye 10th of May
Rec'd July 2d, 1754, Read Do, 1754.
Mr. EDWARD Ward Cap't Trents Ensign deposes and makes Oath to the following Particulars, That the French first appeared to him at Shanopins Town about two Miles distant from the Fort the 17 of April last, that they moved down within a small distance from the Fort, Then landed their Canoes, and marched their men in a regular manner a little better than Gun shot of the Fort. That Le Mercier a French Officer sent by Contrecur the Commandant in Chief of the French Troops came with an Indian Interpreter, called by the Mingoes the Owl, and two Drums, one of which served for Interpreter between Le Mercier and him; Le Mercier presently deliver'd him the summons by the Interpreter, looked at his watch which was about two, and gave him an hour to fix his Resolution, telling him he must come to the French Camp with his Determination in Writeing. He says that half an Hour of the time allowed him, he spent in Council  with the Half King, who advised him to acquaint the French he was no Officer of Rank or invested with powers to answer their Demands and requested them to Wait the Arrival of the principal Commander. That at the time the Summons was deliverd to him, the Half King received a Belt of Wampum much to the same purpose.
That he went accompanied with the Half King, Rob't Roberts, a private Soldier, and John Davidson as an Indian Interpreter, that the Half King might understand every word he spoke at the French Camp, That he there address'd himself to the Chief Commander Contrecur and expressed himself agreeably to the above mentioned advice of the Half King. That the French Commander told him he should not wait for an Answer from any other person, And absolutely insisted on his determining what to do that Instant, or he should immediately take Possession of the Fort by Force. That he then observeing the number of the French, which he judg'd to be about a Thousand and considering his own weakness being but Forty one in all, whereof only Thirty three were Soldiers, Surrender'd the Fort with Liberty obtained to march off with everything belonging thereto by Twelve o'Clock the next Day. He says that night he was Oblieg'd to encamp within 300 yards of the Fort with a Party of the Six Nations who were in Company with him, That the French Commander sent for him to Supper and ask'd many Questions concerning the English Governments, which he told him he could give no Answer to, being unacquainted with such affairs, That the French Commander desired some of the Carpenters Tools, offering any money for them, to which he answer'd he loved his King and Country too well to part with any of them And then retired. That next morning he received the speech from the Half King to the Governour, And proceed'd with all his men towards Redstone Creek where he arrived in two  Days; and from thence marched to Wills's Creek, where he met with Coll' Washington and informed him of every particular which had happened , That Coll' Washington thought fit to send back one of the Indians to the Half King with a Speech and to Assure him of the Assistance which was marching to him; And by the advice of a Council of War dispatch'd him an Express to his Honour with the other Indian and an Interpreter, judging him the most proper Person having been appointed by the Half King. He moreover adds that four days before the French came he had an Account of their comeing, and saw a Letter that John Davison wrote to Rob't Calender an Indian Trader to confirm the truth that they were to be down by that time. That the Day following he sent a Copy of Davison's Letter to Cap Trent who was then at Wills's Creek, and went directly himself to his lieutenant who lived Eight or Ten miles up Monongahela from the Fort at a place called Turtle Creek, it was late at night when he got there, Accompanied by Robert Roberts, Thomas Davison, Samuel Asdill, and an Indian, and shew'd him the Letter, of which he sent a Copy the next Day to his Captain. The Lieutenant told him he was well assured the French would be down, but said what can we do in the Affair. The morning after he sent for the Half King, and one of his Chiefs named Serreneatta, who advised him to build a Stockade Fort, That then he asked his Lieutenant if he would come down to the Fort, to which he Answer'd he had a Shilling to loose for a Penny he should gain by his Commission at that time, and that he had Business which he could not settle under Six Days with his Partner; That he thereupon answer'd he would immediately go himself and have the Stockade Fort built, And that he would hold out to the last Extremity before it should be said that the English had retreated like Cowards before the French Forces Appeared, and that he knowing the  bad consequences of his leaveing it as the rest had done would give the Indians a very indifferent opinion of the English ever after. He further says he had no Orders from either his Captain, or Lieutenant how to proceed, and had the last Gate of the Stockade Fort erected before the French appeared to him.. That he was credibly Informed by an Englishman who attended the French Commandant that they had 300 Wooden Canoes, and 60 Battoes and had four men to each Canoe and Battoe, that they had also Eighteen Pieces of Cannon three of which were nine Pounders. That the Half King stormed greatly at the French at the Time they were oblieged to march out of the Fort and told them it was he Order'd that Fort and laid the first Log of it himself, but the French paid no Regard to what he said.
