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Mary C. Darlington, Editor.

PART 5: Pages 221-307

[Page numbers appear in brackets in bold print]
[Transcription is verbatim]
[Footnotes appear in smaller font]

See Illustration of Place of Guyasuta's Grave

Letters from Officers of the Continental Army, from 1776-1799

Erection and Organization of Allegheny County, by William M. Darlington




FORT PITT, 6 July 1776.

AT a meeting held this Day at this place, present: Kiashuta, a Mingoe chief, just returned from the treaty at Niagira; Captain Pipe, a Delaware chief; The Shade, a Shawnese chief, with several others, Shawnese and Delawares; likewise Major Trent, Major Ward, Captain Nevill, his officers and a number of the Inhabitants, after being seated, Kiashuta made the following Speech:

"Brothers: Three Months ago I left this Place to attend a Treaty at Niagira, to be held between the Commanding Officer of that Place and the six nation, Shawnese, Delawares, etc.; But I was stopped near a month at Connywagoe. As the Commanding officer had sent word to the Indians not to assemble until He should hear from Detroit. while I was at Connywagoe, 8oo Indians of the six nations hearing my Intentions of going to the Treaty, came to meet me and go with me. just as we arrived at a small Village beyond Connywagoe, they received a message from the Commanding Officer, acquainting them that the Treaty was over, but they, notwithstanding, persisted in going. "I received a message at the same Time inviting me to come, and assuring me that the Council Fire was not yet entirely extinguished. upon my arrival with the rest of the Indians, I informed the Commanding Officer that I had come a great Distance to hear what He had to say, and desired that he would inform me; but he told me [222] that he was not yet prepared to speak with me, which ended our Conference."

Kiashuta then produced (his Belt, and is ordered by the Six nations to send it through the Indian Country) a Belt of Wampum, which was to be sent from the six nations to the Shawnese, Delawares, Wyandotts and Western Indians, acquainting them that they were determined to take no Part in the present War between Great Britain and America, and desiring them to do the same. He then addressed himself to the Virginians and Pennsylvanians in the following manner:

"Brothers: We will not suffer either the English or Americans to march an army thro' our Country. Should Either attempt it, We shall forewarn them three times from Proceeding, but should they then persist, they must abide by the Consequence. I am appointed by the Six Nations to the Care of this Country, that is, to the Care of the Indians on the West side of the river Ohio, and I desire you will not think of an Expedition against Detroit, for I repeat it to you again, we will not suffer an army to march through our Country." A String.

Kiashuta again rose and spoke as follows:

"Brothers: Should any Mischief chance to be committed by any of our People, you must not blame the Nations nor think it was done by the approbation of the Chiefs; for the six Nations have strictly forbid any of their young men or Tributaries to molest any People on these Waters, but if they are determined to go to War, let them go to Canada and fight there." A String.

Kiashuta then addressed Himself to Captain Pipe (a Delaware chief), desiring him to inform his nation of what he had heard, and to request them to be strong and join with the other nations in keeping Peace in his country. A String.

He also recommended it to the Shade, a Shawnese Chief, to do the same.

[223] He then desired that the foregoing speeches might be distributed through the Country, to quiet the minds of the people, and convince them that the six nations and their adherents did not desire to live at Variance with them; To which Captain Nevill returned the following answer:

"Brother Kiashuta: I am much oblig'd to you for your good speech on the present occasion. you may depend We shall not attempt to march an army through your Country without first acquainting you with it, unless we hear of a British Army coming this Course. In such Case, we must make all possible speed to meet, and endeavor to stop them."

To which Kiashuta replied that there was not the least Danger of that, as they should make it their Business to prevent Either an English or American army from passing through their Country.

Captain CARSON.
First Lieutenant FINDLY.
Second Lieutenant ALEXANDER SIMERAL.

Indian Conference at Fort Pitt, July 6, 1776.

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, 4th June, 1777.

Sir:—I am favored with your letter of this date Informing me that you can't relieve the post at Kittanning except I can Supply you with Arms and Ammunition. Arms I have not until the Wagons arrive, consequently the 50 men who Escort the Wagons may march from here as early as any other Body of men I could arm. Ammunition I suppose to be already at that Post, you complain of the expence attending calling the Militia out. You must keep an account of what necessarily arises on that service and draw for it agreeable to the Act of Assembly.

I am, Sir, with Esteem,
Your obedient Humble Servant,


[224] FORT PITT, 6th July, 1777.

Sir:—I received your letter by Captn. Martin, and am glad that by your late instructions you have it in your Power to punish the refractory Members you mention. Captn. Martin's small Party & two others, 15 Privates in the whole, are all I have yet heard of, pray, inform me if any more have joined him; it is very awkward & irregular to see men droping in by twos and threes without Officers and the least Order.

Captn. Martin is Stationed at the Kiskimmenitas. You will see by the Militia Act the proportion of Officers to a Certain number of men, which can't be exceeded.

I am, Sir,
Your Obedient, Humble Servant,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, 29th July, 1777.

Dr Sir:—Your favor of yesterday I received & have furnished thirty Guns and accoutrements to Captns. McKee & Leech agreeable to your desire. I expect you will Please to direct them to be careful of them, that I may receive them fit for service. Captn. McKee received ten yesterday and one some time ago. Captain Leech rec'd nineteen to-day. I intend requesting the Principal Militia Officers of Westmoreland County to meet me at Hannas Town as soon as the Hurry of Harvest is over; I wish to confer with them on public business. I will give you further notice & fix a day. If you will take the Trouble to examine the Articles of War you will see that the men who deserted from Captain Martin's detachment are Guilty of Breach of the 4th & 14th Articles of the 13th Section of the Articles of War, and, as they were then in Actual Service, you will find by the 1st Article of the 17th Section that they are as liable to be punished as regular [225] Soldiers. I enclose a copy of the Articles of War lest you may not have one by you

and am, Dr Sir, Sincerely yours,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, 6th August, 1777.

