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[Part 7.]

[ Pages 202-240. Page numbers will appear in the text in brackets in bold print.]

[Transcription is Verbatim.]

[Footnotes appear in smaller font.]

 Thomas Cresap.
 General James Grant.
 Treaty of Lancaster.
 Ohio company.



October 31, 1750.—Colonel Thomas Cresap was the earliest permanent settler in Western Maryland. He established himself at Old Town in 1742 or 3. At the treaty made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, with the Six Nations, in June, 1744, the Chief Cannassatego in his speech said: "We are willing to renounce all right to Lord Baltimore of all those Lands lying two miles above the uppermost Fork of Potowmack or Cohongoruton river near which Thomas Cresap has a Hunting or Trading Cabin, by a North line to the bounds of Pennsylvania." ("Treaty at Lancaster with the Six Nations." "Colonial Records.")

Cresap's cabin or fort was on or near the site of an old town of the Shawanese, a portion of that tribe inhabiting in and about the northern part of the river Potomac from 1698 to 1728—9, when they removed to the Ohio and Allegheny and placed themselves under the protection of the French. ( "Report of Assembly, Journals of 1755.") On the map constructed by William Mayo for Lord Fairfax, in 1737, the bottom lands on this part of the Potomac are marked "Old Shawnee fields deserted. Also on Fry and Jefferson's, and Scull's maps. Its locality is marked on Dr. Mitchell's map of 1755 "Shawnee Old Town." In the Table of Distances to Ohio in 1754, ("Pennsylvania Archives," Vol. II, p. 134.) the first is "New Store at the mouth of Wills creek on Potomack to Cressaps fifteen miles." The name Old Town is yet retained; it is in Old Town District [203] of Allegheny County, Maryland, fifteen miles southeast of Cumberland, on the north side of the Potamac and opposite to Green Spring station, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railway.

Colonel Thomas Cresap was a native of Skipton, in Yorkshire, England. He emigrated to Maryland about the year 1720, when he was but fifteen years of age. He first settled at Havre de Grace, at the mouth of the Susquehanna River. Lord Baltimore, the Proprietary of Maryland, claiming to extend the boundaries of that Province to the fortieth degree of latitude, Cresap obtained a Maryland warrant for 500 acres, and about the year 1731 removed to the locality of his grant, over twenty miles north of the present boundary-line between Pennsylvania and Maryland, at the ferry-landing opposite the "Blue Rock," about five miles below the present town of Wrightsville, on the Susquehanna, in York County.

Cresap's house is marked on Evans' map of Pennsylvania, 1749. His house was the most northerly situated of the Maryland claimants, of whom he was the leader, being a man of great strength, courage and indomitable resolution. Violent and bloody collisions frequently occurred between the Pennsylvanians and Marylanders. On November 24, 1736, Cresap's house or fort was surrounded by an armed company of twenty-three men, headed by the Sheriff of Lancaster County with a judge's warrant. ("Pennsylvania Archives.") After a sharp conflict Cresap's capture was only effected by burning the house. He was ironed, taken to Philadelphia and there imprisoned for near two years. Reprisals by the authorities of Maryland speedily followed.

This bitter border warfare was allayed by an order of the King, in Council, May 25, 1738. The prisoners of both Provinces were released and a provisional boundary-line established in 1739. ("Pennsylvania Archives.") It continued to be the subject of protracted [204] litigation between the Penns and Lord Baltimore before the High Court of Chancery, in England. The controversy was conclusively settled by amicable agreement and the running of the famous Mason and Dixon's Line, in 1769, and its completion, in 1784 A full and complete history of this boundary controversy would make a large but interesting volume. (See the printed "Case of Messieurs Penn and the people of Pennsylvania and the three lower Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex on Delaware in relation to a series of Injuries and Hostilities made upon them, for several years past, by Thomas Cresap and others by the Direction and Authority of the Deputy Governor of Maryland." To be heard before the Honorable Lords of the Privy Council for Plantation affairs at the Cockpit, White Hall, on Thursday 23d February 1737. "Colonial Records." "Pennsylvania Archives.")

Col. Cresap was by nature well adapted for a leader in border contests. He seemed as one "born unto trouble," certainly he never shunned it. Originally a carpenter, afterwards a surveyor, planter and Indian trader, as well as Indian fighter. ("Pennsylvania Archives," Vol. 1, pp. 311-52.) He made an excellent map of the western boundary of Maryland for Lord Baltimore, which is now in the possession of the Maryland Historical Society. Soon after his return from captivity, in Philadelphia, in 1737 or 8, he removed to a tract of land on the Antietam Creek, in the present Washington County, Maryland, and engaged in the Indian trade and failed. He then fixed his residence at Old Town, or Skipton, as he named it. He was an agent for the Ohio Company and also a member of it. (See "Sketch of the Ohio Company.") This Company made the first English settlement at Pittsburgh, before Braddock's war; and it was through their means and efforts that the first road was made through the Allegheny Mountains. The war placed Col. Cresap in a perilous situation, and he removed his family to Conococheague; he had to fight his way, being attacked by a [205] party of Indians. He soon raised a company of volunteers and marched to attack the Indians; his son, Thomas, was killed in their first skirmish. Soon after, peace was made and he returned to his farm at Old Town.

Col. Cresap's literary attainments were small, but by industry and application he obtained a sufficient knowledge of surveying to be entrusted with the surveyorship of Prince George's County, and frequently represented his county in the Legislature. When he was upwards of eighty he married for the second time. He had five children—three sons and two daughters. His youngest son was Michael, who was represented by Mr. Jefferson, most probably unjustly, "as infamous for his many Indian murders and the massacre of Logan's family. (See "Biographical Sketch of the Life of the late Captain Michael Cresap," by Jacobs.)




Philadelphia, Dec. 31, 1797.

I took the liberty the last summer of writing to you from hence, making some enquiries on the subject of Logan's Speech, and the murder of his family, and you were kind enough in your answer among other things, to correct the title of Cresap who is said to have headed the party, by observing that he was a Capt and not a Col. I trouble you with a second letter asking if you could explain to me how Logan came to call him Col. If you have favored me with an answer to this it has [206] miscarried, I therefore trouble you again on the subject, and as the transaction must have been familiar to you, I will ask the favor of you to give me the names and residence, of any persons now living who you think were of Cresap's party, or who can prove his participation in this transaction either by direct evidence or from circumstances, or who can otherwise throw light on the fact. A Mr. Martin (Luther Martin, Attorney-General of Maryland, married a daughter Captain Cresap.) of Baltimore has questioned the whole transaction, suggesting Logan's Speech to be not genuine, and denying that either Col or Capt Cresap had any hand in the murder of his family. I do not intend to enter into any newspaper contest with Mr Martin; but in the first republication of the notes on Virginia to correct the Statement where it is wrong and support it where it is right.

