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[Part 2.]

[Pages 31-66. Page numbers will appear in the text in brackets in bold print.]

[Transcription is Verbatim.]

[Footnotes appear in smaller font.]

First Journal, October, 31, 1750 to May 19, 1751.




You are to go out as soon as possible to the Westward of the great Mountains, and carry with you such a Number of Men, as You think necessary in Order to search out and discover the Lands upon the River Ohio, & other adjoining Branches of the Mississippi down as low as the great Falls thereof: You are particularly to observe the Ways & Passes thro all the ‘Mountains you cross, & take an exact Account of the Soil, Quality, & Product of the Land, and the Wideness and Deepness of the Rivers, & the several Falls belonging to them, together with the Courses & Bearings of the Rivers & Mountains as near as you conveniently can: You are, also to observe what Nations of Indians inhabit there, their Strength & Numbers, who they trade with, & in what Comodities they deal.

When you find a large Quantity of good, level Land, such as you think will suit the Company, You are to measure the Breadth of it, in three or four different Places, & take the Courses of the River and Mountains on which it binds in Order to judge the Quantity: You are to fix the Beginning & Bounds in such a Manner that they may be easily found again by your Description, the nearer in the Land lies, the [32] better, provided it be good & level, but we had rather go quite down the Mississippi than take mean broken Land. After finding a large Body of good level Land, you are not to stop, but proceed farther, as low as the Falls of the Ohio, that We may be informed of that Navigation ; And You are to take an exact Account of all the large Bodies of good level Land, in the same Manner as above directed, that the Company may the better judge where it will be most convenient for them to take their Land.

You are to note all the Bodies of good Land as you go along, tho there is not a sufficient Quantity for the Company's Grant, but You need not be so particular in the Mensuration of that, as in the larger Bodies of Land.

You are to draw as good a Plan as you can of the Country You pass thro: You are to take an exact and particular Journal of all your Proceedings, and make a true Report thereof to the Ohio Company.

1750.—In Complyance with my Instructions from the Committee of the OHIO COMPANY bearing Date the 11th Day of September 1750.

Wednesday Octr 31.—Set out from Col. Thomas Cresap's at the old Town on Potomack River in Maryland, and went along an old Indian Path N 30 E about 11 Miles.

Thursday Nov 1.—Then N 1 Mile N 30 E 3 M here I was taken sick and stayed all Night.

Friday 2.—N 30 E 6 M, here I was so, bad that I was not able to proceed any farther that Night, but grew better in the Morning.

Saturday 3.—N 8 M to Juniatta, a large Branch of Susquehannah, where I stayed all Night.

Sunday 4.—Crossed Juniatta and went up it S 55 W about 16 M.

Monday 5.—Continued the same Course S 55 W 6 M to [33] the Top of a large Mountain Called the Allegany Mountain, here our Path turned, & we went N 45 W 6 M here we encamped.

Tuesday 6 Wednesday 7 and Thursday 8.—Had Snow and such bad Weather that We could not travel for three Days; but I killed a young Bear so that we had Provision enough.

Friday 9.—Set out N 70 W about 8 M here I crossed a Creek of Susquehannah and it raining hard, I went into an old Indian Cabbin where I stay'd all Night.

Saturday 10.—Rain and Snow all Day but cleared away in the Evening.

Sunday 11.—Set out late in the Morning N 70 W 6 M crossing two Forks of a Creek of Susquehannah, here the Way being bad, We encamped and I killed a Turkey.

Monday 12.—Set out N 45 W 8 M crossed a great Laurel Mountain.

Tuesday 13.—Rain and Snow.

Wednesday 14.—Set out N 45 W 6 M to Loylhannan an old Indian Town on a Creek of Ohio called Kiscominatis, then N 1 M NW 1 M to an Indian's Camp on the said Creek.

Thursday 15.—The Weather being bad and I unwell I stayed here all Day: The Indian to whom this Camp belonged spoke good English and directed Me the Way to his Town, which is called Shannopini Town: He said it was about 6o M and a pretty good Way.

Friday 16.—Set out S 70 W 10 M.

Saturday 17.—The same Course (S 70 W) 15 M to an old Indian's Camp.

Sunday 18.—I was very sick, and sweated myself according to the Indian Custom in a Sweat-House, which gave Me Ease, and my Fever abated.

Monday 19.—Set out early in the Morning the same Course (S 70 W) travelled very hard about 2o M to a small Indian [34] Town of the Delawares called Shannopin on the SE Side of the River Ohio, where We rested and got Corn for our Horses.

Tuesday 20 Wednesday 21 Thursday 22 and Friday 23.—I was unwell and stayed in this Town to recover myself; While I was here I took an Opportunity to set my Compass privately, & took the Distance across the River, for I understood it was dangerous to let a Compass be seen among these Indians: The River Ohio is 76 Poles wide at Shannopin Town: There are about twenty Families in this Town: The Land in general from Potomack to this Place is mean stony and broken, here and there good Spots upon the Creeks and Branches but no Body of it.

Saturday 24.—Set out from Shannopin's Town, and swam our Horses across the River Ohio, & went down the River S 75 W 4 M, N 75 W 7 1M W 2 M, all the Land from Shannopin's Town is good along the River, but the Bottoms not broad; At a Distance from the River good Land for Farming, covered with small white and red Oaks and tolerable level; fine Runs for Mills &c .

Sunday Nov 5.—Down the River W 3 M, NW 5 M to Loggs Town; the Lands these last 8 M very rich the Bottoms above a Mile wide, but on the SE side, scarce a Mile wide, the Hills high and steep. In the Loggs Town, I found scarce any Body but a Parcel of reprobate Indian Traders, the Chiefs of the Indians being out a hunting: here I was informed that George Croghan & Andrew Montour who were sent upon an Embassy from Pensylvania to the Indians, were passed about a Week before me. The People in this Town, began to enquire my Business, and because I did not readily inform them, they began to suspect me, and said, I was come to settle the Indian's Lands and they knew I should never go Home again safe; I found this Discourse was like to be of [35] ill Consequence to me, so I pretended to speak very slightingly of what they had said to me, and enquired for Croghan (who is a meer Idol among his Countrymen the Irish Traders) and Andrew Montour the Interpreter for Pensylvania, and told them I had a Message to deliver the Indians from the King, by Order of the President of Virginia, & for that Reason wanted to see M Montour: This made them all pretty easy (being afraid to interrupt the King's Message) and obtained me Quiet and Respect among them, otherwise I doubt not they woud have contrived some Evil against me—I imediately wrote to M Croghan, by one of the Trader's People.

Monday 26.—Tho I was unwell, I prefered the Woods to such Company & set out from the Loggs Town down the River NW 6 M to great Beaver Creek where I met one Barny Curran a Trader for the Ohio Company, and We continued together as far as Muskingum. The Bottoms upon the River below the Logg's Town very rich but narrow, the high Land pretty good but not very rich, the Land upon Beaver Creek the same kind; From this Place We left the River Ohio to the SE & travelled across the country.

Tuesday 27.—Set out from E side of Beaver creek NW 6 M, W 4 M; up these two last Courses very good high Land, not very broken, fit for farming.