Sir:—I last evening received your favor of the 2d Instant, and am convinced that what you have done is occasioned by your Zeal for the Common Cause; but you may remember that a Magazine was ordered to your Quarter by myself, &, as I did not know the most proper place, I consulted the General I met at Ligonier the 18th Ultimo. By their Common Voice, Col. Mountis was fixed on, & Col. Morgan has only acted by my express Command. I have the Pleasure to acquaint you that, as far as can be ascertained, the Suspicions of that Gentn's Infidelity are quite groundless; would to God those formed of every other Person were so! I find Col. Lochry is gone to Phila.; I therefore request you will please immediately to forward the wagons laden with Salt to Col. Mountis, and Redstone agreeable to prior order; those wagons carrying other stores I beg you will send here. It will be necessary to send an Escort with the Wagons, which must continue at Col. Mountis' as a Guard for the Magazine, & be relieved by you, agreeable to thy directions, to Colonel Lochry, which I find you are acquainted with. I beg to know in what Forwardness the Militia from your County, destined for the Expedition, are in,

and am, Sir, Very respectfully Yrs.,

[JAMES PARRY, Lieut. of Westmoreland.]

* * * * * *

[226] FORT PITT, August 8, 1777.

General Hand wishes to meet the Militia officers, & other principal Inhabitants of the Counties of Bedford and West-moreland, at Ligonier, on Monday, the 18th instant, to con-suit on the best Measures to be taken on the present alarming Occasion.

By order of the Genl.,

[To COLONEL ARCHIBALD LOCHRY, Westmoreland County.]

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, August 22, 1777.

Sir:—As the Commissary has been directed to Erect a Magazine of Provisions at Colonel Mounces' , near Stewart's crossing, and one at Redstone old Fort, he will send from Ligonier, by the way of the Nine Mile Run, a Number of Wagons, Laden with Stores, to the above-mentioned places. I therefore Request that you will please to furnish a Party of Militia to Escort the Wagons & serve as Guides, & to remove any obstructions the Wagons may meet on the road, the same party, or another, Consisting of a carefull Subaltern officer, a sergeant & ten Privates, must remain at Colonel Mounces' as a Guard to the Magazine; they are to be kept up until further Orders, and may be delivered as often as you think necessary.

I am, Sir, Your obedient, Humble Servant,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, 13 October, 1777.

Sir:—I hope in a few days to move the Provisions & other stores destined for the Indian Expedition from here to Wheeling, & I will, at the same time, march all the troops here assembled to that place. I beg you may be as expeditious as [227] possible in furnishing your proportion and ordering them to march immediately for this garrison. Send an Officer and fifteen or twenty of your Militia to meet and Escort David Tate's Brigade of Horses laden with flour, they will also take under their protection any other Continental Pack-Horses they meet.

I am Sir, Your Obed, H'ble Servant,

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, 18 October, 1777.

Dear Sir:—The protection of your County has, since I have had the Honor to Command, been an object equally attended to with that of any other Frontier County. I have repeatedly requested from you a number of men for that purpose, but (from what cause I can't determine) I never yet could obtain them agreeable to my wish. If you will now send me your proportion, I think that will be sufficient, added to the numbers already arrived and daily expected from different Quarters, to protect the Frontiers. Congress ordered a Post in your County (The Kittanning); I could not support that and have ordered another to be Erected at the expence of the Continent. This I think Sufficient, & will Support, if you lend me your aid; at the same time, beg leave to assure you that I don't mean to interfere with your Command of Westmoreland County, or your Plan in Erecting as many Forts and magazines as you please at the expence of the State of Pennsylvania, and puting the whole County in its Pay. Presuming you have proper authority for so doing, and every State will, no doubt, have a particular regard to the Situation of Different Counties, the People you mention are surely Defending their own Property, and, if the Spirit of Discord would permit them, have it in their Power, by Uniting to march in Bodies, to collect the Grain of every man in the Frontier parts [228] of the County. I again request you may not delay the proportion from your County for the Expedition; the Season advances apace. I shall to-morrow proceed to Wheeling with what Troops I have, yours will receive every necessary I can Afford them when they arrive here, & when they join me shall be put on the same footing with the Militia of any other County. In the meantime, Subscribe myself,

Dr Sir, very Sincerely yrs,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, 5 Nov., 1777.

Dear Sir:—I was duly fav'd with yours of the 2d by Colonel Barr, who, instead of 53, has no more than 31 Rank and file.

To my very great mortification I find I can't collect a sufficient number of men to enter the Indian country this season, therefore, as the Frontier of Westmoreland County lies much exposed to the Ravages of the Savages, I beg that you may immediately draw out 150 men, with officers in proportion, to cover that part of the Country and Assist the Inhabitants in securing their Crops and other property, the whole to be under the direction of a Field Officer, who must report to me from time to time what number of men and officers are on duty & where they are. Col. Barr's party are now armed & will remain here subject to your Orders. I wish to render this Body of men as useful as possible to the public, shall for that reason leave the destination of them to yourself. Except 30 to be kept with Captain Moorhead, you are to continue the 150 men & no more on continental pay untill Further orders or until the necessity for it ceases. You must apply to Col. Geo. Morgan or his agent here for In- [229] structions how to Victual them, a sufficient number of cattle are already purchased for that purpose.

I am, Sir, your Obedt, Humle Servant,


* * * * * *

[Collection of W. M. D.]