My distance from the place where witnesses of the transactions reside is so great, that it will be a lengthy and imperfect operation in my hands. Any aid you can give me in it will be most thankfully received. I avail myself with great pleasure of every occasion of recalling myself to your recollection, and of assuring you of the sentiments of esteem and attachment with which I am

dear Sir, your most obedt and
humble Servt



An extensive landed estate, with a castle and village, at the confluence of the Avon and Spey, Parish of Inveravon, Banffshire, Highlands of Scotland, where a large district of the present counties of Elgin and Banff—ancient Morayshire— was long known as the country of the Grants or people of Strathspey, one of the most ancient Highland clans. The chiefs and most of the clansmen were Whigs, and supporters of the House of Hanover, in opposition to the Stuarts. After studying law James Grant entered the army in 1741, as Ensign, at the age of twenty-two, and became Captain in the 1st Battalion, 1st Royal Scots, October 24, 1744. In 1747 he was appointed aid to General James St. Clair, Ambassador to the Courts of Vienna and Turin. David Hume, the historian, was Secretary to the Embassy. Captain Grant served in the wars in the Netherlands.

In January, 1757, he was commissioned Major of the new 77th Regiment, 1st Battalion, known as Montgomery Highlanders, commanded by Lieutenent-Colonel Archibald Montgomery, afterwards Earl of Eglintown. They were ordered to America, and sailed from Cork, Ireland, and arrived at Halifax, America, in August. ("Pennsylvania Gazette." "Scot's Magazine.") Sailed for Charleston, South Carolina, arriving there September 29th, having been ordered there with a portion of the Royal Americans, in apprehension of an attack by the French, from the West Indies. In 1758 the regiment arrived at Philadelphia from Charleston, South Carolina, and [208] encamped beyond the new barracks. A few days afterwards they were reviewed by General Forbes, in the presence of a great number of people, who were highly gratified by the display, the fine military appearance of the troops and the novelty of their dress. General Forbes, in command of the Southern Department, was engaged in assembling an army in Philadelphia, intended for the capture of Fort Du Quesne.

1758.—In September, Major Grant was sent with eight hundred men to reconnoitre the fort. Dividing his force, to draw the enemy into an ambuscade, he was himself surprised and defeated, with a loss of a third of his party killed, wounded and missing. Grant and nineteen officers were captured. (See letter in "Fort Pitt.") He became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 40th Foot in 1760, and was appointed Governor of East Florida. In 1761 he was despatched by General Amherst, with a force of thirteen hundred Regulars, against the Indians of Carolina. (Cherokees.)

Grant succeeded to the family estate on the death of his nephew, Major William Grant. In 1772 he became Brevet-Colonel; in 1773 he was returned to Parliament for Wickburghs, and at the general election of the year after for Sutherlandshire. In December, 1775, he was appointed Colonel of the 55th Foot. In 1776 Grant went as a Brigadier to America, with the reinforcement under General Howe. He commanded two British brigades at the battle of Long Island, was employed by Lord Howe on special services in New Jersey, accompanied the army to Philadelphia, and commanded the 1st and 2d Brigades of British at the battles of Brandywine and Germantown. (Letters of Grant.)

In May, 1778, he was sent with a strong force to cut off Lafayette, but was unsuccessful. He commanded the force [209] sent from New York to the West Indies, which captured St. Lucia in December, 1778, and defended the island against an attempt to recapture it, made by a French force under the Count d'Estaing.

Grant became a Major-General in 1777, Lieutenant-General in 1782, General, in 1796. He was transferred from the 55th to the 11th Foot, in 1791, and was Governor, in succession, of Dumbarton and Stirling Castles. He was noted for his love of good living and became immensely corpulent.

He died at Ballindalloch, April 13, 1806, in his eighty-sixth year. Having no descendants his estate went to his grandnephew, George Macpherson, who assumed the surname of Grant. (Anderson's "Scottish Nation.")



A SENECA chief, one of the Indians who accompanied Washington from Logstown to Venango and LeBoeuf as a guard in 1753, mentioned by Washington as the young hunter and by Gist as a "young warrior." After the defeat of Braddock the Indians generally went over to the French.

Guyasuta with a party of twenty Senecas visited Montreal with Joncaire, the interpreter. At the castle of Montreal the Indians were received in the council chamber with much ceremony by the Governor of Canada, the Marquis de Vaudreuil, and council. Guyasuta, chief and orator of the Senecas, addressed Vaudreuil. They remained all winter in the neighborhood, it being too late to return home. He was with the Indians when they, with the French, defeated Grant, in 1758.

Guyasuta, two other chiefs and sixteen warriors of the Six Nations, a large number of Delawares, Shawanese and Wyandots assembled at Pittsburgh in July, and held a conference lasting a week with George Croghan, Sir William Johnson's Deputy Indian Agent, Colonel Hugh Mercer, commandant, and the officers of Fort Pitt. Most of the Indians had been allied to The French, and this was their first treaty with the English subsequent the capture of Fort Du Quesne, in November preceding.

In August, 1762, at the conference with the western Indians at Lancaster, Thomas King, in behalf of the chiefs of the Six Nations in his speech before the council said: "We want a little lad that lives among you; he is Kiasuta's [211] (Guyasuta) son. The father ordered that he should live at Philadelphia, in order to learn English, to be an interpreter. We think by this time he has learned it, and we now think it time for him to come home. His relations that are present, desire that he may now go home with them." On August 27th, the Governor replied: "The little boy, Kiasuta's son, is, I hope, on his way here, having sent for him to Philadelphia."

At a treaty held at Fort Pitt in May, 1768, Keyashuta (Guyasuta) rose with a copy of the "Treaty of 1764 with Col. Bradstreet" in his hand, and addressing the commissioners said: "By this treaty we agreed that you had a right to build forts and trading-houses where you pleased, and to travel the road of peace from the sun rising to the sun setting. At that treaty the Shawanese and Delawares were with me, and know all this well, and I am surprised they should speak to you as they did yesterday." He had been present at this treaty with fifteen warriors, and was one of the orators; Turtle Heart, Custaloga, and Beaver were the others. He desired the several nations "to be strong in complying with their engagements, that they might wipe away the reproach of their former breach of faith, and convince their brothers the English that they could speak the truth," adding that he would conduct the army to the place appointed for receiving the prisoners.