Sworn to by the abovemention'd Ward before
The Governor in Council
Teste the 7th May 1754.
N WALTHOE Cl. Con.
NOTE.Edward Ward's son, John, served during the Revolution. He was lieutenant in the 1st, 3d and 8th Regiments, Pennsylvania Line. Military Register. Autograph letter of Col. Bayard to John Nicholson and receipt of Edward Ward.
 LETTERS AND SPEECHES TO INDIANS.
CAMP SARATOGA, October 12th 1777.
(From original manuscript.)
To His Excellency John Hancock, Esqr.
SIR:I have the satisfaction to acquaint your Excellency with the great success of the Arms of the United States in this Department. On the 7th inst the Enemy attacked our advanced Picket upon the Left, which drew on an action about the same hour of the day and near the same spot of Ground where that of the 19th of September was fought. From 3 o'clock in the afternoon till almost night the Conflict was very warm and bloody, when the Enemy, by a precipitate Retreat, determined the fate of the day, leaving in our hands eight pieces of Brass Cannon, the Tents and Baggage of Their Flying Army, a large quantity of fixed Ammunition, a considerable number of wounded and prisoners amongst whom are the following principal officers, Major Williams, who Commanded the Artillery, Major Ackland, who commanded the Corps of Grenadiers, Captain Money Q M G and Sir Francis Clark, principal Aid de Camp to his Excellency General Burgoyne. The loss upon our side is not more than (illegible) killed and wounded, amongst the latter is the gallant Major General Arnold, whose Leg was fractured by a Musket Ball as he was forcing the Enemy's Breast-work.
Too much praise cannot be given to the Corps commanded by Col. Morgan, (Daniel Morgan.) consisting of his Rifle Regiment and the Light Infantry of the Army under Major Dearborn.
 But it would be injustice not to say that the whole Body engaged deserve the honour and applause due to such exalted merit. The night after the Action the Enemy took Post in the strong intrenched Camp on their Left. General Lincoln whose division was opposite to the Enemy going in the afternoon to direct a Cannonade to annoy their Camp received a Musket Ball in his Leg, which shattered the bone; this has deprived me of the assistance of one of the best Officers as well as Men, his loss at this time cannot be too much regretted. I am in hopes his leg may yet be saved.
The 9th at Midnight, the Enemy quitted their entrenchments and retired to Saratoga. Early in the morning of the 9th received the inclosed letter from General Burgoyne acquainting me that he left his whole Hospital to my protection, in which are 300 wounded officers and soldiers.
Brigadier General Frazier who commanded the Flying Army of the Enemy was killed the 7th Inst. At one o'clock in the morning of the 10th I received the inclosed letter from General Burgoyne with Lady Harriott Ackland. That morning as soon as the Army could be properly put in motion, I marched in pursuit of the Enemy and arrived here in the Evening and found the Enemy had taken Post upon the opposite side of the Fish-Kill in an entrenched Camp which they occupied upon their advancing down the Country. The Enemy have burned all the Houses before them as they retreated. The extensive Buildings and Kills &c belonging to Major General Schuyler are also laid in Ashes. This shameful behaviour occasioned my sending a Drum with the inclosecl Letter to General Burgoyne.
I am happy to acquaint your Excellency that Desertion has taken a deep Root in the Royal Army particularly among the Germans who come to us in Shoals.
I am so much pressed on every side with business that it is  impossible for me to be more particular now, but I hope in a few days to have leisure to acquaint your Excellency with every circumstance at present omitted.
I am &c
Taimenend to the wise Delaware Council.
(From original manuscript.)
BROTHERS :I know you depend on me for the truth of every thing. I therefore send this that you may see what we are about and that you may know every thing I have heretofore told you is true.
YORK TOWN, October 19th, 1777
Taimenend to the wise Delaware Council
Hanover or McCallisters Town
YORK COUNTY, October 2oth, 1777
BROTHERS:I wrote to you two days ago and I wrote to you yesterday morning. In the afternoon about 4 o'clock an Express arrived at York with a letter from our Northern Army dated the 15th of this Month 10 o'clock P. M. Mr. Hancock, President of our great Council gave me a copy of it to send to you and I immediately set out for this place to overtake Malachy Hays the Express by whom I sent my other Letters. By riding hard and in the night I lost the letter out of my Pocket, but I can tell you the contents.