Wednesday 28.—Rained, We could not travel.

Thursday 29.—W 6 M thro good Land,, the same Course continued 6 M farther thro very broken Land; here I found myself pretty well recovered, & being in Want of Provision, I went out and killed a Deer.

Friday 3o.—Set out S 45 W 12 M crossed the last Branch of Beaver Creek where one of Curran's Men & myself killed 12 Turkeys.

[36] Saturday Dec'r 1.—N 45 W 10 M the Land high and tolerable good.

NOTE; by Mr Gist's Plat he makes these 2 Courses N 45 W 10 M, & N 45 W 8 M, to be W 8 M and N 45 W 6 M.

Sunday 2.—N 45 W 8 M the same Sort of Land, but near the Creeks bushy and very full of Thorns.

Monday 3.—Killed a Deer, and stayed in our Camp all Day.

Tuesday 4.—Set out late S 45 W about 4 M here I killed three fine fat Deer, so that tho we were eleven in Company, We had great Plenty of Provision.

Wednesday 5.—Set out down the Side of a Creek called Elk's Eye Creek S 70 W 6 M, good Land, but void of Timber, Meadows upon the creek, fine Runs for Mills.

Thursday 6.—Rained all Day so that we were obliged to continue in our Camp.

Friday 7.—Set out SW 8 M crossing the said Elk's Eye Creek to a Town of the Ottaways, a Nation of French Indians; an Old French Man (named Mark Coonce) who had married an Indian Woman of the six Nations lived here; the Indians were all out a hunting; the old Man was very civil to me, but after I was gone to my Camp, upon his understanding I came from Virginia, he called Me the Big Knife. There are not above six or eight Families belonging to this Town.

Saturday 8.—Stayed in the Town.

Sunday 9.—Set out down the said Elk's Eye Creek S 45 W 6 M to Margarets Creek a Branch of the said Elk's Eye Creek.

Monday Dec 10.—The same Course (S 45 W) 2 M to a large Creek.

Tuesday 11.—The same Course 12 M killed 2 Deer.

Wednesday 12.—The same Course 8 M encamped by the Side of Elk's Eye Creek.

Thursday 13.—Rained all Day.

[37] Friday 14.—Set out W 5 M to Muskingum a Town of the Wyendotts. The Land upon Elk's Eye Creek is in general very broken, the Bottoms narrow. The Wyendotts or little Mingoes are divided between the French and English, one-half of them adhere to the first, and the other half are firmly attached to the latter. The Town of Muskingum Consists of about one hundred Families. When We came within Sight of the Town, We perceived English Colours hoisted on the King's House, and at George Croghan's; upon enquiring the Reason I was informed that the French had lately taken several English Traders, and that Mr Croghan had ordered all the White Men to come into this Town, and had sent Expresses to the Traders of the lower Towns, and among the Pickweylinees; and the Indians had sent to their People to come to Council about it.

Saturday 15 & Sunday 16.—Nothing remarkable happened.

Monday 17.—Came into Town two Traders belonging to M Croghan, and informed Us that two of his People were taken by 40 French Men, & twenty French Indians who had carried them with seven Horse Loads of Skins to a new Fort that the French were building on one of the Branches of Lake Erie.

Tuesday 18.—I acquainted Mr Croghan and Andrew Montour with my Business with the Indians, & talked much of a Regulation of Trade with which they were much pleased, and treated Me very kindly.

From Wednesday 19 to Monday 24.—Nothing remarkable.

Tuesday 25.—This being Christmass Day, I intended to read Prayers, but after inviting some of the White Men, they informed each other of my Intentions, and being of several different Persuasions, and few of them inclined to hear any Good, they refused to come. But one Thomas Burney a Black Smith who is settled there went about and talked to [38] them, & then several of them came; and Andrew Montour invited several of the well disposed Indians, who came freely; by this Time the Morning was spent, and I had given over all Thoughts of them, but seeing Them come, to oblige All, and offend None, I stood up and said, Gentlemen, I have no Design or Intention to give Offence to any particular Sectary or Religion, but as our King indulges Us all in a Liberty of Conscience and hinders none of You in the Exercise of your religious Worship, so it would be unjust in You, to endeavour to stop the Propagation of His; The Doctrine of Salvation Faith, and good Works, is what I only propose to treat of, as I find it extracted from the Homilies of the Church of England, which I then read them in the best Manner I could, and after I had done the Interpreter told the Indians what I had read, and that it was the true Faith which the great King and His Church recomended to his Children: the Indians seemed well pleased, and came up td Me and returned Me their Thanks; and then invited Me to live among Them, and gave Me a Name in their Language Annosanah: the Interpreter told Me this was a Name of a good Man that had formerly lived among them, and that their King said that must be always my Name, for which I returned them Thanks, but as to living among them I excused myself by saying I did not know whether the Governor would give Me Leave, and if he did the French woud come and carry me away as they had done the English Traders, to which they answered I might bring great Guns and make a Fort, that they had now left the French, and were very desirous of being instructed in the Principles of Christianity, that they liked Me very well and wanted Me to marry Them after the Christian Manner, and baptize their Children, and then they said they would never desire to return to the French, or suffer Them or their Priests to come near them more, for they loved the English, but had seen little [39] Religion among Them: and some of their great Men came and wanted Me to baptize their Children; for as I had read to Them and appeared to talk about Religion they took Me to be a Minister of the Gospel; Upon which I desired Mr Montour (the Interpreter) to tell Them, that no Minister coud venture to baptize any Children, until those that were to be Sureties for Them, were well instructed in the Faith themselves; and that this was according to the great King's Religion, in which He desired his Children shoud be instructed & We dare not do it in any other Way, than was by Law established, but I hoped if I coud not be admitted to live among them, that the great King woud send Them proper Ministers to exercise that Office among them, at which they seemed well pleased; and one of Them went and brought Me his Book (which was a Kind contrived for Them by the French in which the Days of the Week were so marked that by moving a Pin every Morning they kept a pretty exact Account of the Time) to shew Me that He understood Me, and that He and his Family always observed the Sabbath Day.

Wednesday Decr 26.—This Day a Woman, who had been a long Time a Prisoner, and had deserted, & been retaken, and brought into the Town on Christmass Eve, was put to Death in the following manner: They carried her without the Town, & let her loose, and when she attempted to run away, the Persons appointed for that Purpose pursued her, & struck Her on the Ear, on the right Side of her Head, which beat her flat on her Face on the Ground; they then stuck her several Times, thro the Back with a Dart, to the Heart, scalped Her, & threw the Scalp in the Air, and another cut off her head: There the dismal Spectacle lay till the Evening, & then Barny Curran desired Leave to bury Her, which He, and his Men, and some of the Indians did just at Dark.

[40] From Thursday Decr 27 to Thursday Jany 3 1751,—Nothing remarkable happened in the Town.