On November 9, Col. Bouquet, attended by most of the principal officers, went to the conference-house. The Senecas and Delawares were first treated with. Kiashuta and ten warriors represented the former; Custaloga and twenty warriors the latter. Kiashuta addressed the conference and was answered by Col. Bouquet. In Washington's "Tour to the Ohio in 1770": "When encamped opposite the mouth of the Great Hockhocking we found Kiasutha and his hunting party encamped. Here we were under a necessity of paying our [212] compliments, as this person was one of the Six Nation chiefs and the head of those upon this River. In the person of Kiashuta I found an old acquaintance, he being one of the Indians that went with me to the French in 1753."

May, 1774.—A meeting was held at Col. Croghan's house, Ligonier, at which were present Guyasutha, White Mingo and the Six Nation Deputies. Guyasutha was one of the orators.

July, 1776, he was present at a conference at Fort Pitt and was one of the orators. He was in command of one of the parties of Indians that in July, 1782, made the attack on Hannastown and burned it.



BROTHERS: The Sons of my beloved Brother Onas. (Penn.) When I was young and strong our country was full of game, which the Good Spirit sent for us to live upon. The lands which belonged to us were extended far beyond where we hunted. I and the people of my nation had enough to eat and always something to give to our friends when they entered our cabins; and we rejoiced when they received it from us; hunting was then not tiresome, it was diversion; it was a pleasure.

Brothers: When your fathers asked land from my nation, we gave it to them, for we had more than enough. Guyasuta was amongst the first of the people to say, "Give land to our brother Onas for he wants it," and he has always been a friend to Onas and to his children.

[213] Brothers: Your fathers saw Guyasuta when he was young; when he had not even thought of old age or weakness; but you are too far off to see him, now he is grown old. He is very old and feeble, and he wonders at his own shadow, it is become so little. He has no children to take care of him, and the game is driven away by the white people; so that the young men must hunt all day long to find game for themselves to eat; they have nothing left for Guyasuta; and it is not Guyasuta only who is become old and feeble, there yet remain about thirty men of your old friends, who, unable to provide for themselves or to help one another, are become poor and are hungry and naked.

Brothers: Guyasuta sends you a belt which he received long ago from your fathers, and a writing which he received but as yesterday from one of you. By these you will remember him and the old friends of your fathers in this nation. Look on this belt and this writing, and if you remember the old friends of your fathers, consider their former friendship and their present distress; and if the Good Spirit shall put it in your hearts to comfort them in their old age, do not disregard his council. We are men and therefore need only tell you that we are old and feeble and hungry and naked; and that we have no other friends but you, the children of our beloved brother Onas.



To Colonel George Morgan.

On or about the 9th of November last I was sent by General Hand to Connewago, a Seneca Town on the Allegany River, with a friendly Message to the Six Nations. I arrived there the 14th of November and after executing my orders waited there till the 24th of the Month. During my stay there, Conengayote or the White Mingo, returned from Niagara with a Horse load of Goods, which he told me he had purchased for Horses he had stole from near Ligonier in Pennsylvania about the month of ___ last, at which time he and his Party killed four Men. On or about the 23 (?)d of November Co, co, caw, can, keteda or the Flying Crow, with twenty five Warriors of the Senecas of the Turtle Tribe, among whom were Joneowentashaun and Coneotahanck or the Leaf, (War Chief) arrived at Connewago with two scalps, and a Woman they had taken Prisoner about fifteen days before from near Ligonier aforesaid. On conversing with her and with the Indians, I was informed that the Indians had killed and scalped her Husband, Forbes, and had beat out the brains of their only Child against a Tree in the Road.

Kushgwehgo or Full Face, and twenty seven others of the Senecas of the Eagle Tribe, had been to war against the people of Pennsylvania East of the Alleghany Mountain (I understood in Bedford County); they were out eighteen days when I arrived at the Town; they were daily expected back [215] when I came away. Two Prisoners the Senecas had taken from Pennsylvania they had put to death in one of their Upper Towns.

Old Keyashuta (Guyasuta) is now among our warmest Enemies. He and the others say they have been deceived or treated ill at Fort Pitt, and that the Americans intend to cheat them of their Lands, for which reason they have now determined to join the King of England's Troops agreeable to the repeated Invitations of Col. Butler and the Commanding Officer at Niagara &c, who have on that condition promised to supply them and their women and children with every necessary; wherefore they were determined to exert themselves in committing Hostilities against the Frontier inhabitants early in the Spring, with all their Abilities and this I am persuaded they will do unless Keyenguatah, (General Schuyler's great Friend, who fought on the side of the English at Fort Schuyler should alter his conduct and order them to sit still; for they have agreed to be directed by him and so have all the Six Nations. The Indians had not heard of General Burgoyne's defeat or of his Army's being made Prisoners, nor would they believe me when I informed them thereof. Keyashuta informed me that a Party of seventy two, consisting of Indians and twenty five Whitemen from Detroit, and some Delaware and Munsies from Guyohoga had been to war against the Inhabitants of Pennsylvania (I understand north of Ligonier) and had taken two Scalps at a Fort near Connemaugh, where they lost the Commanding Officer who was killed from the Fort. Joneowentashaun told me the English had lately erected a Store House at Guyahoga, to supply all the Indians in that Neighbourhood with every necessary to enable them to commit Hostilities against the Frontier Inhabitants of Pennsylvania and Virginia.

The Indians after consulting together, informed me that I [216] must go with them to Niagara, to which I pretended to consent, and finding that to be their resolution I made my Escape and arrived here the 27th of November.

In the presence of

(His X mark.)

PITTSBURGH, January 17th, 1778

The Chief Guyasuta's interest in the farm, (The residence of the family of William M. Darlington. M. C. D.) now in O'Hara township, was purchased by General O'Hara. In a letter-book of General O'Hara's, mention is made of provision sent to Guyasuta, who seems to have lived continuously at that farm during his last years, and was buried there in the Indian Mound, by General O'Hara. The name is spelled in many ways—Kayashuta, Guyashutha, Guashota, Kia-shuta, Keyashuta, Kiyashuta, Kiasolo.

Mr. Craig writes in the "Olden Time": "We recollect him well, have often seen him about our father's house, he being still within our memory, a stout active man." There is a picture of his grave in "Fort Pitt."

By Mary Carson Darlington,
Pittsburgh, J. R. Weldin & Co., 1892.



At a Council held at Philadelphia, on October 14, 1736, by Thomas Penn, Governor and Proprietary of Pennsylvania, James Logan, the President, and members of the Provincial Council, with the Chiefs of the Six Nations, the Indians requested that a letter be written to the Governors of Maryland and Virginia, requesting compensation for their lands claimed by right of conquest, and upon which the white settlers had intruded, along the Cohongoronto or Potomac, and west of the great Allegheny mountain ridge, on the frontiers of Virginia; that being the boundary claimed by the Indians as agreed, upon with Governor Spotswood in 1722. ("New York Colonial History.") This demand was renewed, and pressed by the Indians at the treaty held at the same city in 1742; Canassetego, the great chief of the Onondagas, saying that if not compensated for their lands, they would take payment themselves.