Sir:—I wrote to the honorable the Continental Congress on the 15th Ultimo, which I hope they have received. I would at that time have wrote to you, but was not certain of your being in Congress; but as Mr. John Anderson informs me he left you in Congress, I take the liberty of communicating to you some matters that have occurred to me since my letter to Congress upon hearing the speeches of the Delawares, and request the favour of you to lay them before Congress, and that Part with respect to the Delawares I have communicated to Col. Morgan. I believe we shall have an Indian war and a general one. If the Delawares were ever so well inclined they will be awed into it by the other nations. I would be for supporting them if possible in order to lessen the strength of our enemy. They should be invited into our Country. Their wives, Children and Old people would be then secure, and we then should reap great Advantage from the service of their young Men and Warriors. And if any other Tribe or Nation would follow their Example they should be encouraged. If we have a general Indian war, it is my humble Opinion four expeditions will be necessary: One to the Southward, one to the Northward, one down the Ohio to establish a Strength on the Ohio, so as to cut off any communication with the Western and Southern Nations, and one other expedition to De Troit or to some part of the Country to the Westward, to cut off the communication between the Northern and Western Nations. Each of those expeditions [230] should be carried into execution under the command of an experienced officer. And it is my humble opinion not less than 3,000 men should be employed in each of those expeditions, and they should be well equipped; that those who went down the Ohio and those to Detroit should have some field pieces, and those troops should not return but establish posts and reduce the Indians and convince them of an error that they have been led into by the governments formerly, that they may at any time make war with us and have peace granted them on their own terms. I would recommend that large numbers of hostages should be taken from every tribe or nation that we may reduce, and take none but their chiefs or ruling men as hostages, that the tribe or nation should support those hostages, and that they should not be exchanged till we had good proof of their tribe or nation becoming agreeable people. That all the lands of the unoffending tribes or nations should be preserved to them, and a generous trade well regulated. And that all the lands of the offending Tribes or Nations should be forfeited, and that they should be restricted to hunt or live on such parts of it as should be directed by the commanding Officer or Governor who might be appointed to rule them. We undoubtedly should have a greater number of the Indians in our interest. If we had a sufficient quantity of goods for that purpose, our enemy have great advantage of us for they out treaty us, and the highest bidder will have the greatest Number of the Indians. This I know from my acquaintance with them for upwards of twenty years.

To the Delawares we made promises of protection, and they now put our friendship to the test, and if we do not fulfil our promises they will undoubtedly be obliged to look for protection elsewhere, and we must suffer in their opinion and also in the opinion of all the other nations. If I should [231] receive Intelligence, or if anything should occur to me that may serve the general cause, I shall write to you.

I am, sir, with great respect,
Your most obedient humble servant,

A Member of the Honorable Continental Congress.]

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, March 22, 1778.

Sir:—I am instructed by the hon'ble, the Commissioners appointed by Congress, to fix on a plan for the defence of these frontiers, to desire that you may continue 150 Privates of the Militia of your County, properly officered, on constant duty on its frontiers. Thirty of them to be added to Captain Moorhead's company, stationed at Fort Hand, and the remaining 120 placed at such stations as you find best calculated for the defence of the County. Instead of Militia call'd out in the ordinary way, the Commissioners are desirous of engaging a like number of volunteers for a longer time than the Militia generally serves. I perfectly agree with them in sentiment and wish you to fall on that Plan, provided no delay arises for its execution.

I am, sir, your obed't h'ble serv't,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, June 14, 1778.

Sir:—I am at a Loss to conceive the Meaning of the Intelligence I this day received from the Delaware Indians, yet as the Term old Hunting ground may, and probably does imply the Place that gentleman has been at war the last season, it it is not unlikely; but it may be your County, therefore wish you to take every Precaution to prevent a surprise by keeping [232] out Scouts and having a force ready to oppose the invaders. I will not be remiss in doing my Part. I shall give you Information of anything that comes to my Knowledge and concerns you, and expect a like Information from you, as I mean to give you timely assistance if necessary.

I am, dear sir, y'rs sincerely,


* * * * * *

Extract from intelligence receiv'd from the Delaware Indians 14th June, 1778.

The Inclosed Billet I received yesterday from the lake will, perhaps, be of some use for you.


There is a small army of French—150 or 200 men—that is for the frontier, commanded by one Mr. Jenot. I imagine that he is for his old hunting ground or for Redstone.

FORT PITT, July 9, 1778.

Sir:—I have just received yours of the 7th and 8th Current, and am much distressed to find the unhappy situation of your county, and the more so as I am at a loss how to relieve you. Colonel Campbell has ordered a body of the militia of Yohogania County to assemble here. I intended them for you, but they are not yet come; if I can't do otherwise will endeavor to send you a few Regulars to scour your Frontier, which will, I hope, enable you to collect your Harvest, as you may reasonably expect their Hay can't be long, and I hope the Militia will exert themselves and collect in bodies to save the grain under the Protection of this Guard; prepare to receive them at Hannas Town; they will be Victualed from here to that place; you shall have farther notice of their approach.

Yours, etc.,


* * * * * *

[233] FORT PITT, July 10, 1778.

Sir:—Captain James Sullivan, with a Detachment of regular Troops under his Command, will march this Evening, or tomorrow Morning, to your assistance. He will halt at Hannas Town until he sees you; he has written Instructions, which I beg you may peruse and assist him in executing. I hope his Party will produce the desired salutary Effects.

I am, sir, very cordially yours,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, July 27, 1778.

Sir:—I have good reason to suspect that many parties of Indians are now out; you will, therefore, plan to be on your guard.

Plan to furnish twenty-five or thirty men to protect the houses, collecting forage in your county.

I am, sir, your hble svt.,


* * * * * *

FORT MCINTOSH, Beaver Creek, Oct. 30, 1778.

Sir:—I had the Honor of writing to you on the 27th September, and hope your People are about the Block Houses I recommended for the protection of your County during my absence. The repeated murders committed by the Indians upon your Inhabitants must show the necessity of them.

The Magistrates of your County have asked my consent for 150 Volunteers to go and rout or remove a few Indian Towns upon Allegheny River, who, probably, are the most troublesome to you, which I very much approve of. It will be greatly to your honor and advantage; they shall have provisions and ammunition, either from this place or Fort Pitt, with every reasonable Encouragement I can give them, as nothing can be better [234] times, if they are expeditious and secrete. I propose going in two or three days to Cochocking, or the Delaware Towns, and leave Colonel Broadhead to wait for our stores, and the attention of most of their Warriors will be upon our motions, which will probably make them an easy prey. It is what I had in View myself, if I was not otherwise employed. I shall be glad to hear of your proceedings and success in it.