Extract of a Letter from General Schuyler, dated
September 27th, 1777.
(From original manuscript.)
SIR:On the 11th Inst., about three hundred Indians (including Men, Women and Children) of the Oneidas, Tuscaroras,  a few Onondagoes, and Mohawks arrived here. The 15th was spent in the usual ceremony of congratulation during which we took occasion to sound their inclinations to engage in the war, we prepared a Speech and on the next day offered them the War Belt which was immediately accepted by Warriors of each Nation; on the 17th the War Feast was prepared; at which the Belt was solemnly accepted by the whole; the 18th and 19th passed in equipping them, and being informed about ten at night of the 19th, that our Army was engaged, and having then three of the Chief Warriors to sup with me, Mr. Edwards and myself requested them to march without delay, which they and many others did with alacrity, and with such dispatch as to reach General Gates before noon next day and by night the remainder arrived at the Camp, making in all near one hundred and fifty; they have already taken about thirty Prisoners beside scalps and intercepted some dispatches from General Burgoyne to General Powell commanding at Ticonderoga.
The Indians have requested that the Southern ones should be advised by us, that they have taken the Hatchet, and a Belt will also be sent by them.
We have taken measures to induce the whole Confederacy to join us, and have reason to believe that they will do it: if so, we shall soon be informed of it, and I think in that case it would be prudent to call them into Action the soonest possible into whatever quarter their services may be most wanted.
signed CHAS. THOMSON.
Taimenend to the wise Delaware Council.
(From original manuscript.)
YORK TOWN, Oct. 18th, 1777.
BROTHERS AND CHIEFS:
The within is a Letter wrote by the wise Chief who is  placed at Albany by Congress to take care of the Council Fire of the Six Nations and the Americans at that place. As it is of very great importance to all Nations, I send it to you by a quick Runner. I submit to your wise Council what to do with it. You may rest assured of the contents being true.
My advice is that you immediately communicate the contents to the Wiandots, Mingoes, Shawnese, Ottawas and Chipeways. If they alter their conduct in time and take pity on their Women and Children, it is not yet too late for them to ask mercy. I desire to hear from you in twenty days after you receive this and to know what the Wiandot &c think of it. Our Great Council of America desires to give you the strongest assurances of their Friendship and to tell you that your wise conduct during this storm will ever make them consider your Nation as their great Friend and Brothers.
(The name given to Col. George Morgan by the Indians.)
To the Wise Council of the Delawares at Coochoching.
I am very sorry my good friend and brother Captain Killbuck left me without informing me of his intention, that I might have clothed his Children. I now send to him a white ruffled Shirt for himself and a Callicoe one for his wife.
I shall give you notice agreeable to my Promise in public Council. In the mean time I am now prepared to follow such parties of Wyandotts or others as may strike me. You may therefore expect to see some of our young Men, and I desire your Women and children may rest easy and not be  frightened. I will pay for what Provisions they are supplied with at any of your Towns in case they come that way.
'Till yesterday I had no news from Philadelphia; then an express arrived with letters and the enclosed News Papers by which you will see the Cattle have broke down the Pen which our Enemies said they had drove the Big Knife into. This Pen, Brothers was made of rotten sticks, and was easily broke down and those who made it have run off for fear of being tramped to death.
The English Army still continues on Board their ships at sea. Sometimes they come and look into our river, sometimes into another, but they find us every where prepared for them. We cannot persuade them to come eat their Dinners at Philadelphia, as they promised they would. I suppose they think their Broth would scald them were they to come there.
A number of British Troops, Hessians, Canadians and some foolish Indians from the Northward, thought they would try to go from Canada to Albany. Our people retired a little as they did last year from New York to Trenton. They retired I say as far as Bennington, and there they attacked the British Troops &c and took seven hundred and thirty-six of them prisoners. Thirty-seven of whom were Officers. They are now confined in New England.
Another Party of them attacked Fort Schuyler, which is above the German Flats on the North river, in doing which they lost four hundred of their men, killed and taken prisoners by our people. And in every other Skirmish our people have had they have beat our Enemies.
You may rest assured that what I have always told you is true and that our Enemies will never be able to conquer the United States, who grow stronger and stronger every day.
Two days after you receive this I desire you will send one or two of your Young Men with what news you have at your Towns. I request they may come on Horse back, as then our Young Men if they meet them cannot mistake them they can ride down to the River Side by which we shall know they are friends. By their return I expect more good news to tell you.