The threatening attitude of the powerful Six Nations or Iroquois, the war with France, and the necessity of conciliating the Indians, occasioned the famous Treaty of Lancaster in 1744, between the Confederated Tribes and the Provinces of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. ("Colonial Records." Colden's "Twelve Nations.")

Thomas Lee and Colonel William Beverly were the Commissioners of Virginia; Edmund Jenings, Philip Thomas, Col. Robert King, and Col. Robert Colville, of Maryland. Governor Thomas, of Pennsylvania, presided. (Thomas Lee was Judge of the Supreme Court, and Councillor of State; [218] William Beverly, Lieutenant of the county of Orange). (Virginia State Papers.) There was a warm discussion, and on the part of the Indians at least, a great display of eloquence.

The Virginia Commissioners said to the Chiefs : "Tell us what Nations of Indians you conquered any lands from in Virginia, how long it is since and what Possession you have had; and if it does appear, that there is any land on the Borders of Virginia that the Six Nations have a Right to we are willing to make you satisfaction." The Chief, Tachanoontia, proudly answered: "We have the Right of Conquest, a Right too dearly purchased and which cost us too much Blood to give up without any reason at all as you say we have done at Albany. All the World knows we conquered the several Nations living on the Susquehannah, Cohongoronto (Potomac) and on the back of the great Mountains in Virginia. They feel the effects of our conquests, being now a part of our Nation and their lands at our disposal." He admitted that the Virginia Colonists had conquered a certain tribe he named and "drove back the Tuscaroras and on that account a right to some part of Virginia; but," he continued, "as to what lies beyond the mountains we conquered the Nations residing there; and that land if the Virginians ever get a good right to it, it must be by us."

Commissioners replied, "that the great King holds Virginia by right of Conquest, and the bounds of that Conquest to the westward is the great Sea." "Though great things are well remembered among us," said the Indians, "yet we don't remember that we were ever conquered by the Great King, or, that we have been employed by that Great King to conquer others, if it was so, it is beyond our memory."

After much feasting, drinking, and bestowal of presents by the whites, the Indians agreed to release their claim to what [219] is now Western Maryland, to Lord Baltimore, "as far as two miles above the uppermost Fork of the Potomac or Cohongoronto river near which Thomas Cresap has a Hunting or Trading Cabin, (at Old Town, fourteen miles east of Cumberland), in consideration of £300 payable in goods. With the Commissioners of Virginia they agreed for £200 in gold, and goods to value of £200 more, to "immediately make a Deed recognizing King's right to all the Lands that are or shall be by His Majesty's appointment in the Colony of Virginia," together with a written promise of further remuneration as settlements increased westward. ("Treaty of Lancaster," printed by Franklin, 1744.) With the Governor of Pennsylvania they confirmed former treaties and received a present of goods to the value of £300 The deeds were signed and the money paid and the merchandise delivered. ("Treaty of Lancaster," printed by Franklin, 1744.)

It was not until the year 1768 that the Six Nations, by the Treaty at Fort Stanwix, relinquished all their rights to the country on the east and south side of the Ohio River, from the Cherokee River (Tennessee), to Kittanning, above Fort Pitt, and also east of a specified line described in the deed, continued to Wood Creek, near Fort Stanwix, in consideration of the sum of £10,460. 7. 6. sterling. At the same time it was agreed that no old claims under the treaties of Lancaster, and Logstown should be allowed. ("New York Colonial History.") It was after the Treaty of Lancaster that large tracts of land were granted to the Ohio Company.



(MSS. from Record Office, London.)

August 21, 175 1.—Notwithstanding the Grants of the Kings of England, France or Spain, the Property of these uninhabited Parts of the World must be founded upon prior Occupancy according to the Law of Nature; and it is the seating and cultivating the soil and not the bare travelling through a Territory that constitutes Right; and it will be politic and highly for the Interest of the Crown to encourage the seating the Lands Westward as soon as possible to prevent the French; which I Hope will be accomplished as the Freedom and Liberty of our Government will so much sooner invite into the British Colonies, Foreigners. We have not been able to prevail with the northern Indians to come to Fredericksburg to accept of his Majesty's Present, and the Reason they offer is, the immense Distance and the Death of several of their Great Men, which they attribute to the Journeys they have taken to the Places where Conferences have been held, but they acquaint us at the same Time that they will meet any persons the Government think proper to send to Log's Town, a Place not far from our back Inhabitants, where they frequently hold their Councils; this I communicated [221] to his Majesty's Council, who with myself approved of it, and this Fall I shall send a Messenger to acquaint them that I purpose next May to send Commissioners to meet them at the Place they desire; and at the Conference I shall endeavour to obtain a confirmation of the Grant of the Lands made to his Majesty at the Treaty of Lancaster, in Order to give the Company an Opportunity of surveying the large Tract of Land his Majesty was pleased to grant to them. I shall at the same Time, make a remonstrance to them of the inhuman treatment they have shewn to some of our back Inhabitants, by robbing and plundering their houses, and last June because a poor woman would not with patience see her House robbed of every thing in it, they in a most horrible Manner murdered her. These outrages have been committed upon our shewing too much lenity to them, and will be a means of drawing upon ourselves much more ill Treatment if not properly resented, and therefore in as mild Terms as is consistent with the nature of the thing I shall insist that the offenders be given up to Justice.


(MSS. from Record Office, London. Letter from Col. Lee, President of the Council and Commander-in-Chief of Virginia.)

WILLIAMSBURG, June 12, 1750.

My Lords:
I have lately received a letter from the Governor of New York dated the 8th of April, proposing my prevailing with the Catawbas, an Indian Nation bordering on the Carolinas, to meet the Six Nations at Albany to confirm the peace Governor Sir William Gooch made between them, which has been broke by both Parties, and further the French are [222] at this time assiduous in their Endeavours to incite the several Nations that are dependent on, and friends to the English, to a war with one another, and make large presents to the Indians on the Ohio. I have accounts from other hands that the French have endeavoured to persuade those Indians to drive the English Traders from thence, which being refused, the French threaten to treat them as enemys, so that the Mohocks expect a war with their Father Onantio; as they call the Governor of Quebec. ("Céleron's Expedition.") I have received His Majesty's present for the Indians of the Six Nations, and several of their Tribes on the Ohio, and have taken the best methods I could think of, to bring those Nations to Fredericksburg in their Colony, and I have invited the Catawbas to meet them, to make a peace personally, which has never been done yet, and is the reason that it has been of no effect. When the Indians hearts and Eyes are Open, on receiving the King's present, I hope to secure their affections to the British Interest in General, and persuade them to be friends, and faithful subjects to His Majesty, and as this is the antientiest and most central Colony, it will save an expence by having future treatys here, especially, when the business to be transacted relates to the affairs of this Colony."