Friday Jan 4.—One Teafe (an Indian Trader) came to Town from near Lake Erie, & informed Us that the Wyendott Indians had advised Him to keep clear of the Ottaways (these are a Nation of Indians firmly attached to the French, & inhabit near the Lakes) & told Him that the Branches of the Lakes are claimed by the French; but that all the Branches of Ohio belonged to Them, and their Brothers the English, and that the French had no Business there, & that it was expected that the other Part of the Wyendott Nation woud desert the French and come over to the English Interest, & join their Brethren on the Elk's Eye Creek, & build a strong Fort and Town there.

From Saturday 5 to Tuesday 8.—The Weather still continuing bad, I stayed in the Town to recruit my Horses, and tho Corn was very dear among the Indians, I was obliged to feed them well, or run the Risque of losing them as I had a great Way to travel.

Wednesday 9.—The Wind Southerly, and the Weather something warmer: this Day came into Town two Traders from among the Pickwaylinees (these are a Tribe of the Twigtwees) and brought News that another English Trader was taken prisoner by the French, and that three French Soldiers had deserted and come over to the English, and surrendered themselves to some of the Traders of the Pick Town, & that the Indians woud have put them to Death, to revenge their taking our Traders, but as the French Prisoners had surrendered themselves, the English woud not let the Indians hurt them, but had ordered them to be sent under the Care, of three of our Traders and delivered at this Town, to George Croghan.

Thursday 10.—Wind still at South and warm.

Friday 11.—This Day came into Town an Indian from over the Lakes & confirmed the News we had heard.

[41] Saturday 12.—We sent away our People towards the lower Town intending to follow them the next Morning, and this Evening We went into council in the Wyendott's King's House—The Council had been put off a long Time expecting some of their great Men in, but few of them came, & this Evening some of the King's Council being a little disordered with Liquor, no Business coud be done, but We were desired to come next Day.

Sunday Janry 13.—No Business done.

Monday 14.—This Day George Croghan, by the Assistance of Andrew Montour, acquainted the King and Council of this Nation (by presenting them four Strings of Wampum) that the great King over the Water, their Roggony [Father) had sent under the Care of the Governor of Virginia, their Brother, a large Present of Goods which was now landed safe in Virginia, & the Governor had sent Me to invite Them to come and see Him, & partake of their Father's Charity to all his Children on the Branches of Ohio. In Answer to which one of the Chiefs stood up and said, "That their King and all of Them thanked their Brother the Governor of Virginia for his Care, and Me for bringing them the News, but they coud not give Me an Answer untill they had a full or general Council of the several Nations of Indians which coud not be till next Spring:" & so the King and Council shaking Hands with Us, We took our Leave.

Tuesday 15.—We left Muskingum, and went W 5 M, to the White Woman's Creek, on which is a small Town; this White Woman was taken away from New England, when she was not above ten Years old, by the French Indians; She is now upwards of fifty, and has an Indian Husband and several Children — Her name is Mary Harris, she still remembers they used to be very religious in New England, and wonders how the White Men can be so wicked as she has seen them in these Woods.

[42] Wednesday 16.—Set out SW 25 M, to Licking Creek—The Land from Muskingum to this Place rich but broken—Upon the N Side of Licking Creek about 6 M from the Mouth, are several Salt Licks, or Ponds, formed by little Streams or Dreins of Water, clear but of a blueish Colour, & salt Taste the Traders and Indians boil their Meat in this Water, which (if proper Care be not taken) will sometimes make it too salt to eat.

Thursday 17—Set out W 5 M, SW 15 M, to a great Swamp.

Friday 18.—Set out from the great Swamp SW 15 M.

Saturday 19.—W 15 M to Hockhockin a small Town with only four or five Delaware Families.

Sunday 20.—The Snow began to grow thin, and the Weather warmer; Set out from Hockhockin S 5 M, then W 5 M, then SW 5 M, to the Maguck a little Delaware Town of about ten Families by the N Side of a plain or clear Field about 5 M in Length NE & SW & 2 M broad, with a small Rising in the Middle, which gives a fine Prospect over the whole Plain, and a large Creek op the N Side of it called Sciodoe Creek. All the Way from Licking Creek to this Place is fine rich level Land, with large Meadows, fine Clover Bottoms & spacious Plains covered with wild Rye: the Wood chiefly large Walnuts and Hickories, here and there mixed with Poplars Cherry Trees and Sugar Trees.

From Monday 21 to Wednesday 23—Stayed in the Maguck Town.

Thursday 24.—Set out from the Maguck Town S about 15 M, thro fine rich level Land to a small Town called Harrickintoms consisting of about five or six Delaware Families, on the SW Sciodoe Creek.

Friday 25.—The Creek being very high and full of Ice, We coud not ford it, and were obliged to go down it on the SE Side SE 4 M to the Salt Lick Creek—about 1M up this Creek [43] on the S Side is a very large Salt Lick, the Streams which run into this Lick are very salt, & tho clear leave a blueish Sediment: The Indians and Traders make salt for their Horses of this Water, by boiling it; it has at first a blueish Colour, and somewhat bitter Taste, but upon being dissolved in fair Water and boiled a second Time, it becomes tolerable pure Salt.

Saturday 26.—Set out S 2 M, SW 14 M.

Sunday 27.—S 12 M to a small Delaware Town of about twenty Families on the SE Side of Sciodoc Creek—We lodged at the House of an Indian whose Name was Windaughalah, a great Man and Chief of this Town, & Much in the English Interest. He entertained Us very kindly, and ordered a Negro Man that belonged to him to feed our Horses well; this Night it snowed, and in the Morning tho the Snow was six or seven Inches deep; the wild Rye appeared very green and flourishing thro it, and our Horses had fine Feeding.

Monday Jany 28.—We went into Council with the Indians of this Town, and after the Interpreter had informed them of his Instructions from the Governor of Pensylvania, and given them some Cautions in Regard to the French, they returned for Answer as follows. The Speaker with four Strings of Wampum in his Hand stood up, and addressing Himself as to the Governor of Pensylvania, said, "Brothers, "We the Delawares return You our hearty Thanks for the News You have sent Us, and We assure You, We will not hear the Voice of any other Nation for We are to be directed by You our Brothers the English, & by none else: We shall be glad to hear what our Brothers have to say to Us at the Loggs Town in the Spring, and to assure You of our hearty Good will & Love to our Brothers We present You with these four Strings of Wampum. This is the last Town of the Delawares to the Westward—The Delaware Indians by [44] the best Accounts I coud gather consist of about 500 fighting Men all firmly attached to the English Interest, they are not properly a Part of the six Nations, but are scattered about among most of the Indians upon the Ohio, and some of them among the six Nations, from whom they have Leave to hunt upon their Lands.

Tuesday 29.—Set out SW 5 M, S 5 M, to the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek opposite to the Shannoah Town, here We fired our Guns to alarm the Traders, who soon answered, and came and ferryed Us over to the Town—The Land about the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek is rich but broken fine Bottoms upon the River & Creek—The Shannoah Town is situate upon both Sides the River Ohio, just below the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek, and contains about 300 Men, there are about 40 Houses on the S Side of the River and about 100 on the N Side, with a Kind of State-House of about 90 Feet long, with a light Cover of Bark in wch they hold their Councils—The Shanaws are not a Part of the six Nations, but were formerly at Variance with them, tho now reconciled: they are great Friends to the English who once protected them from the Fury of the six Nations, which they gratefully remember.