I am determined to be strong in good Works and I will not suffer foolish people to injure our Friendship. I desire you will also be strong. You may depend you will soon see a Strong man walking to the Towns of our Enemies; as General Hand has told you. I am your friend and Brother.
By Captain White Eye's cousin
and Captain Killbuck's son.
Fort Pitt August 30th 1777.
The Indian names are spelled as they were pronounced by different tribes, traders and travellers of different nationalities.
Abercrombie, General, 187
Aliquippa, Queen, 86
Allegheny River, 86
Allegheny Mountains, 33
Ammunition promised to Indians, 166
Arnold, Major-General, wounded, 279
Articles of Peace, 55
Auchwick, 167, 182
Austin, Walter, 13
Baltimore, Lord, 203
Burney Thomas, 125
Beatty, Rev. Charles, 113
Bear killed, 6o, 61, 62, 63, 65, 72, 82
Beaver Creek, camped on, 35, 81, 100
Beaver Island Creek, 65
Beaver King, 163, 172
Beaujeu, Captain, 238
Berkeley, Governor, 12
Big Bone Lick. 129
Bland, Edward, 14
Boone, Daniel, 133
Bouquet, 99, 104
Boundary disputes, 203, 239
Boundary of lands petitioned for, 242
Braddock's Run, 137
Braddock, General, 88, 167, 183, 185
Brittain, King, 125
Bucks, two killed, 81
Buffaloes, 56, 60, 76
Bull, Captain, 174
Burgoyne, General, 279
Burwell, Colonel, Letter to Ohio Company 1751, 220
Byrd, Colonel, 22
 Callender, Robert, 161
Canoe load of goods, 160
Cargo of goods sent to the Ohio Company, 225
Cave on the Monongahela, 71, 141
Celeron, 28, 29, 95, 107, 109
Clayborne, Colonel William, 14
Coal and slate, 61
Cockey's Cabin, 92
Collet, Captain, 17
Conditions of Grant to the Ohio Company, 227
Conhaway, 64, 74
Constitution of Ohio Company, 226
Conolly, John, 239
Conference at Philadelphia, 171, 173, 217
Conference with Governor, 187
Conference at Fort Pitt, 172, 174, 187
Conference at Easton, 171
Conference at Lancaster, 173, 186
Conference at Carlisle, 166
Conference house of Israel Pemberton, 169
Contrecur, 96, 150, 167
Copy of Agreement, May 7th, 1770, 244
Crane, Totem, 134
Crawford, Hugh, 57, 128
Cresap, Thomas, 90, 202-205
Cresap, Thomas, house burned, 203
Cresap, Thomas, raised a company, 205
Cresap, Michael, letter from Jefferson, 205
Croghan, George, 96, 97, 108, 109, 114, 176-201
Croghan, George and Montour distribute presents, 177, 178
Croghan, George makes a treaty with the Indians, 162
Croghan, George trading house at Logstown, 176
Croghan, George appointed Indian Agent, 176
Croghan, George sent west by Governor Hamilton, 177
Croghan, George at Piqua, 178
Croghan, George wishes to leave Auchwick, 182
Croghan, George, Peters' letter to, 180 182, 187
Croghan, George asks Governor to forbid the selling of liquor to Indians, 183
Croghan, George joins Braddock, 183
 Croghan, George, with Montour, 34, 44, 46, 160
Croghan, George writes advice to Governor Hamilton, 179, 180, 184
Croghan, George commissioned Captain, 185
Croghan, George granted freedom from arrest, 185
Croghan, George raises men for defense of Western frontier, 185
Croghan, George with Christopher Gist, 37, 44, 46, 161
Croghan, George resigns commission, 188
Croghan, George sent to German Flats, 170
Croghan, George sent to England, 188
Croghan, George shipwrecked, 188
Croghan, George Indian deed for land, 190-192
Croghan, George bounds of land, 190
Cross Creek, 146
Curran, Barney, 100
Cuttaway River, 59, 60, 130
Dance, Indian, 53
Deed of confrimation for lands, 171
Deer killed, 80
De Lery, engineer, 27
Deserters from the British Army, 280
De la Salle, 26, 223
Drake, Sir Francis, 10
Du Quesne, 28
Dunbar, Colonel, 270
Edmonstone, Major Charles, 239
Elks, 6o, 72
Elk Eye Creek, 36, 103
Fallam, Robert, 18
Fairfax, Lord, 165 .