In the year 1609 a new charter was obtained (for Virginia) in which all the Lands, Countries and Territories were granted in that part of America called Virginia, from the Cape or Point Comfort, two hundred miles Northward, and two hundred miles southward along the sea-coast; and all that space and [223] circuit of land, lying from the seacoast of the Precinct aforesaid up into the main Land throughout from sea to sea west and north west, and also all the Islands lying within one hundred miles along the coast of both seas.

The French claimed the Lands along the Mississippi. Monsieur de la Sale was the first Frenchman, that discovered the Mississippi, who in the year 1682, with Monsieur de Tonti and others from Montreal travelled through the Nation of the Iroquois, called now the Six Nations, to a nation of Indians named Illinois, living on an east Branch of Mississippi, of the same name with the Nation, but he called it Seigne bay. On this river he built a Fort, which he named Lewis, according this to Tousels account, but Hennepin calls it Crevecoeur.

Monsieur de la Sale went down this river to the Mississippi and down it to the mouth, which he found to be in the Bay of Mexico. He then returned by Canada to France, and obtained from the King ships and men in the year 1684 to discover the Mouth of the Mississippi by sea, but he missed it, and landed on the Continent to the south west. From thence he made some journeys into the country to look for the river, but was murdered by some of his own men without finding it. In the year 1742 one John Howard received a commission from our Governor to make discoveries westward, and with four or five others set out from the branches of James river, and came to the New river. There they made a Boat with Buffaloes Hides, and went down, till they found the river impassable on account of Falls. Leaving it they travelled south westerly a considerable way to another river, which proved to be a south branch of the New river, for they made another boat and went down to that river, and with it to the Allegany (Ohio.) river.

Howard and his men proceeded down this river a long way, by their reckoning above eight hundred miles, to the Mississippi, and went down it a great way till they were surprised [224] by about ninety men, French, Indians and Negroes; were made Prisoners and carried to New Orleans. They set out from the branches of the James river March the 16th, came to Allegany May the 6th, to Mississippi June the 7th and were taken July the 2d. In all this time and large tract of country they had seen nobody till they were taken, but about fifteen Indians in several Companies and they too were chiefly if not all of the Northern Nations.

John Peter Salley, one of the men who went with Howard, mentions in his Journal three French Towns on an Island in the Mississippi above the mouth of the Owabache.

Howard and his men had been confined a long time at New Orleans, when after the French War broke out he and one or two of them were shipped for France, but on the Voyage were taken by an English Ship, and carried to London. The rest of them made their escape out of prison, and through great difficulties got to South Carolina, and thence to Virginia.

The first Peace the Colony of Virginia made with the Indians was at Albany by Col. Coursey in the year 1677, which after some breach made by the Indians was renewed in the year 1679 by Col. Kendal, and again in 1684 by Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia. This peace was soon broken and renewed by Col. William Byrd and Col. Edmond Jennings in the year 1685. When we began to take up Lands and settle beyond the Blue Ridge, the Six Nations grew uneasy; the Indians claimed the Land as theirs. This brought on the Treaty of Lancaster in the year 1744.

(Copied from the Mercer Papers, which belonged to the Ohio Company.)

In 1748 John Hanbury, a Merchant of London, Thomas Lee, President of the Council of Virginia, with a number of others, mostly prominent Virginians, formed the "Ohio Company." [225] The King granted them two hundred thousand Acres of Land, to be taken on the South side of the river Allegheny, otherwise the Ohio, between the Kiskiminites Creek and Buffalo Creek, and between Yellow Creek and Cross Creek, on the North side; or in such other part of the Country west of the Allegheny Mountains as they should think proper, on Condition that they should settle one hundred families thereon within seven years, and erect and maintain a Fort. On compliance therewith, the Company was to become entitled to Three hundred thousand Acres more, adjoining the first grant.

The Company bought and sent out a large Cargo of goods from England in 1749-50, and built a Store House opposite the mouth of Wills Creek, now Cumberland Maryland, from which place to Turkey Foot, or the Three forks of the Youghioghany, they had a road opened in 1751. In 1750 they employed Christopher Gist to explore and examine the Country west of the Mountains. He was a Native of Maryland, like his Father Richard, a Surveyor. A man of excellent character, energetic, fearless and a thorough woodsman.




Arthur Dobbs, Esq'r Ex'rs of Law'e Washington
John Hanbury Angus'ne Washington
Samuel Smith Richard Lee
James Wardrop Nath'el Chapman
Capel Hanbury Jacob Giles
Robert Dinwiddie, Esq'r Thomas Cresap
The Exec. of Thomas Lee late President & Governor of Virginia 2 shares John Mercer
James Scott
John Taylor, Esq Robert Carter
Prestly Thornton, Esq George Mason


The Humble Petition of the Ohio Company Sheweth,

That your Petitioners upon Intimation given by several Nations of Indians residing near the Ohio and other Branches of Mississippi and near the Lakes westward of Virginia, that were desirous of trading with your Majesty's Subjects and quitting the ffrench; and knowing the value of those Rich Countrys which were given up and acknowledged to be your Majesty's undoubted right by the Six Nations, who are Lawfull Lords of all these Lands by Conquest from other Indian Nations, at the treaty of Lancaster on the 2nd day of July 1744. Your petitioners being sensible of the vast consequence of securing those Countrys from the ffrench, did in the year 1748, form themselves into a Company to Trade with the Indians and to make settlements upon the Ohio or Alleghany River, by the name of the Ohio Company. That the Company in the beginning of the year 1749 Petitioned your Majesty, wherein they set forth the vast Advantage it would be to Britain and the Colonys to anticipate the French by taking possession of that Country Southward of the Lakes, to which the French had no Right, nor had then taken possession, except a small Block house Fort among the Six Nations, below the falls of Niagara, they having deserted Le Detroit fort Northward of Erie Lakes, during the War and retired to Canada.

The Reasons for securing the same being mentioned at large in their said former Petition, and in which they prayed that your Majesty would give orders or Instructions to your Governor of Virginia, to make out to your Petitioners five hundred thousand Acres betwixt Romanittoe and Buffaloe Creeks on the South side of the Allegany or Ohio River, and between the two Creeks and Yellow Creek on the North side [227] of that River, upon the Terms and with the Allowance therein mentioned to which they beg leave to Refer.