Wednesday 30.—We were conducted into Council, where George Croghan delivered sundry Speeches from the Government of Pensylvania to the Chiefs of this Nation, in which He informed them, "That two Prisoners who had been taken by the French, and had made their Escape from the French Officer at Lake Erie as he was carrying them towards Canada brought News that the French offered a large Sum of Money to any Person who would bring to them the said Croghan and Andrew Montour the Interpreter alive, or if dead their Scalps; and that the French also threatened these Indians and the Wyendotts with War in the Spring" the same Persons farther said "that they had seen ten French [45] "Canoes loaded with Stores for a new Fort they designed on the S Side Lake Erie. Mr Croghan also informed them of several of our Traders having been taken; and advised them to keep their Warriors at Home, until they coud see what the French intended which he doubted not woud appear in the Spring—Then Andrew Montour informed this Nation as He had done the Wyendotts & Delawares "That the King of Great Britain had sent Them a large Present of Goods, in Company with the six Nations, which was under the care of the Governor of Virginia, who had sent Me out to invite them to come and see Him, & partake of their Father's Present next Summer" to which We received this Answer— Big Hannaona their Speaker taking in his Hand the several Strings of Wampum which had been given by the English, He said "These are the Speeches received by Us from your great Men: From the Beginning of our Friendship, all that our Brothers the English have told Us has been good and true, for which We return our hearty Thanks" Then taking up four other Strings of Wampum in his Hand, He said "Brothers I now speak the Sentiments of all our People; when first our Forefathers did meet the English our Brothers, they found what our Brothers the English told them to be true, and so have We—We are but a small People, & it is not to Us only that You speak, but to all Nations—We shall be glad to hear what our Brothers will say to Us at the Loggs Town in the Spring, & We hope that the Friendship now subsisting between Us & our Brothers, will last as long as the Sun shines, or the Moon gives Light—We hope that our Children will hear and believe what our Brothers say to them, as We have always done, and to assure You of our hearty Good-Will towards You our Brothers, We present You with these four Strings of Wampum" After the Council was over they had much Talk about sending a Guard [46] with Us to the Pickwaylinees Towns (these are a Tribe of Twigtwees) which was reckoned near 200 Miles, but after long Consultation (their King being sick) they came to no Determination about it.

From Thursday Jan 31 To Monday Feb 11.—Stayed in the Shannoah Town, while I was here the Indians had a very extraordinary Kind of a Festival, at which I was present and which I have exactly described a the End of my Journal— As I had particular Instructions from the President of Virginia to discover the Strength & Numbers of some Indian Nations to the Westward of Ohio who had lately revolted from the French, and had some Messages to deliver them from Him, I resolved to set out for the Twigtwee Town.

Tuesday 12.—Having left my Boy to take Care of my Horses in the Shannoah Town, & supplied myself with a fresh Horse to ride, I set out with my old Company viz George Croghan, Andrew Montour, Robert Kallandar, and a Servant to carry our Provisions &c NW 10 M.

Wednesday 13.—The same Course (NW) about 35 M.

Thursday 14.—The same Course about 30 M.

Friday 15.—The same Course 15 M. We met with nine Shannoah Indians coming from one of the Pickwaylinees Towns, where they had been to Council, they told Us there were fifteen more of them behind at the Twigtwee Town, waiting for the Arrival of the Wawaughtanneys, who are a Tribe of the Twigtwees, and were to bring with them a Shannoah Woman and Child to deliver to their Men that were behind: this Woman they informed Us had been taken Prisoner last Fall, by some of the Wawaughtanney Warriors thro a Mistake, which had like to have engaged these Nations in a War.

Saturday 16.—Set out the same Course (NW) about 35 M, to the little Miamee River or Creek

[47] Sunday 17.—Crossed the little Miamee River, and altering our Course We went SW 25 M, to the big Miamee River, opposite the Twigtwee Town. All the Way from the Shannoah Town to this Place (except the first 20 M which is broken) is fine, rich level Land, well timbered with large Walnut, Ash, Sugar Trees, Cherry Trees &c, it is well watered with a great Number of little Streams or Rivulets, and full of beautiful natural Meadows, covered with wild Rye, blue Grass and Clover, and abounds with Turkeys, Deer, Elks and most Sorts of Game particularly Buffaloes, thirty or forty of which are frequently seen feeding in one Meadow: In short it wants Nothing but Cultivation to make it a most delightful Country—The Ohio and all the large Branches are said to be full of fine Fish of several Kinds, particularly a Sort of Cat Fish of a prodigious Size; but as I was not there at the proper Season, I had not an opportunity of seeing any of them—The Traders had always reckoned it 200 M, from the Shannoah Town to the Twigtwee Town, but by my Computation I could make it no more than 150—The Miamee River being high, We were obliged to make a Raft of old Loggs to transport our Goods and Saddles and swim our Horses over—After firing a few Guns and Pistols, & smoaking in the Warriours Pipe, who came to invite Us to the Town (according to their Custom of inviting and welcoming Strangers and Great Men) We entered the Town with English Colours before Us, and were kindly received by their King, who invited Us into his own House, & set our Colours upon the Top of it—The Firing of Guns held about a Quarter of an Hour, and then all the white and Traders that were there, came and welcomed Us to the the Twigtwee Town—This Town is [?] on the NW Side of the Big Miamee River about 150 M from the Mouth thereof; it consists of about 400 Families, & daily encreasing, it is accounted one of the strongest Indian Towns upon this Part [48] of the Continent—The Twigtwees are a very numerous People consisting of many different Tribes under the same Form of Government. Each tribe has a particular Chief or King, one of which is chosen indifferently out of any Tribe to rule the whole Nation, and is vested with greater Authorities than any of the others—They are accounted the most powerful People to the Westward of the English Settlements, & much superior to the six Nations with whom they are now in Amity: their Strength and Numbers arc not thoroughly known, as they have but lately traded with the English, and indeed have very little Trade among them: they deal in much the same Comodities with the Northern Indians. There are other Nations or Tribes still further to the Westward daily coming in to them; & ‘tis thought their Power and Interest reaches to the Westward of the Mississippi, if not across the Continent; they are at present very well affected to the English, and seem fond of an Alliance with them—they formerly lived on the farther Side of the Obache, and were in the French Interest, who supplied them with some few Trifles at a most exorbitant Price—they were called by the French Miamees; but they have now revolted from them, and left their former Habitations for the Sake of trading with the English; and notwithstanding all the Artifices the French have used, they have not been able to recall them.