I have the pleasure to inform you that my plan of securing as I go begins to have its proper effect upon several tribes of the Savages already, who have earnestly applied to me for peace, but have given them no Encouragement yet, and perhaps will not if I am properly supported, until they give me substantial proofs of their Sincerity. I intend building a Fort at Cochocking before I proceed any further, to secure these Indians in our Interest, from which I may probably make excursions to some of the Hostile Towns; but, unfortunately, the time of the Militia I have with me will expire the first day of January next, which will disappoint all my Schemes, unless I have a fresh Supply of men before that time, which I cannot expect from these Counties, who have already Exerted themselves so much; therefore, as I have Spared yours this time, for the security and protection of your own Frontiers, I hope and expect you will use your utmost Endeavours to procure only two hundred men, properly Officered, armed and accoutered, whom I request you will send off the first of December at farthest, that they may be up with me in time, and that I may not be obliged to relinquish any Ground I gain; and must also intreat the time of service of your Militia, if possible, may be six Months from the Day they arrive at my headquarters, if required so long, as short engagements will be of no use in my design, and for their encouragement I expect they will have the honor of finishing the campaign, and all the toil and labor will be over before they come. In hopes that you will use [235] your utmost Exertion on the occasion to serve your country and yourselves.

I am respectfully, sir,
Your most obt. servt,


I request you will forward the inclosed letter to Colonel Piper immediately by express.

* * * * * *


Dear Sir:—I find that it will not be in my power to provide for the number of men I have ordered to be called into service so soon as I expected. Besides, I have heard officially that a number of Artillery, Cannon and Stores are now on the March to this place, and by report, that two Regiments are on their march to reinforce my command. I must recommend it to you, and all the leading Officers of your county, to excite industry in planting and sowing the Summer crops, and to have your troops here by the second day of next Month.

The stroke at Brush Creek was quite unexpected and has given me great uneasiness, because I had reason to hope that the Country eastward of this place would have enjoyed some quiet. But I see the villains are determined to perplex us as much as they possibly can. The Militia should be drafted for two months, although the expedition will probably end in one, and let them be as well armed and accoutred as circumstances will admit. I request you to encourage them to bring with them two weeks allowance of Provisions, lest there should be a deficiency. I trust you and all the good people of your County are convinced of the necessity there is for prosecuting some offensive operations against the Savages, and I hope that, being favored by a well-timed movement [236] from the new settlements down the river, we shall be able to strike a general panic into the hostile Tribes. I do not intend to put too much to hazard, as a Defeat would prove fatal to the Settlements, and therefore expect the full Complement of men will be furnished, which alone, with the blessing of Divine Providence, can ensure success. Indeed, I expect that upon this Expedition many will turn and voluntarily to procure to themselves the blessings of Peace. I have the Honor to be, with great regard and Esteem,

Dear, Sir, your most obedient servant,
Colonel Commanding No. D.

[COLONEL ARCHIBALD LOCHRY, Lieutenant of Westmoreland County.]

* * * * * *


Dear Sir:—I am honored with your favor of this date. I am well satisfied with the proposed indulgence to the Inhabitants of Turtle Creek Waters until they have reaped their harvests of Wheat and Rye; but it will be very in convenient to provide for the men at such a distance; besides, our magazines are very low, and I conceive the inhabitants who wish their protection particularly ought to feed them at their own expense—this, I believe has been the usual custom.

I hear nothing of the sixty men you were ordered to draft, which were to receive their supplies from the State, and I am desirous to know what has been done in regard to that order, for I am so circumstanced with regard to resources that my duty will require the strictest economy to subsist the troops in Continental service. If I can possibly obtain supplies, I shall yet make an excursion into the Indian country in time to destroy the corn, etc. But I conceive [237] that the best method will be to march on horse if they can be furnished.

I am, with much respect and esteem,
Your most obedient servant,


* * * * * *

FORT PITT, October 8 1782.

Sir:—I am honored with your Excellency's two letters of the 4th and 18th of September; the last by Mr. Carnaghan with the money did not arrive here till the 5th instant. This delay and the detachment of General Wayne's regiment not coming at the time proposed will unavoidably prevent my moving so soon as was intended. I have sent an officer Express to meet and hasten General Wayne's men, and though I am not certain what day they can arrive, take for granted, if at all, they will be here before the 20th, and as the business would be impracticable later, have fixed on that day to march from Fort McIntosh—a post thirty miles advanced of this place. Sixty Rangers are counted to me as part of the men for the expedition; these I am not yet informed where they are to come from. Three hundred Militia ordered by Congress from below the mountain are also counted; those are not only so far short of the number, but so few of them are fit, or in any manner Clothed or Equipped for such service, that most of them would be a dead weight or incumbrance; add to this their term of service is nearly expired. I must therefore depend solely on the few Regulars and what volunteers can be raised on this side the Mountain. If about 6oo actually assemble, I am determined to make the attempt, particularly as I have some reason to hope General Clark, will co-operate with us if this last delay does not prevent it, as I had concerted measures with him that he should [238] attack the Shawnese at the same time I did Sandusky. One of the Expresses to him was wounded on his way down the river and narrowly escaped falling into the enemy's hands. I have sent another to him since that time, and a third since I received your last dispatches in order to halt him a few days till I could get ready. The Estimate will be found in general too low, and several things omitted which cannot be dispensed with. The calculation for a horse to carry 200 is too high; however you may depend I will spare no pains to have the business done on the lowest terms. I have appointed Mr. John Irwin, of Pittsburgh, the principal agent. If you should think proper to send any money in my absence, you will be so good as to address it to him, subject to my orders. It would not be possible to procure the supplies in so short a time on any other plan than to purchase provision from the Volunteers, which they had collected for their own use on the original plan of carrying the Expedition. I mean, therefore, to order the whole to the place of general Rendezvous, there have the whole appraised and pay for it in bulk; though some unavoidable waste will take place, yet I hope, on the whole, it will come within the price the Rations are estimated at. The greatest difficulty with me is the uncertainty of the Quantity, which cannot be ascertained till the whole is collected, but there is no alternative.