That your Petitioners in pursuance of the said Petition, obtained an order from your Majesty to your Lieutenant Governor of Virginia dated March the 18th 1749, to make them a grant or Grants of Two hundred thousand Acres of Land between Romanetto and Buffaloe Creeks, on the south side of the Ohio, and betwixt the two creeks and Yellow Creek on the North Side thereof, or in such part to the Westward of the great Mountains as the Company should think proper for making settlements and extending their trade with the Indians, with a Promise if they did not erect a Fort in the said Land, and maintain a sufficient Garrison therein and seat at their proper Expense a hundred families therein in seven years, the said grants should be void. And as soon as these terms were accomplished, he was ordered to make out a further Grant or Grants of three hundred thousand Acres, under like Conditions, Restrictions and allowances as the first 200,000 Acres, adjoining thereto and within these limits. These orders were delivered to the Honourable William Nelson on the 12th of July following (1749) and upon producing them before the Governor and Council, they made an entry in the Council Books, that the said Company should have leave given them to take up and survey 200,000 Acres within the Place mentioned in your Majestys said Instructions and Order. That your Petitioners upon their entry in the Council Books, sent to Great Britain for a Cargo of Goods to begin their Trade, and purchased Lands upon the Potomack River, being the most convenient place to erect Store Houses, and in September following (1749) employed Gentlemen to discover the Lands beyond the Mountains, to know where to place their surveys. But they not having made any considerable progress, the Company in September 1750 agreed to give Mr. Christopher [228] Gist £150 certain, and such further handsome allowance as his service should deserve, for searching and discovering the Lands upon the Ohio and its several Branches as low as the falls on the Ohio, with proper Instructions. He accordingly set out October 1750 and did not return until May 1751, after a tour of 1200 Miles in which he visited many towns and found them all desirous of entering into strict friendship and Trade with your Majestys Subjects.

That your Petitioners at their General Meeting in May 1751, judging it necessary for their Trade and passage to the Ohio, to have a Grant of some Land belonging to Maryland and Pennsylvania, wrote to Mr. Hanbury to apply for the same to the Proprietors, and laid out and opened a wagon road thirty feet wide from their Store house at Wills Creek, to the three branches on Ganyangaine River computed to be near Eighty Miles; and applied to the President and Masters of William and Mary College for a Commission to a Surveyor to lay out the Lands, as they pretend they had a right to do, proposing to begin the survey after receiving Mr. Gists Report.

Your Petitioners finding by the said Gists journal that he had only observed the Lands on the North side of the Ohio, and finding that the Indians were unwilling that they should then settle on the Miami River, or on the north side of the Ohio, and the Land lying too much exposed and at too great a distance, They employed the said Gist to go out a second time to view and examine the land between Mohongaly and the Big Conhaway, Wood or New River on the south East side of the Ohio, which employed him from the 4th of November 1751 to the March following 1752; but he could not finish his Plan and report before October 1752, at which time the company gave in a Petition to the Governor and Council, praying leave to survey and take up their first 200,000 Acres between Romanettoes, otherwise Kiskominettos Creek, and the fork of [229] the Ohio and the great Conhaway otherwise New River, otherwise Woods river, on the south side of the river Ohio in several Surveys. The Governor and Council having not thought fit to comply with the prayer of the said Petition, to allow your Petitioners to survey their Lands in different Tracts as would best accomodate the settlers and secure their frontiers from attacks, the President and Masters of the College also refusing to give out a Commission to a Surveyor; and the late Governor and Council having made out large Grants to private persons Land-gobbers, to the amount of near 1,400,000 Acres. Immediately, even the same day, after your Majestys Instructions for making out your Petitioners Grant and Surveys, became publicly known where the Lands were not properly described or Limited, nor Surveyed, by which means their several Grants might have interfered with the Lands discovered and chosen by the Company, your Petitioners now laid under difficultys in surveying and letting their Lands and Erecting the fort, tho' your Petitioners have been at very great Expence and are willing to be at a much greater, to secure those valuable Countrys and the Indian Trade. That your Petitioners apprehend from these instructions, and the Delay and Expence attending Surveys, and from the suits that may be commenced upon account of the Grants made out to other Persons since the Instructions given by your Majesty to grant to your Petitioners the Land mentioned in the said instructions which may occasion longer Delays. The Company may be prevented from fulfilling their Covenant of settling the Lands and Compleating their Fort in the time specified by the said Contract. And as boundaries to large Grants are much more natural and easy to be ascertained by having Rivers for their Limits, and streight Lines or Mountains to connect them from River to River, and at much less Expence and delay in fixing them, Therefore your [230] petitioners pray, that upon Condition your Petitioners shall enlarge their settlements and seat 300 families, instead of one hundred by their former Contract, and in consideration of their erecting two forts, one at Chartiers Creek and the other at the Fork where the great Conhaway enters the Ohio and maintain them at their own expence, That your Majesty will be graciously pleased to enlarge their Grant under the same Exemption of Rights and Quit Rents as in the former Instructions, and to fix the Bounds without any further delay or Survey, from Romanettos or Kiskomenetto Creek on the South East side of the Ohio, to the Fork at the entrance of great Conhaway River; and from thence along the North side of the said Conhaway River to the Entrance of Green Briar River, and from thence in a streight Line or Lines along the Mountains to the South East Spring of Mohangaly River; and from thence Northward along the Mountains to the North East springs of Romametto or Kiskominetto Creek, or till a West Line from the Mountains intersect this said Spring and along it to its entrance into the Ohio; which will prevent all Disputes or Delays about the Limitts which are necessary to be immediately determined, as the season is advancing to procure foreign Protestants and other of your Majestys subjects to go on with the settlement, and to provide materials to erect the second Fort at the mouth of the great Conhaway River, (the Fort on Chartiers Creek being now building) in order to prevent the Intrusions and incroachments of the Indians in the French aliance and secure our settlements upon the Ohio; which if not immediately put in Execution before they get permission may be highly detrimental to the Colonys and occasion a great future Expence to Britain.

And your Petitioners will ever pray etc.

The Lords of the Committee referred the petition to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to consider thereof and Report their Opinion thereupon to the committee.

[231] The Petition was granted by King and Council. At a meeting of the Company held at Stafford Court House, some of the Members resigned and George Mason was received. They advised Mr. Hanbury of the proceedings of the meeting, and desired him to offer the Duke of Bedford a share, if he chose to be concerned, upon the terms of the Association. As Mr. Hanbury had wrote us that we were obliged to his Grace for his Assistance in obtaining his Majesty's Instruction, and his declaration of the advantage he conceived it would be of to Great Britain and this colony, for that notwithstanding we expected a great deal of interested opposition and should think ourselves happy in having such a patron at the head of the Company. They then agreed with H. Parker for the carriage of all their goods from the falls of Potomack to their general factory on the River Ohio, and authorized Col. Cresap to have a road opened to those places. They desired the Ohio Indians might be invited to a Treaty, and an Interpreter might be employed by Virginia, and Mr. Parker their factor be put in the commission of the Peace for Augusta County. George Mason was appointed Treasurer.