After We had been some Time in the King's House Mr Montour told Him that We wanted to speak with Him and the Chiefs of this Nation this Evening upon which We were invited into the long House, and having taken our Places Mr Montour began as follows—"Brothers the Twigtwees as We have been hindered by the high Waters and some other Business with our Indian Brothers, no Doubt our long Stay has caused some Trouble among our Brethren here, Therefore We now present you with two Strings of Wampum to [49] remove all the Trouble of your Hearts, & clear your Eyes, that You may see the Sun shine clear, for We have, a great Deal to say to You, & We woud have You send for one of Your Friends that can speak the Mohickon or the Mingoe Tongues well, that We may understand each other thoroughly, for We have a great Deal of Business to do"—The Mohickons are a small Tribe who most of them speak English, and are also well acquainted with the Language of the Twigtwees, and they with theirs—Mr Montour then proceeded to deliver Them a Message from the Wyendotts and Delawares as follows "Brothers the Twigtwees, this comes by our Brothers the English who arc coming with good News to You: We hope You will take Care of Them, and all our Brothers the English who are trading among You: You made a Road for our Brothers the English to come and trade among You, but it is now very foul, great Loggs are fallen across it, and We would have You be strong like Men, and have one Heart with Us, and make the Road clear, that our Brothers the English may have free Course and Recourse between You and Us—In the Sincerity of our Hearts We send You these four Strings of Wampum," to which they gave the usual Yo Ho—Then they said they wanted some Tobacco to smoak with Us, and that tomorrow they woud send for their Interpreter.

Monday Feb 18.—We walked about viewed the Fort which wanted some Repairs, & the Trader's Men helped Them, to bring Loggs to line the Inside.

Tuesday 19.—We gave their Kings and great Men some Clothes, and Paint Shirts, and now they were busy dressing and preparing themselves for the Council—The Weather grew warm and the Creeks began to lower very fast.

Wednesday 20.—About 12 of the Clock We were informed that some of the foreign Tribes were coming, upon which [50] proper Persons were ordered to meet them and conduct Them into the Town, and then We were invited into the long House; after We had been seated about a Quarter of an Hour four Indians, two from each Tribe (who had been sent before to bring the long Pipe, and to inform that the rest were coming) came in, & informed Us that their Friends had sent these Pipes that We might smoak the Calamut Pipe of Peace with them and that they intended to do the same with Us.

Thursday Febr 21.—We were again invited into the long House where Mr Croghan made them (with the foreign Tribes) a Present to the Value of £100 Pensylvania Money, and delivered all our Speeches to Them, at which they seemed well pleased, and said, that they would take Time and consider well what We had said to Them.

Friday 22.—Nothing remarkable happened in the Town.

Saturday 23.—In the Afternoon there was an Alarm in the Town which caused a great Confusion and running about among the Indians, upon enquiring into the Reason of this Stir, they told Us that it was occasioned by six Indians that came to war against Them, from the Southward: three of them Cutaways, and three Shanaws (these were some of the Shanaws who had formerly deserted from the other Part of the Nation, and now to the Southward). Towards Night there was a report spread in Town that four Indians, and four hundred French, were on their March and just by the Town: But soon after the Messenger who brought this News said, there were only four french Indians coming to Council, and that they bid him say so, only to see how the English woud behave themselves; but as they had behaved themselves like Men, He now told the Truth.

Sunday 24.—This Morning the four French Indians came into Town and were kindly received by the Town Indians; they marched in under French Colours, and were conducted [51] into the long House, and after they had been in about a Quarter of an Hour, the Council sate, and We were sent for that We might hear what the French had to say to them— The Pyankeshee King (who was at that Time the principal Man, and Comander in Chief of the Twigtwees) said, He woud have the English Colours set up in this Council as well as the French, to which We answered he might do as he thought fit. After We were seated right opposite to the French Embassadors, One of Them said, He had a Present to make Them, so a Place was prepared (as they had before done, for our Present) between Them and Us, and then their Speaker stood up, and layed His hands upon two small Caggs of Brandy that held about seven Quarts each, and a Roll of Tobacco of about ten Pounds Weight, then taking two strings of Wampum in his Hand, He said, "What he had to deliver Them was from their Father" (meaning the French King) "and he desired, they woud hear what he was about to say to Them," then he layed them two Strings of Wampum down upon the Caggs, and taking up four other Strings of black and white Wampum, he said, "that their Father remembring his Children, had sent them two Caggs of Milk and some Tobacco, and that he now had made a clear Road for them, to come and see Him and his Officers;" and pressed them very much to come, then he took another String of Wampum in his Hand, and said, "their Father now woud forget all little Differences that had been between Them, and desired Them not to be of two Minds, but to let Him know their Minds freely, for He woud send for Them no more"—To which the Pyankeshee King replyed,"it was true their Father had sent for them several Times, and said the Road was clear, but He understood it was made foul & bloody, and by Them—We (said He) have cleared a Road for our Brothers the English, and your Fathers have made it bad, [52] and have taken some of our Brothers Prisoners, Which We look upon as done to Us," and he turned short about and went out of Council "—After the French Embassador had delivered his Message He went into one of the private Houses and endeavoured much to prevail on some Indians, and was seen to cry and lament (as he said for the Loss of that Nation.

Monday Febr 25.—This Day We received a Speech from the Wawaughtanneys and Pyankeshees (two Tribes of the Twigtwees) One of the Chiefs of the former spoke "Brothers, We have heard what You have said to Us by the Interpreter and We see You take Pity upon our poor Wives and Children, and have taken Us by the Hand into the great Chain of Friendship; therefore We present You with these two Bundles of Skins to make Shoes for your People, and this Pipe to smoak in, to assure You that our Hearts are good and true towards You our Brothers; and We hope that We shall all continue in true Love and Friendship with one another, as People with one Head and one Heart ought to do; You have pityed Us as You always did the rest of our Indian Brothers, We hope that Pity You have always shewn, will remain as long as the Sun gives Light, and on our Side you may depend upon sincere and true Friendship towards You as long as We have Strength"—This Person stood up and spoke with the Air and Gesture of an Orator.

Tuesday 26.—The Twigtwees delivered the following Answer to the four Indians sent by the French—The Captain of the Warriors stood up and taking some Strings of black and white Wampum in this Hand he spoke with a fierce Tone and very warlike Air—"Brothers the Ottaways, You are always differing with the French Yourselves, and yet You listen to what they say, but We will let You know by these four Strings of Wampum, that We will not hear any [53] Thing they say to Us; nor do any Thing they bid Us"—Then the same Speaker with six Strouds two Match-Coats, and a String of black Wampum (I understood the Goods were in Return for the Milk and Tobacco) and directing his Speech to the French said, "Fathers, you desire that We may speak our Minds from our Hearts, which I am going to do; You have often desired We shoud go Home to You, but I tell You it is not our Home, for We have made a Road as far as the Sea to the Sun-rising, and have been taken by the Hand by our Brothers the English; and the six Nations, and the Delawares Shannoahs and Wyendotts, and We assure You it is the Road We will go; and as You threaten Us with War in the Spring, We tell You if You are angry We are ready to receive You, and resolve to die here before We will go to You; And that You may know that this our Mind, We send You this String of black Wampum." After a short Pause the same Speaker spoke again thus—"Brothers the Ottaways, You hear what I say, tell that to your Fathers the French, for that is our Mind, and We speak it from our Hearts."

Wednesday 27.—This Day they took down their French Colours, and dismissed the four French Indians, so they took their Leave of the Town and set off for the French Fort.