I have the honor to be with great resp ct, sir, your Excellency's most obedient servant,


[His Excellency, WM. MOOR, ESQ.]

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, April 12, 1782.

My Dearest Love:—I received your two letters by Captain Craig and Mr. Hughes. I am therefore in arrears in the letter way, but the fault is not in me, being extremely anxious [239] you of my arrival here, but have not had a single opportunity. I had very cold weather, though dry, and made a speedy march. Got up the Monday after I left you. One of my horses took lame, and I was oblig'd to leave him about half-way. Things were in a strange state when I arrived. A number of the Country people had just returned from the Moravian towns, about 100 miles distant, where, ‘tis said, they did not spare either age or sex. What was more extraordinary they did it in cool blood, having deliberated three days, during which time they were industrious in collecting all hands into their Churches (they had embraced Christianity) where they fell on, while they were singing Hymns, and killed the whole. Many children were killed in their wretched Mother's arms. Whether this was right or wrong I do not pretend to determine. Things were still in greater confusion nearer home, for on the morning before my arrival here a party of Militia attacked some friendly Indians, who were not only under our protection, but several actually had commissions in our service, at the very nose of the garrison on a small island in the River, of whom they killed several, and also made prisoners of a guard of Continental troops, and sent Colonel Gibson a message that they would also scalp him. A thousand lies are propagated all over the country against him, poor fellow, I am informed. The whole is occasioned by his unhappy connection with a certain tribe, which leads people to imagine for this reason that he has an attachment to Indians in general. However false this reasoning may be, yet no reasoning will or can convince people to the contrary.

People who have had Fathers, Mothers, Brothers or Children butchered, tortured, scalped by the savages—reasoning very differently on the subject of killing the Moravians to what people who live in the interior part of the country in safety do—their feelings are very different. Whatever your private [240] opinion of these matters may be, I conjure you by all the ties of affection, and as you value my reputation, that you keep your mind to yourself and that you will not express any sentiment for or against these deeds, as it may be alleged the sentiments you express may come from me or be mine also.

No man knows whether I approve or disapprove of killing the Moravians. I called a meeting of most of the principal Militia Officers. They were convened here last Friday after long conferences which lasted nearly two days. They parted seemingly pleased with the plans I proposed to adopt for the protection of the country, and promised they would support me. I have also been fortunate enough to suppress the mutinous disposition of the Troops without Blood-shedding. From all this you make yourself easy respecting my personal safety. Some people are killed and some taken by the Indians in almost every quarter. I lost five of my men a few days since, who were wood-cutting and carelessly laid down their arms to load the wagon, when a party rushed on them. This was at a Fort we have thirty miles down the river. Whether my mind may change or not I cannot say, but from the state of things at present I would not consent for the Universe to your coming up. If your sister, Niell, lives in the country this summer and you could accomplish taking the children with you, I should have no objection to your spending some weeks with her.

Yrs affectionately,

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, December 29, 1782.

My Dearest Love:—This day I expected my Express, but there is as yet no account of him, but I hourly look for him. The Bearer, Mr. Jno. Bull, is an elder of the Moravian Indians congregation, who, together with the Ministers, Converts, etc., [241] had built a pretty town and made good improvements and lived for some years past quite in the style of Christian, White people, but were last fall taken prisoners by a party of Indians commanded by that infamous rascal, Matthew Elliot, and carried away to the number of 100 families from their fine farms into the Wilderness, where they are starving. Mr. Bull is going down to Bethlehem to represent the sufferings of his people to the society of Moravians. I wish I could appoint a day to be with you, but that is impossible.

I am, my dearest love, yours most affectionately,


* * * * * *

PHILADELPHIA, August 26, 1784.

Sir:—We understand it is your Intention to contract for those Things which will be necessary for the table and support of the Commissioners during the Negotiations. We are apprehensive of much inconvenience in being supplied by a Contractor, and therefore it is our wish that the articles which we have noted as necessary, should be purchased by Mr. O'Hara, in whom we can Confide. You can best judge, sir, whether this will make any material differehce in the Expense to the Public. If it will not, we hope the Mode we desire will be agreeable to you, and that Mr. O'Hara will be enabled to provide the Things necessary without a moment's Delay, as the time fixed for the Treaty at Stanwix presses hard upon us.

We have the honor to be, with great respect, sir,
Your most obed and humble Servts,

[The Honorable the Superintendent of Finance.]

* * * * * *

PHILADELPHIA, September 10, 1784.

Sir:—The Indian Goods destined for the Westward, and which you are now purchasing, you will please to have care- [242] fully packed up, marked and numbered and placed in some safe and convenient store, to remain there till the arrival of my Colleagues, which I expect will be to-morrow or next day at farthest. It is my wish that you should take charge of them to Fort Pitt and Cyahoga, and I make not the least doubt but Colonel Atlee and Mr. McClay will agree with me in your appointment to this business. I order that they may be forwarded with all dispatch; You had better begin to engage the necessary Teams immediately. With regard to additional Stores to accommodate the Commissioners, it will be absolutely necessary that they should be laid in. This, however, may be delay'd until the arrival of my brother Commissioners, when you shall be furnished with a list.

I am, Sir, your very humble servant,
F. JOHNSTON, Commissioner.

Approved by SAM. ATLEE.

* * * * * *

PHILADELPHIA, August 28, 1784.