Whereas the Governor has been pleased to grant you a commission empowering and requiring you to go as an agent for the Ohio Company to the Indian Treaty to be held at Logs Town on the 16th day of May next. You are therefore desired to acquaint the chiefs of the several nations of Indians there assembled, that his Majesty has been graciously pleased to grant unto the Hon. Robert Dinwiddie Esq'r, Governor of Virginia, and to several other gentlemen in Great Britain and [232] America, by the name of the Ohio Company, a large quantity of Land on the river Ohio and the Branches thereof, thereby to enable and to encourage the said company and all his Majesties subjects, to make settlement and carry on an extensive Trade and commerce with their Brethren the Indians, and to supply them with Goods at a more easy rate than they have hitherto bought them. And considering the necessities of his children the Six Nations, and the other Indians to the Westward of the English settlements, and the hardship they labor under for want of a due supply of Goods and to remove the same as much as possible, his Majesty has been pleased to have a clause inserted in the said Companies Grant obliging them to carry on a trade and commerce with their Brethren the Indians, and has granted them many privileges and immunities in consideration of their carrying on the said trade, and supplying the Indians with Goods; that the said Company have accordingly begun the Trade and imported large quantities of goods, but have found the expence and Risque of carrying out the Goods without assistance from the Inhabitants, not having any place of safety by the way to lodge them at, or opportunity of getting provisions for their people, so great that they cannot afford to sell their Goods at so easy a rate as they would willingly do; nor are they at such a distance able to supply their Brethren the Indians at all times when they are in want. For which reason the company find it absolutely necessary, immediately to cultivate and settle the Land his Majesty has been pleased to grant them, which to be sure they have an indisputable right to do. As our Brethren the Six Nations sold all the Land to the Westward of Virginia at the Treaty of Lancaster to their Father the King of Great Britain, and he has been graciously pleased to grant a large quantity thereof to the said Ohio Company, yet, being informed that the Six Nations have given their Friends the Delawares leave to hunt [233] upon the said Lands, and that they still hunt upon part thereof themselves, and as the settlements made by the English upon the said land may make the Game scarce, or at least drive it further back, the said Company therefore to prevent any difference or misunderstanding, which might possibly happen between them and their Brethren the Indians touching the said Lands, are willing to make them some further satisfaction for the same and to purchase of them the Land on the east side of the river Ohio and Allagany as low as the great Canhaway providing the same can be done at a reasonable Rate; and our Brethren the Six Nations and their Allies will promise and engage their Friendship and protection to all his Majesties subjects settling on the said Lands. When this is done the Company can safely venture to build Factories and Store Houses upon the river Ohio, and send out large Cargoes of Goods which they cannot otherwise do, and to convince our Brethren the Indians how desirous we are of living in strict Friendship and becoming one people with them, You are hereby empowered and required to acquaint and promise our Brethren, in the name and on behalf of the said Company, that if any of them incline to take land and live among the English, they shall have any of the said company's Land upon the same Terms and conditions as the white people have, and enjoy the same privileges which they do as far as is in the Company's power to grant.

And that you may be the better able to acquaint our Brethren the Indians with these our proposals you are to apply to Andrew Montour the interpreter for his assistance therein, and the Company hereby undertake and promse to make him satisfaction for the trouble he shall be at. If our Brethren the Six Nations approve our proposals the Company will pay them whatever sum you agree with them for, and if they want any particular sort of Goods, you are to desire them to give [234] you an account of said Goods and the Company will immediately send for them to England, and when they arrive will carry them to what ever place you agree to deliver them at.

If our Brethren the Indians do not approve these proposals and do refuse their protection and assistance to the subjects of their Father the King of Great Britain, you are forthwith to make a return thereof to the said Ohio Company, that they may inform his Majesty thereof.

You are to apply to Col. Cresap for what Wampum you have occasion of on the Companys account for which you are to give him a receipt. You are to apply to him for one of the Companies Horses to ride out to the Loggstown.

As soon as the Treaty is over, you are to make an exact return of all your proceedings to the Company.

Given under my hand in behalf of the said Ohio Company the 28th day of April 1752.



(From Records and Minutes of the Ohio Company.)

Upon your arrival at the Treaty if you find that the commissioners do not make a general Agreement with the Indians on behalf of Virginia for the settlement of the Land upon the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi, or that in such agreement there are any doubtful or ambiguous expressions which may be prejudicial to the Ohio Company, you are then to endeavour to make purchase of the Lands to the Eastward of the Ohio River and Allagany, and procure the Friendship and protection of the Indians in settling the said Lands upon the best terms you can for a quantity of Goods.

[235] You arc to agree with them to deliver the said goods at the most convenient place you can, if possible at the Forks of the Mohongaly, if the Indians give you a list of Goods which they desire to be sent for in return for their Lands, you are to enquire and to find out as near as you can the usual price of such Goods among the Indians, that we may be as near the sum you agree with them for as possible.

You are to engage Andrew Montour the Interpreter in the Company's Interest and get him to assist you in making a purchase of the Indians, and as the Company have great dependance and confidence in the said Andrew Montour, they hereby not only promise to make him satisfaction for the trouble, but if he can make an advantageous bargain for them with the Indians, they will in return for his good offices, let him have a handsome settlement upon their land without paying any purchase money, upon the same Terms which the said Company themselves hold the Land, and without any other consideration than the King's Quit rents.

If you can obtain a Deed or other written agreement from the Indians, it must be taken in the names of the Honb'le Robert Dinwiddie Esq'r, Governor of Virginia, John Hanbury Esqr. of the City of London, Merch't, Capel Hanbury of the said city of London Merch't, John Tayloe, Presly Thornton, Philip Ludwell Lee, Thomas Lee, Richard Lee, Guwin Corbin, John Mercer, George Mason, Lawrence Washington, Augustus Washington, Nathaniel Chapman Esquires and James Scott Clerk, all of the Colony of Virginia. James Wardrop, Jacob Giles and Thomas Cresap esqrs of the province of Maryland and their Associates, members of the Ohio Company; in the said agreement or Deed You are to mention the Bounds of the Land as expressly as possible, that no dispute may arise hereafter. And we would have the Indians clearly understand what Land they sell us, that they may have [236] no occasion to complain of any Fraud or underhand dealings, as is often the custom with them. The said Ohio Company do hereby agree and oblige themselves to make you satisfaction for the Trouble and expence you shall be at in Transacting their affairs at the said Treaty, pursuant to the Instructions by them given to you. Given under my hand in behalf of the Ohio Company this 28th day of April 1752.