Thursday 28.—The Crier of the Town came by the King's Order and invited Us to the long House to see the Warriors Feather Dance; it was performed by three Dancing-Masters, who were painted all over with various Colours, with long Sticks in their Hands, upon the Ends of which were fastened long Feathers of Swans, and other Birds, neatly woven in the Shape of a Fowls Wing: in this Disguise they performed many antick Tricks, waving their Sticks and Feathers about with great Skill to imitate the flying and fluttering of Birds, keeping exact Time with their Musick; while they are dancing [54] some of the Warriors strikes a Post, upon which the Musick and Dancers cease, and the Warrior gives an Account of his Atchievements in War, and when he has done, throws down some Goods as a Recompence to the Performers and Musicians; after which they proceed in their Dance as before till another Warrior strikes ye Post, and so on as long as the Company think fit.

Friday March 1.—We received the following Speech from the Twigtwees the Speaker stood up and addressing himself as to the Governor of Pensylvania with two Strings of Wampum in his Hand, He said—"Brothers our Hearts are glad that You have taken Notice of Us, and surely Brothers We hope that You will order a Smith to settle here to mend our Guns and Hatchets, Your Kindness makes Us so bold to ask this Request. You told Us our Friendship should last as long, and be as the greatest Mountain, We have considered well, and all our great Kings & Warriors are come to a Resolution never to give Heed to what the French say to Us, but always to hear & believe what You our Brothers say to Us—Brothers We are obliged to You for your kind Invitation to receive a Present at the Loggs Town, but as our foreign Tribes are not yet come, We must wait for them, but You may depend We will come as soon as our Women have planted Corn to hear what our Brothers will say to Us—Brothers We present You with this Bundle of Skins, as We are but poor to be for Shoes for You on the Road, and We return You our hearty Thanks for the Clothes which You have put upon our Wives and Children"—We then took our Leave of the Kings and Chiefs, and they ordered that a small Party of Indians shoud go with Us as far as Hockhockin; but as I had left my Boy and Horses at the lower Shannoah Town, I was obliged to go by myself or to go sixty or seventy Miles out of my Way, which I did not [55] care to do so we all came over the Miamee River together this Evening but Mr Crogan & Mr Montour went over again & lodged in the Town, but I stayed on this Side at one Robert Smith's (a Trader) where We had left our Horses—Before the French Indians had come into Town, We had drawn Articles of Peace and Alliance between,the English and the Wawaughtanneys and Pyankeshees; the Indentures were signed on both Sides, and as I drew them I took a Copy—The Land upon the great Miamee River is very rich level arid well timbered, some of the finest Meadows that can be: The Indians and Traders assure Me that the Land holds as good and if possible better, to the Westward as far as the Obache which is accounted 100 Miles, and quite up to the Head of the Miamee River, which is 6o Miles above the Twigtwee Town, and down the said River quite to the Ohio which is reckoned 15o Miles.—The Grass here grows to a great Height in the clear Fields, of which there are a great Number, & the Bottoms are full of white Clover, wild Rye, and blue Grass.

Saturday March 2.—George Croghan and the rest of our Company came over the River, We got our Horses, & set out about 35 M to Mad Creek (this is a Place where some English Traders had been taken Prisoners by the French.)

Sunday 3.—This Morning We parted, They for Hockhockin, and I for the Shannoah Town, and as I was quite alone and knew that the French Indians had threatened Us, and woud probably pursue or lye in Wait for Us, I left the Path, and went to the South Westward down the little Miamee River or Creek, where I had fine traveling thro rich Land and beautiful Meadows, in which I coud sometimes see forty or fifty Buffaloes feeding at Once—The little Miamee River or Creek continued to run thro the Middle of a fine Meadow, about a Mile wide very clear like an old Field, and not a Bush [56] in it, I coud see the Buffaloes in it above two Miles off: I travelled this Day about 30 M.

Monday 4.—This Day I heard several Guns, but was afraid to examine who fired Them, lest they might be some of the French Indians, so I travelled thro the Woods about 30M; just at Night I killed a fine barren Cow-Buffaloe and took out her Tongue, and a little of the best of her Meat: The Land still level rich and well timbered with Oak, Walnut, Ash, Locust, and Sugar Trees.

Tuesday 5.—I travelled about 30 M.

Wednesday 6.—I travelled about 30 M, and killed a fat Bear.

Thursday 7.—Set out with my Horse Load of Bear and travelled about 30 M this Afternoon I met a young Man (a Trader) and We encamped together that Night; He happened to have some Bread with Him, and I had plenty of Meat, so We fared very well.

Friday 8.—Travelled about 30 M, and arrived at Night at the Shannoah Town—All the Indians, as well as the white Men came out to welcome my Return to their Town, being very glad that all Things were rightly settled in the Miamee Country, they fired upwards of 150 Guns in the Town, and made an Entertainment in Honour of the late Peace with the western Indians—In my Return from the Twigtwee to the Shannoah Town, I did not keep an exact Account of Course or Distance; for as the Land thereabouts was every where much the same, and the Situation of the Country was sufficiently described in my Journey to the Twigtwee Town, I thought it unnecessary, but have notwithstanding laid down my Tract pretty nearly in my Plat.

Saturday March 9.—In the Shannoah Town, I met with one of the Mingoe Chiefs, who had been down at the Falls of Ohio, so that We did not see Him as We went up; I informed Him of the King's Present, and the Invitation down [57] to Virginia—He told that there was a Party of French Indians hunting at the Falls, and if I went there they would certainly kill Me or carry Me away Prisoner to the French; For it is certain they would not let Me pass: However as I had a great Inclination to see the Falls, and the Land on the E Side the Ohio, I resolved to venture as far as possible.

Sunday 10 & Monday 11.—Stayed in the Town, and prepared for my Departure.

Tuesday 12.— I got my Horses over the River and after Breakfast my Boy and I got ferryed over—The Ohio is near 3/4 of a Mile wide at Shannoah Town, & is very deep and smooth.

Wednesday 13.—We set out S 45 W, down the said River on the SE Side 8 M, then S 10 M, here I met two Men belonging to Robert Smith at whose House I lodged on this Side the Miamee River, and one Hugh Crawford, the said Robert Smith had given Me an Order upon these Men, for two of the Teeth of a large Beast, which they were bringing from towards the Falls of Ohio, one of which I brought in and delivered to the Ohio Company—Robert Smith informed Me that about seven Years ago these Teeth and Bones of three large Beasts (one of which was somewhat smaller than the other two) were found in a salt Lick or Spring upon a small Creek which runs into the S Side of the Ohio, about 15 M, below the Mouth of the great Miamee River, and 20 above the Falls of Ohio—He assured Me that the Rib Bones of the largest of these Beasts were eleven Feet long, and the Skull Bone six feet wide, across the Forehead, & the other Bones in Proportion; and that there were several Teeth there, some of which he called Horns, and said they were upwards of five Feet long, and as much as a Man coud well carry: that he had hid one in a Branch at some Distance from the Place, lest the French Indians shoud carry it away [58] —The Tooth which I brought in for the Ohio Company, was a Jaw Tooth of better than four Pounds Weight, it appeared to be the furthest Tooth in the Jaw, and looked like fine Ivory when the outside was scraped off—I also met with four Shannoah Indians coming up the River in their Canoes, who informed me that there were about sixty French Indians encamped at the Falls.