Sir:—You having assisted the Continental Commissioners in procuring the Indian goods so much to their satisfaction, has induced the Indian Commissioners on the part of this State, to request your assistance in obtaining and safe-packing the goods to be provided by them. Enclosed you have a list of such as are wanted, and must beg you will lose no time in furnishing the usual articles therein specified, in order that they may be sent, if possible, with the Goods of the Continent. The list should have been furnished sooner had we been sooner authorized. The Treaty at Fort Stanwix will be held the 20th of September next, so that it will require your utmost exertions, as many of the articles must be made here. A general treaty will be held at Cuyahoga, on the bank of Lake Erie, on the 20th of November next, so that the articles in the [243] enclosed List No. 1, will be equally divided, the one-half only immediately for the first Treaty, by which means you will have sufficient time to make up such articles as shall be required for the second. As the State means to convince the natives that she can and will furnish the best assortment of Goods, we must beg you will be careful to answer her good Intentions in these particulars. Sundry little articles, agreeable to List No. 2, will be wanted for the accommodation of the Commissioners, who beg you will give yourself the additional trouble of furnishing the same and having them carefully put up, marked and sent on with the Goods. When they are ready to be shipped, you will be pleased call upon Captain Joseph Stiles, the keeper of the magazine, who will deliver you 10 quarter Casks of powder for the first Treaty; 10 other quarter Casks will be ready for the second, and likewise delivered you.

We are, Sir, your h'ble servants,

P. S.—Captain Stiles will also furnish you with three horseman's and one soldier's tent.

* * * * * *

FORT PITT, December 3, 1785.

Sir:—I am sorry to inform your Excellency that this country has got a severe stroke by the loss of Colonel Lochry and about one hundred (‘tis said) of the best men of Westmoreland County, including Captain Stockely and his company of Rangers. They were going down the Ohio on General Clark's Expedition; many accounts agree that they were all killed or taken at the mouth of the Miami River— I believe, chiefly killed. This misfortune, added to the failure of General Clarke's Expedition, has filled the people with great dismay; many talk of retiring to the East side of the [244]
Mountains early in the Spring. Indeed, there is great reason to apprehend that the Savages and, perhaps, the British from Detroit will push us hard in the Spring, and I believe there never were Posts nor a County in a worse state of defence. Notwithstanding, I am well informed there has been sundry meetings of people at different places for the purpose of concerting plans to emigrate into the Indian country, there to establish a Government for themselves. What the result of these meetings were I cannot say, and, as I do not intend to interfere in Civil matters, have not taken any notice of the affair. From what observations I have been able to make, I am of opinion there is many obvious reasons why no time should be lost in running the line between Virginia and Pennsylvania. Civil government will never be fairly established till then, nor even the Militia drawn out with regularity for their own defence. I have no reason, as yet, to complain of the people, for the refractory, ungovernable, low manners generally ascribed to them. I assure you, sir, my pity for their situation is rather excited, than wrath or indignation kindled. I have good grounds to believe that the settlements at Cantuke and the Falls will break up, in which case, I fear, a number of adventurers, who talk of going down to New Orleans with flour, will be killed or taken. Council may depend that during my stay here, that no exertions in my power shall be wanting in everything that may tend to the welfare of the State, or protection of the Inhabitants, as far as consistent with my duty as an officer of the United States. I have the honor to be, with great respect,

Sir, your Excellency's most obedient servant,

[His Excellency, the President of the State of Pennsylvania.)

* * * * * *

REGISTER'S OFFICE, March 6, 1792.

These are to certify that James O'Hara, Esq., late Contractor for supplying the army with Provisions, and who occasionally acted as Quartermaster of the troops and agent for the supply of Indian goods, is not charged with any Moneys on the treasury books. That he has from time to time settled his accounts in a regular manner at the Treasury, and has given general satisfaction to the Treasury officers with whom he settled said accounts.


* * * * * *

WAR DEPARTMENT, April 19, 1792.

Sir:—The President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, has appointed you Quartermaster-General in the Army of the United States. You will please immediately to signify your acceptance or non-acceptance of this appointment. In order that you may judge of the pay, rations and emoluments for the commissioned and non-commissioned officers and privates in the service of the United States, I enclose you the Act of Congress relative to the military establishment.

I am, sir, your humble servant,
H. KNOX, Secretary of War.


* * * * * *

PITTSBURGH, June 20, 1792.

Sir:—I have the pleasure to inform you that the Quartermaster-General's Department begins to bear such appearance in this country as strengthens my confidence in being able to perform the Duties in such manner as may be required. The Stores sent by Mr. Knox have arrived more expeditiously than I expected and in tolerable order; the brass cannon is at [246] length received very safe. The conduct of Gist I represented to you in Philadelphia, he being there with his wagon. The Sheet Iron was delivered in due time, and the Camp Kettles are in a fair way of being ready. Every article furnished at this place will be of excellent quality. I expect some embarrassment in procuring Forage, chiefly owing to the very low state of the rivers, but with a little exertion I expect to raise the necessary supply. I have made such arrangements as was in my power for having the necessary magazines and Granaries erected at the Western Posts and for having dry Forage laid up, if possible; this will depend on the state of the Garrison. I cannot make any observations on the deficiencies of my department, having no returns of accoutrements, camp equipage and other articles, which I am informed are already procured, but shall certainly attend to it soon as may be in my power. Wishing to continue Major Craig as Quartermaster at this post, I have ventured to offer him Forty dollars per month, three Rations per day and Forage for one horse, which he does not consider a sufficient compensation and which I shall not exceed in any case without advice. Such Blacksmiths, Carpenters and Wheelwrights as ought to be employed as artificers, will not engage to serve for less than fifteen or twenty dollars per month and extra provision. Good Mechanics are indispensably necessary, and as I do not conceive myself justifiable in agreeing on such high terms, I wish to be instructed on both these cases. I have purchased but very few Horses, as having a great number on Hand would at present be attended with unnnecessary expense. I shall wait for particular orders on this Head, as a sufficient Number may be raised in a few days notice. The Commander-in-Chief being here I shall not trouble you with any observations on the situation of our Frontiers, nor do I know that more can be said than that we seem to be in pro- [247] found peace, surrounded by a cheerful people, possessing all the necessaries of life in the greatest abundance and on the most easy terms, although not altogether free from apprehension that this tranquillity may be again disturbed by skulking parties from Lake Erie, or by Muncy Vagabonds. I expect to be honored with your commands often as the service may require, and I now take the liberty of assuring you that no motive nor consideration can possibly interfere with the duties of my station, which I feel myself most religiously bound to execute agreeable to your instructions and my own judgment. A few loads of shot is received under Campbell's contract. They will not please, being too rough for brass pieces and not fair cast; of this they are informed.