Feather dance, 53
Fishing Creek, 76, 145
Forbes, Thomas, Journal from Public Record Office, 148
Forts erected, 184
Forts French, 148, 183
Forts built by Trent, 165
Fort Pitt, 173, 238
Fort Duquesne, 150, 151
 Fort Augusta, 173, 175
Fort Johnson, 168, 169
Fort Le Boeuf, 147, 150
Fort Presqu 'ile, 150
Fort Niagara, 149
Fort Harkimer, 170
Fort McIntosh, 101
Fort Edward, 170
Fort and Town planned at Chartiers, 236
Forbes, General, 171
Forbes, General, Conference at Fort Pitt, 172
Franklin, Benjamin, Address, 242
Franklin, William, 95, 271
Frazier, 80, 86, 122
Frazier, General, killed, 280
French Indians, 50
French presents to Indians, 51
French speech to Indians, 51
Fry, Joshua, extract from letter, 222
Gap, Allegheny Mountains, 137
Gates, General Horatio, letter, 279
George's Creek, 80
German Flats, 170
Gibson, General John, 99
Girty, Simon, Testimony, 214, 216
Gist, Christopher, first journey, 29-66
Gist, Christopher, employed by Ohio Company, 29
Gist, Christopher, son's feet frozen, 72
Gist, Christopher, report, 79
Gist, Christopher, second journey, 67-79
Gist, Christopher, third journey, 80-87
Gist, Christopher, encamped on George's Creek, 80
Gist, Christopher, instructions to, 67, 231-234
Gist, Christopher, presents for Indians, 41
Gist, Christopher, arrives at home, 87
Gist, Christopher, family 88
Gist, Christopher, death, 88
Gist, Christopher, Notes on Journals, 90-158
Grantees of Land, 244
Grantees of Land, letter from, 245
Grant, General James, 207-209
Guess Creek, 134
Guyasuta (Kiasuta), life, 210, 213
Guyasuta, speech, 212
 Guyasuta, son, 210
Guyasuta, appeal for help, 212
Half King, 81, 82, 167, 276
Hall, Richard, 65
Hamilton, Governor, 16o
Hanbury, John, 224
Hancock, John, Letter to, 279
Harris, Mary, 114
Harris Major, 15
Hawk's Nest, 135
Hillsborough, Lord, 241
Hockhocking, 42, 116
Hunter, Robert, 155
Hurricane Tom's Town, 42
Ice in Allegheny River, 86
Indian towns, 100
Indians disown deed, 164
Indians cede lands, 164
Indians invited to Logstown, 69
Indians presents to, 44, 16o, 177, 178
Indians message from Governor Penn, 44
Indians answer, 45, 49, 50
Indians guide to Washington false, 85
Introductory Memoir, 9-30
James River, 11, 13
Jean Cur, 160 162
Johnson, Sir William, 168, 170, 174
Kanestio houses destroyed, 174
Kanhawha River, 20, 21, 143
Kentucky, 130, 131
Keg of rum, 186
Killbuck Island, 171
Kittanning, 106, 189
Kittochtinny Hills, 164
Kuskuskies, 81, 101
 Lane, Governor Ralph, 9
Land wanted by traders, 241
Land company of traders, 241
Laurel Mountains, 33
Laurel thicket, 60, 69
La Demoiselle, Fort, 124
Le Mercier, 275
Leaden plate, Pownall, 273
Le Boeuf, 28
Le Torts Creek, 75, 144
Licking Creek, 42, 71
Licking County, 115
Lincoln, General, wounded, 280
Logstown, 34, 81, 95, 97, 159, 16o, 162, 171
Logstown Treaty, 164
Loyal-hanne, 33, 91
Loyal-sock Creek, 175
Magucktown, 42 116
Mastodon bones, 57, 129
Mason, George, 231
Margaret's Creek, 36, 105
Mercer, Hugh, 187
Meyer, Lieutenant, 112
McKee, Thomas, 172
McKee, Alexander, 97
Miami River, 46, 47, 55, 161
Miller's Run Gap, 92
Mingo Castle, 189
Moncton, General, 187
Monongahela, 69, 71, 77, 138
Montour, Andrew (sometimes called Henry), 159-175
Montour's children, 169
Montour, Madame, 152-158
Montour, captain of Indians, 159, 169
Montour, Andrew, with Gist, 37, 44, 46
 Montour, Andrew, paid for services, 163