Thursday 14.—I went down the River S 15 M, the Land upon this Side the Ohio chiefly broken, and the Bottoms but narrow.

Friday 15.—S 5 M, SW 10 M, to a Creek that was so high, that We coud not get over that Night.

Saturday 16.—S 45 W about 35 M.

Sunday 17.—The same Course 15 M, then N 45 W 5 M.

Monday 18.—N 45 W5 M then SW 20 M, to the lower Salt Lick Creek, which Robert Smith and the Indians told Us was about 15 M above the Falls of Ohio; the Land still hilly, the Salt Lick here much the same with those before described— this Day We heard several Guns which made me imagine the French Indians were not moved, but were still hunting, and firing thereabouts: We also saw some Traps newly set, and the Footsteps of some Indians plain on the Ground as if they had been there the Day before—I was now much troubled that I could not comply with my Instructions, & was once resolved to leave the Boy and Horses, and to go privately on Foot to view the Falls, but the Boy being a poor Hunter, was afraid he woud starve if I was long from him, and there was also great Danger lest the French Indians shoud come upon our Horses Tracts, or hear their Bells, and as I had seen good Land enough, I thought perhaps I might be blamed for venturing so far, in such dangerous Times, so I concluded not to go to the Falls, but travell'd away to the Southward till We were over the little Cuttaway River—The Falls of Ohio by the best [59] Information I coud get are not very steep, on the SE Side there is a Bar of Land at some Distance from the Shore, the Water between the Bar and the Shore is not above 3 feet deep, and the Stream moderately strong, the Indians frequently pass safely in their Canoes thro this Passage, but are obliged to take great Care as, they go down lest the Current which is much the strongest on the NW Side shoud draw them that Way; which woud be very dangerous as the Water, on that Side runs with great Rapidity over several Ledges of Rocks; the Water below the Falls they say is about six Fathoms deep, and the River continues without any Obstructions till it empties itself into the Missisippi which is accounted upwards of 400 M—The Ohio near the Mouth is said to be very wide, and the Land upon both Sides very, rich, and in general very level, all the Way from the Falls—After I had determined not to go to the Falls, We turned from Salt Lick Creek, to a Ridge of Mountains that made towards the Cuttaway River, & from the Top of the Mountain We saw a fine level Country SW as Far as our Eyes coud behold, and it was a very clear Day; We then went down the Mountain and set out S 20 W about 5 M, thro rich level Land covered with small Walnut Sugar Trees, Red-Buds, &c.

Tuesday March 19.—We set out S and crossed several Creeks all running to the SW, at about 12 M, came to the little Cuttaway River: We were obliged to go up it about 1 M to an Island, which was the shoalest Place We coud find to cross at, We then continued Our Course in all about 30 M thro level rich Land except about 2 M which was broken and indifferent—This Level is about 35 M broad, and as We came up the Sidle of it along the Branches of the little Cuttaway We found it about 150 M long; and how far toward the SW We coud not tell, but imagined it held as far as the great Cuttaway River, which woud be upwards of 100 M more, and [60] appeared much broader that Way than here, as I coud discern from the Tops of the Mountains.

Wednesday 20.—We did not travel, I went up to the Top of a Mountain to view the Country, to the SE it looked very broken, and mountainous but to the Eastward and SW it appeared very level.

Thursday 21.—Set out S 45 E 15 M, S 5 M, here I found a Place where the Stones shined like high-coloured Brass, the Heat of the Sun drew out of them a Kind of Borax or Salt Petre only something sweeter; some of which I brought in to the Ohio Company, tho I believe it was Nothing but a Sort of Sulphur.

Friday 22.—SE 12 M, I killed a fat Bear, and was taken sick that Night.

Saturday 23.—I stayed here, and sweated after the Indian Fashion, which helped Me.

Sunday 24.—Set out E 2 M, NE 3 M, N 1 M, E 2 M, SE 5 M, E 2 M, N 2 M, SE 7 M to a small Creek, where We encamped in a Place where We had but poor Food for our Horses, & both We and They were very much wearied: the Reason of our making so many short Courses was, We were driven by a Branch of the little Cuttaway River (whose Banks were so exceeding steep that it was impossible to ford it) into a Ledge of rocky Laurel Mountains which were almost impassable.

Monday 25.—Set out SE 12 M, N 2 M, E 1 M, S 4 M, SE 2 M, We killed a Buck Elk here and took out his Tongue to carry with Us.

Tuesday 26.—Set out SE 10 M, SW 1 M, SE 1 M, SW 1 M, SE 1 M, SW 1 M, SE 1 M, SW 1 M, SE 5 M, killed 2 Buffaloes & took out their Tongues, and encamped—These two Days We travelled thro Rocks and Mountains full of Laurel Thickets which We coud hardly creep thro without cutting our Way.

[61] Wednesday 27.—Our Horses and Selves were so tired that We were obliged to stay this Day to rest, for We were unable to travel—On all the Branches of the little Cuttaway River was great Plenty of fine Coal some of which I brought in to the Ohio Company.

Thursday 28.—Set out SE 15 M crossing several Creeks of the little Cuttaway River, the Land still full of Coal and black Slate.

Friday 29.—The same Course SE about 12 M the Land still mountainous.

Saturday 30.—Stayed to rest our Horses, I went on Foot, and found a Passage thro the Mountains to another Creek, or a Fork of the same Creek that We were upon.

Sunday 31.—The same Course SE 15 M, killed a Buffaloe & encamped.

Monday April 1.—Set out the same Course about 20 M. Part of the Way We went along a Path up the Side of a little Creek, at the Head of which was a Gap in the Mountains, then our Path went down another Creek to a Lick where Blocks of Coal about 8 to 10 In. square lay upon the Surface of the Ground, here We killed a Bear and encamped.

Tuesday 2.—Set out S 2 M, SE 1 M, NE 3 M, killed a Buffaloe.

Wednesday 3.—S 1 M, SW 3 M, E 3 M, SE 2 M, to a small Creek on which was a large Warriors Camp, that woud contain 70 or 8o Warriors, their Captain's Name or Title was the Crane, as I knew by his Picture or Arms painted on a Tree.

Thursday 4.—We stayed here all Day to rest our Horses, and I platted down our Courses and I found I had still near 200 M Home upon a streight Line.

Friday April - 5.—Rained, and We stayed at the Warrior's Camp.

Saturday 6.—We went along the Warrior's Road S 1 M, SE 3 M, S 2 M, SE 3 M, E 3 N, killed a Bear.

[62] Sunday 7.—Set out E 2 M, NE 1 M, SE 1 M, S 1 M, W 1 M, SW 1 M, S 1 M, SE 2 M, S 1 M.

Monday 8.—S 1 M, SE 1 M, E 3 M, SE 1 M, E 3 M, NE 2 M, N 1 M, E 1 M, N 1 M, E 2 M and encamped upon a small Laurel Creek.