I have the honor to be, sir,
Your most obedient humble servant,

[To the Honorable, the Secretary of War, June 20, 1792.]

* * * * * *

WAR DEPARTMENT, June 29, 1792.

Sir:—I have received your favor of the 20th instant and I am happy to learn the confidence that you shall be able to perform the duties of your Department in a satisfactory manner.

I am really of opinion that Major Craig ought to have the pay and emoluments of a deputy quartermaster-general. His punctuality, fidelity and industry are such as to be of particular importance in the place where he is, as he has the charge of receiving and distributing all the public stores. I think you may engage good mechanics at fifteen dollars, besides extra provisions; but they ought to be engaged for two or three years, unless sooner discharged. I am glad you have not yet purchased many horses. The Commander-in-Chief [248] being upon the spot, will instruct you upon that and all other parts of your duty.

The returns of the Tents and Camp equipage is presumed to be abundant; a particular return shall be transmitted to you, and if there should be any deficiency you will either provide them, or require them to be provided here.

I shall write to Major Craig about Campbell's shot.

I am, sir, your humble servant,

* * * * * *



"All advances for supplies in the quartermaster's department will be made to the (After the first of next month.) quartermaster by warrants in his favor from the treasury, and he will have to account immediately to the treasury for the disbursement of the moneys committed to him.

"It will, of course, be necessary for the quartermaster to have an attorney or deputy at this place. No provision for compensation of a deputy having been made it is of necessity that he should depute some person who is otherwise in the employ of the government.
[Compared.]                                                                                "JN. STAGG,"

* * * * * *


Sir:—I have received the extract of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury to the Secretary of War, relative to the appointment of an attorney or deputy at Philadelphia, and [249] the Secretary at War's request that such appointment should be immediately made. I cannot conceive that the allusion in this Extract can be to you in particular, as the Secretary's sentiments on this subject were the same several months ago; nevertheless, your known Integrity merits my confidence. Your industry and knowledge of the mode of doing Business in the Publick Offices will no doubt entitle you to "such compensation as may be hereafter thought reasonable" for such services as you shall tender in this line. Inclosed you have a Letter of attorney that will enable you to receive the necessary supplies of money for my department. The purchases and disbursements will be made occasionally, as may be legally ordered.

I am, Sir, your most humble servant,


* * * * * *


Sir:—I am honored with yours of the 7th instant, inclosing an extract of a letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, respecting the mode of advancing Supplies in the Quarter-master's department. In consequence of a letter received from Mr. Hodgdon, and my knowledge of his integrity, I have forwarded to him a power-of-attorney, that he may draw money on my account, from the Treasury of the United States, whenever it may be considered necessary, after the first of next month. This is all I feel myself justifiable in doing on this subject at present.

Mr. Belli's letter, dated Lexington, June the 8th, relative to forage, was received and answered in due time. I am under no apprehension on account of this article, although, on a moderate estimate, the present Establishment will require one Hundred Thousand Bushels of Grain annually. He [250] applies to me for an additional sum of money, as the $25,000 he has received is the exact estimation for Purchase of the Cavalry Horses. The purchase of Oxen (in which he has been successful), the purchase of forage, his expenditures, the necessary assistance and other expenses, do require that he should be furnished with Ten Thousand Dollars, at least. I, therefore, request that this sum of ten thousand dollars be placed in the Hands of Colonel Hodgdon, who will transmit it to me by the first good opportunity.

I find that the Spades and Shovels required in my first Estimate have been entirely neglected. They are already in demand. I beg they may be forwarded, or part of them, as soon as possible. Should the present mode of Transporting public stores to this country be continued, every branch of the army must suffer not only great inconvenience, but their disgrace may be owing to the base speculations of a few ungrateful Wagoners, who seem to take pride in abusing that indulgence they have so often experienced. The high price given for carriage is the principal cause of its being so infamously executed. It is engrossed by the most insinuating and stowed away until they can trip it; or sell out, at two or three Guineas the load; then no responsible person will meddle with it, having been Witnesses to the tricks of those undertaken before; then have I seen Lading pass to the fourth hand before it reached this place. The only remedy for this growing evil is to reduce the price of Carriage twelve per cent.—viz., change the neat to Gross Weight, and cause every fellow who has trespassed to be dismissed. The best characters will then engage to deliver each load at this place in Twenty-five days, or pay four dollars for every day's detention after.

I am, Sir, your most humble servant,

[Honorable Secretary of War.]

* * * * * *



Sir:—I have the honor to inclose you a copy of a letter from Captain Haskell, dated at Marietta, the 21st instant, stating the disagreeable situation the Troops at that Post and Gallipolis are in "for want of clothing" and other necessaries.

Captain Haskell having made no regular returns of the Articles wanted, I beg leave to submit to your Excellency the necessity of furnishing him with temporary relief as soon as the communication will admit, as I apprehend that those Posts are not of such magnitude as will justify the appointment of subordinates in either the Quartermaster, Ordnance, or Clothing branch of the staff.

I am, sir, your most humble servant,

* * * * * *



Dear Sir:—We arrived here safe on the 30th and in tolerable order, and with Extreme difficulty Barbees Brigade was prevailed on to go to Greenville for the last Escort, his people would not agree to bring any flour on their own Horses, the General has, however, wrote him by this Express, requesting him to prevail on them to load out.

It is very unfortunate that your new Horses will not be able to join this Escort, as it would complete this Post for a reasonable time, and I can assure you, that doing this after the army moves, will be very critical. I do not expect General Barbee can leave Greenville before the 9th, and were it possible for you to have him overtaken at Recovery by Express, I think [252] he would leave a Detachment to bring you on, as you had some hopes of being at Greenville on the 10th, the whole Detachment could not wait as the army will be again on half allowance, notwithstanding all possible dispatch. I have ordered Butler to push until he meets you, and should this Effort have the desired effect it will be of very great importance to the army and to the contractors. The Fort goes on rapidly, and I have not the least doubt of the General taking up his line of march at all events on the 15th.