If Col Cresap has not agreed with any person to clear a Road for the Company, you are with the advice and assistance of Col. Cresap to agree with the proper Indians, who are best acquainted with the ways, immediately to cut a road from Wills Creek to the Fork of Mohongaly at the cheapest Rate you can for Goods, and this you may mention publicly to the Indians at the Loggs Town or not as you see occasion.


At a meeting of the Committee of the Ohio Company at Stratford in Westmoreland County, the 25th of July, 1753, and continued to the 26th and 27th of the same month:
"Resolved that tis absolutely necessary that the Company should immediately erect a Fort for the security and protection of their Settlement on a hill just below Shurtees (Chartiers.) Creek upon the south east side of the river Ohio; that the walls of the said Fort shall be twelve feet high, to be built of sawed or hewen logs, and to enclose a piece of ground ninety feet square, besides the four Bastions at the corners of sixteen feet square each, with houses in the middle for stores, Magazines &c. according to a plan entered in the Company's Books. That Col. Cresap, Capt. Trent, and Mr. Gist, be appointed and authorized on behalf of the Company to agree with labourers, Carpenters and other workmen, to build and complete the [237] same as soon as possible and employ hunters to supply them with Provisions, and agree with some honest industrious man to overlook the workmen and labourers as Overseer, and that they be supplied with flour, salt and all other necessaries at the Companys expence. That all the Land upon the hill on which the said Fort is to be built be appropriated to the use of the said Fort, and that two hundred acres of land exclusive of streets be layed off for a town convenient and adjoining to the said Fort lands, in squares of two acres each, every square to be divided into four lots so that every Lot may front two streets, if the ground will so admit, and that all the streets be of convenient width, that twenty of the best and most convenient squares be reserved and set apart for the Company's own use, and one square to build a School on for the education of Indian children and such other uses as the Company shall think proper and that all the rest of the lots be disposed of."

Mr. George Mason having informed the Committee that he has written to Mr. Hanbury for twenty swivel guns and other arms and ammunition for the use of the Fort

"Resolved that the committee do approve of the same and that the said arms and ammunition as soon as they arrive be delivered to Captain Trent the Company's Factor in order to be sent out to Shurtees Creek."

At a Meeting of the Committee of the Ohio Company, November 2d, 1753,
"Agreed and Ordered that each member of the Company pay to Mr. George Mason their Treasurer, the sum of twenty pounds current money for building and finishing the Fort at Shurtees Creek, Grubing and clearing the road from the Company's store at Wills Creek to the Mohongaly, which are to be finished with the utmost dispatch and for such other purposes as shall be directed by the Company."

[238] The proposed fort was not built. There was some doubt to whom the Forks of the Ohio belonged—by Consent of the Penns, Governor Dinwiddie sent Captain Trent's Company to build a Fort there. The Fort was commenced under the direction of Ensign Ward. On the 17th of April, 1754, Captain Contrecœur descended the Allegheny with a considerable force of French and Indians and summoned Ward to surrender his unfinished work. Resistance was out of the question, he surrendered. Contrecœur finished the Fort and called it Duquesne.

July 9, 1755.—Gen. Braddock was defeated by the French and Indians under the command of Captain Beaujeu. Beaujeu was killed and Captain Dumas was the Commander from the time of Beaujeu's death to the latter part of the following year, 1756 or early in 1757, when he was transferred to Canada, and served in the operations against Fort William Henry. Montcalm mentioned him in his dispatches as "an officer of great distinction." His merits were fully recognized by the French Governor.

He was Major of Brigade at the Siege of Quebec, and after his return to France in 1761 was appointed Governor of the Mauritius and Isle of Bourbon. (Garneau, Histoire du Canada.)

General Grant was defeated by the French and Indians before Fort Duquesne, October, 1758. November, 1758, General Forbes' army advanced and found the Fort in flames. The French escaped by the river.

Fort Duquesne having been destroyed it was determined to erect a small work, to be occupied by two hundred men.

A small square stockade, with a bastion at each angle, was erected on the bank of the Monongahela between Liberty and West Streets. Col. Mercer was left in command.

Fort Pitt was built in 1759-60. Its eastern boundary [239] extended nearly to the present Third (formerly Marbury) and West Streets. The Fort had two powder magazines under ground, built with heavy timber and covered with tarred cloth and earth. One of them was brought to light near the corner of Liberty and Marbury or Third Street in 1855, when excavations were made for the Depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company.

In 1763 Fort Pitt was invested by the Indians while Captain Ecuyer was in command. January 5, 1769, a warrant was issued for a survey of the Manor of Pittsburgh, which was made on the 27th of March. Fort Pitt was kept up until 1772, after which a Corporal and a few men only were continued at the Fort. (See Fort Pitt.)

October, Major Charles Edmonstone, Commander of the Fort, sold to Alexander Ross and William Thompson, all the pickets, brick, stones, timber and iron in the buildings, walls and redoubts of the Fort. After several houses had been built of the material the sale was set aside. 1773, Richard Penn advised a small garrison to be kept at Fort Pitt as a protection from the Indians. Its demolition had been ordered by General Gage. The boundary between Virginia and Pennsylvania not having been settled, in 1774 John Conolly, by orders of Lord Dunmore, took possession of the ruins.

1781, General Irvine, in a letter to Washington, speaks of Fort Pitt as a heap of ruins and that at best it was a bad situation for defence. He recommends the mouth of Chartiers Creek (Shurtees) for a Post. The redoubt built by Bouquet still remains. (Letter of General Irvine.)

1781, Col. John Conolly, who formerly lived upon the Ohio, and was arrested in 1775, after his exchange proceeded to Quebec, and proposed "with all the refugees he can collect at [240] New York, he is to join Sir John Johnson in Canada, and they are to proceed with their united forces to attack Fort Pitt."

NOTE.—The Redoubt built by Bouquet is now owned by the Pittsburgh Chapter of the "Daughters of the American Revolution"; it having been recently given to them by Mrs. Schenley, the granddaughter of General James O'Hara, from whom she inherited it. A large portion of the ground formerly occupied by Fort Pitt was bequeathed by General O'Hara to his daughter Mary Carson O'Hara, who married, after her father's death, William Croghan, Esq., son of Major William Croghan of Kentucky. Major Croghan was a cousin of George Croghan, who took so prominent a part in Indian affairs.


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