Tuesday 9 & Wednesday 10.—The Weather being somewhat bad We did not travel these two Days, the Country being still rocky mountainous, & full of Laurel Thickets, the worst traveling I ever saw.

Thursday 11.—We travelled several Courses near 20 M, but in the Afternoon as I coud see from the Top of the Mountain the Place We came from, I found We had not come upon a streight Line more than N 65 E 10 M.

Friday 12.—Set out thro very difficult Ways E 5 M, to a small Creek.

Saturday 13.—The same Course E upon a streight Line, tho the Way We were obliged to travel was near 20 M, here We killed two Bears, the Way still rocky and mountainous.

Sunday 14.—As Food was very scarce in these barren Mountains, We were obliged to move for fresh Feeding for our Horses, so We went on E 5 M, then N 20 W 6 M, to a Creek where We got something better Feeding for our Horses, in climbing up the Clifts and Rocks this Day two of our Horses fell down, and were pretty much hurt, and a Paroquete, which I had got from the Indians, on the other Side the Ohio (where there are a great many) died of a Bruise he got by a Fall; tho it was but a Trifle I was much concerned at losing Him, as he was perfectly tame, and had been very brisk all the Way, and I had still Corn enough left to feed Him—In the Afternoon I left the Horses, and went a little Way down the Creek, and found such a Precipice and such Laurel Thickets as We coud not pass, and the Horses were not able to go up the Mountain till they had rested a Day or two.

[63] Monday 15.—We cut a Passage through the Laurels better than 2 M, as I was climbing up the Rocks, I got a Fall which hurted Me pretty much—This Afternoon as We wanted Provision I killed a Bear.

Tuesday 16.—Thunder and Rain in the Morning—We set out N 25 E 3 M.

Wednesday 17.—This Day I went to the Top of a Mountain to view the Way, and found it so bad that I did not care to engage it, but rather chose to go out of the Way and keep down along the Side of a Creek till I coud find a Branch or Run on the other Side to go up.

Thursday 18.—Set out down the said Creek Side N 3 M, then the Creek turning NW I was obliged to leave it, and go up a Ridge NE 1 M, E 2 M, SE 2 M, NE 1 M, to the Fork of a River.

Friday 19.—Set out down the said Run NE 2 M, E 2 M, SE 2 M, N 20 E 2 M, E 2 M, up a large Run.

Saturday 20.—Set out SE 10 M, E 4 M, over a small Creek—We had such bad traveling down this Creek, that We had like to have lost one of our Horses.

Sunday 21.—Stayed to rest our Horses.

Monday 22.—Rained all Day—We coud not travel.

Tuesday 23.—Set out E 8 M along a Ridge of Mountains then SE 5 M, E 3 M, SE 4 M, and encamped among very steep Mountains.

Wednesday 24.—SE 4 M thro steep Mountains and Thickets E 6 M.

Thursday 25.—E 5 M, SE 1 M, NE 2 M, SE 2 M, E 1 M, then S 2 M, E 1 M, killed a Bear.

Friday 26.—Set out SE 2 M, here it rained so hard We were obliged to stop.

Saturday 27 Sunday 28 & Monday 29.—These three Days it continued raining & bad Weather, so that We Coud not [64] travel—All the Way from Salt Lick Creek to this Place, the Branches of the little Cuttaway River were so high that We coud not pass Them, which obliged Us to go over the Heads of them, thro a continued Ledge of almost inaccessible Mountains, Rocks and Laurel Thickets.

Tuesday 30.—Fair Weather set out E 3 M, SE 8 M, E 2 M, to a little River or Creek which falls into the big Conhaway, called blue Stone, where we encamped and had good Feeding for our Horses.

Wednesday May 1.—Set out N 75 E 10 M and killed a Buffaloe, then went up a very high Mountain, upon the Top of which was a Rock 60 or 70 Feet high, & a Cavity in the Middle, into which I went, and found there was a Passage thro it which gradually ascended to the Top, with several Holes in the Rock, which let in the Light, when I got to the Top of this Rock, I could see a prodigious Distance, and coud plainly discover where the big Conhaway River broke the next high Mountain, I then came down and continued my Course N 75 E 5 M farther and encamped.

Thursday 2 & Friday 3.—These two Days it rained and We stayed at our Camp to take Care of some Provision We had killed.

Saturday 4.—This Day our Horses run away, and it was late before We got Them, so We coud not travel far, We went N 75 E 4 M.

Sunday May 5.—Rained all Day.

Monday 6.—Set out thro very bad Ways E 3 M, NE 6 M, over a bad Laurel Creek E 4 M.

Tuesday 7.—Set out E 10 M, to the big Conhaway or new River and got over half of it to a large Island where We lodged that Night.

Wednesday 8.—We made a Raft of Logs and crossed the other half of the River & went up it S about 2 M—The [65] Conhaway or new River (by some called Wood's River) where I crossed it (which was about 8 M above the Mouth Of blue Stone River) is better than 200 Yards wide, and pretty deep; but full of Rocks and Falls—The Bottoms upon it and blue Stone River are very rich but narrow, the high Land broken.

Thursday 9.—Set out E 13 M to a large Indian Warrior's Camp, where We killed a Bear and stayed all Night.

Friday 10.—Set out E 4 M, SE 3 M, S 3 M, thro Mountains cover'd with Ivy and Laurel Thickets.

Saturday 11.—Set out S 2 M, SE 5 M, to a Creek and a Meadow where We let our Horses feed; then SE 2 M, S 1 M, SE 2 M to a very high Mountain up on the Top of which was a Lake or Pond about 3/4 of a Mile long NE & SW, & 1/4 of a Mile wide the Water fresh and Clear, and a clean gravelly Shore about 10 Yards wide with a fine Meadow and six fine Springs in it, then S about 4 M, to a Branch of the Conhaway called Sinking Creek.

Sunday 12.—Stayed to rest our Horses and dry some Meat We had killed.

Monday 13.—Set out SE 2 M, E 1 M, SE 3 M, S12 M to one Richard Halls in Augusta County this Man is one of the farthest Settlers to the Westward upon the New River.

Tuesday 14 —Stayed at Richard Hall's and wrote to the President of Virginia & the Ohio Company to let them know I shoud be with Them by the 15th of June.

Wednesday 15.—Set out from Richard Hall's S 16 M.

Thursday 16.—The same Course S 22 M and encamped at Beaver Island Creek (a Branch of the Conhaway) opposite to the Head of Roanoke.

Friday 17.—Set out SW 3 M, then S 9 M, to the dividing Line between Carolina and Virginia, where I stayed all Night, the Land from Rich Hall's to this Place is broken.

Saturday 18.—Set out S 20 M to my own House on the [66] Yadkin River, when I came there I found all my Family gone, for the Indians had killed five People in the Winter near that Place, which frightened my Wife and Family away to Roanoke about 35 M nearer in among the Inhabitants, which I was informed of by an old Man I met near the Place.

Sunday 19 —Set out for Roanoke, and as We had now a Path, We got there the same Night where I found all my Family well.



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