Montour, Andrew, war song, 169
Montour, Andrew, chosen a counsellor by Six Nations, 165
Montour, Andrew, messenger to Six Nations, 159, 168
Montour, Andrew, recommended by Hamilton, 160
Montour, Andrew, and Croghan sent to Indians, 160, 162
Montour, Andrew, examined at Philadelphia, 167
Montour, Andrew, sent for by Washington, 167
Montour, Andrew, speaks to Twigtwees, 48
Montour's Run, 164
Morgan, Daniel, 279
Morgan, George, 279
Morgan, George, his Indian policy, 279-284
Morris, Governor, 167
Murthering town, 81
Negro Mountain, 138
Nicholas, Chief, 110
Niagara, Fort, 27
Ohio Company, 220, 238
Ohio Company, first petition, 224
Ohio Company, second petition, 225, 226
Ohio Company, opens road, 225
Ohio Company, sends goods, 225
Ohio Company, Gist employed, 228, 231
Ohio Company, list of members, 225
Ohio Company, conditions to second Petition, 226
Ohio Company, bounds of, 225
Ohio Company, petition granted, 231
Ohio, meaning of, 94
Old Town, 32, 90, 219
O'Hara, James, 216, 240
Orme, Captain, letter, 262
Oppaymolleah, 71-78, 141
Ottawa, 25, 36, 103
Pack horses, 161
Pattin, John, Col., 69, 114
 Paully, Ensign, 112
Petun Indians, 106
Peters, R., 160, 163, 165
Pipe of Peace, 170
Pittsburgh, Conference at, 172
Pine Creek, 189
Piqua, 126, 178
Pluggy's Town, 121
Pond Creek, 145
Poke, Charles, 70-140
Pontiac War raging, 98, 173, 188
Post, Christian, 94, 102, 171
Presents to Indians, 160, 162
Presqu Isle, 28-172
Prisoners, Maginty and others, 132
Prevost, General, 190
Roanoke River, 9, 10
Rappahannock, 15, 17
Rogers, Major, 173
Rye, wild, 117
Redoubt built by Bouquet, 240
Road opened, 225
Salt Lick Creek, 42
Salt Lick Springs, 58
Salt Lick River, 130
Salley, J. P., journal, 253-260
Salley, J. P., taken prisoner, 255
Salley, J. P., escapes, 258
Salley, J. P., arrives at Charlestown, 259
Salle, Sieur de la, 26, 223
Saukon, conference at, 171
Scarroyady, 147, 166, 168
Scalps, rewards offered for, 168
Scalp Creek, 77
Scheme for a new colony in Ohio, 261-266
Schenley, Mrs., gift to D. A. R., 240
 Schuyler, General, letter, 281
Shannopin town, 33, 34, 80, 92, 147, 168
Shannopin Chief, 93
Shannoah town, 56
Shawnee town, 44, 161
Shingess, 81, 102, 147, 172
Shurtees Creek and Fort, 237
Shikillimy, 157, 159
Sinking Creek, 136
Smith, Robert, 58
Soh-kon, 100, 106
South Sea, 9
Spotswood, Governor, 21
Speech from Wiandots, etc., 49
Speech from Delawares to Twigtwees, 49
Stanwix, Treaty at, 249
Stanwix, Fort, 175
Stone, Standing, 116
Stone, letters cut on, 74
Stone store house, 68, 163
Stony Creek, 91
Taimenend, (Col. Morgan), address, his Indian policy, 279-284
Taimenend, letter to Indians 1777, 279
Taaf, Michael, 114
Traders, protect French deserters, 40
Traders, captured, 108
Treaty, Winchester, 165
Treaty, Lancaster, 28-156
Trent, William, 165, 172, 189, 245, 246
Turtle Creek, 8o
Turkey Foot, 138
Twigtwees, 46, 52, 54, 123, 16o
Vandalia Colony, 243
Walpole, Grant, 241-244
 Walker, Dr. Thomas, 24
Walpole, letter from grantees, 247
Ward, Ensign, 96, 98, 167, 275
Warrior path, 61, 90
Washington, 80, 84, 96, 167, 268
Wayne, General, 100
Weiser, 155, 159, 163
Wharton, Samuel, 241-244
White Woman's Creek, 41, 114
Wills' Creek, 80, 87, 147
Wood, Major, 14, 18
Wood's River, 21
Wyandot's Town, 105, 161
Yadkin, 66, 136
Zeisberger, 103, 113
Zinzendorf, 155, 156, 175
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