* * * * * *


PITTSBURGH, October 19, 1792

Sir:—In consequence of a requisition from the Commander-in-Chief for a supply of Forage and other articles, I take the liberty of representing to you the necessity of having the sum of Fifty thousand dollars, at least, advanced for the Quartermaster's department and transmitted to me, as soon as convenient. Annexed you have an estimate of the Expence that will Certainly attend the different Articles therein specified.

By letters of the 21st and 27th of September from Mr. Belli, I cannot depend on any considerable assistance with Forage from the country of Kentucky. I transmitted him ten thousand Dollars yesterday by Major Rudolph, being the first good opportunity.

The Articles of Boats, mentioned in this estimate, may appear to you extraordinary, having so great a number already on hand; they happen to be all at this place, and the Articles required are only to be found at a very considerable distance up the river Monongahela, and the flat and unwieldy Construction of the Boats preclude every idea of ascending the Stream with [253] them. I shall, therefore, be oblig'd to procure others, more Convenient to the Cargoes. Colonel Hodgdon will wait on you, and should the present demand of Fifty thousand dollars meet your approbation, he will receive the Money as my Agent, and forward it soon as may be in his power.

I have the honour to be, sir,
Your most obedient humble servant,

* * * * * *

WAR DEPARTMENT, October 26, 1792.

Sir:—Your letter of the 19th instant has been received, containing a requisition for fifty thousand dollars for the objects specified. This request will be considered and transmitted to the treasury.

You will please to transmit to this office immediately a return of the pack-horses, oxen, carts and wagons in service, and the objects for and places at which they are employed. It will also be necessary that you transmit the objects for which the five hundred pack-horses mentioned in your estimate are destined. Mr. Belli, expecting his letter would come through the wilderness, transmitted a duplicate open of his letter to you of the 21st September, but as you have received the first I have retained the duplicate.

It is necessary that you should monthly transmit to me an abstract specifying generally the objects and amount of your payments. You will for the past exhibit a general abstract. It is not expected that this should be precise or accompanied with vouchers, but to serve as a general index of the expenditures.

I am, sir, your very humble servant,

* * * * * *


PITTSBURGH, December 14, 1792.

Sir:—My being absent on several post days past, deprived me of the pleasure of acknowledging the receipt of the 9th ult. sooner. Please to accept of my sincere thanks for your particular attention to my last requisition for money. I am perfectly satisfied with the sum Advanced to my agent, as the ease and facility with which it may be transmitted appears now so obvious, that I shall certainly prefer drawing occasional supplies to having a large sum in my possession at one time, and therefore do dispense with any further application until necessity requires it.
The whole amount advanced for my department appears, by your statement to be One hundred and seven thousand Dollars. I am not informed how the Odd seven thousand were drawn, but presume they will be accounted for in the proper place. Twenty yoke of Oxen, mentioned in my return of the 2d of November, are all that have been in service. Mr. Belli's letter of the 21st of September informs that "some are used at the outposts and some engaged in carrying Forage from headquarters to Fort Hamilton," and answer very well. I expected to have in my power to give you more satisfaction on this subject in the course of this Winter; having purchased ten yokes for the use of our new camp at Legionville. I never had any doubt of their performing well in Draft, but they come too high in this country, to purchase more than the number necessary for present use. A particular abstract of Major Craig's expenditures is now enclosed, by which you will be able to form an idea of the charges incidental to the department, exclusive of the necessary preparations.

Captain Pryor, with sixteen Indians, three squaws and three [255] interpreters, arrived here on the 7th, and proceeded on their way to Philadelphia on the 12th, all on horseback. I inclose a statement of their Expences from Marietta and at this place, which you will find to be very extravagant, owing principally to the dissipation of the Interpreters, who, I am well convinced, will afford you very little satisfaction, especially Mayo and Jaco are the greatest Ruffians I ever saw, and I am sorry to find that Captain Pryor conceives it his duty to indulge them in all their excesses at public expence. You have (inclosed) my instructions to Mr. Sallender, a French gentleman, well recommended, as a proper person to furnish the Indians on the road. He is to remain with them in Philadelphia or return immediately to this place, as you may think proper. The four hundred dollars advanced being considered insufficient by Captain Pryor, I gave him one hundred more, which he has promised to settle at the war office. You will also receive a copy of Mr. Belli's letter of the 28th of October, from Fort Washington, all his wants regretted in this letter were supplied by Major Rudolph, being the first good opportunity. Rudolph's pilot is returned, and brings letters late as the 14th ult., which you will probably see before this reaches you; however, I take the liberty of giving you an Extract, which states particularly the number of horses we lost on the 6th of November before Fort St. Clair. The Commander-in Chief has got his troops very comfortably encamped, and the prospect of forage and provisions is very favorable. I intend taking the advantage of the present open weather, to send off fourteen boats loaded with Forage, to Fort Washington; my principal motive for pushing on this quantity at this uncertain season is, the hopes of making our boats as useful as they should be in the Spring; could I preserve them, which I apprehend will be so very difficult and uncertain, that I am of opinion it will be very proper to have twenty new boats ready [256] to launch for the reception of the Troops in March, as soon after as may be necessary.

I have the honour to be, your most obedient servant,

* * * * * *


Sir:—I have been Favor'd with your letter of the 5th instant, enclosing a general statement of forage purchased, a statement of cash, with an Estimate of boats wanted for the ensuing campaign; and have received a general return of Quartermaster's stores on hand the 20th of July, 1792, received since, issued and on hand up to the 1st February, 1793. If you have not already done it, I have to request that you will transmit a copy of it to the Secretary of War the soonest possible. I have examined your Estimate of boats, out of the twelve that you have calculated for the transportation of 2,000 men with their Arms, baggage and provisions sufficient; we ought not to calculate upon a greater number of men than fifty to each boat, and I have seen it demonstrated that your large ferry-boat would not carry more than twenty horses and men across the Allegheny at one trip, with the men and horses all standing up and without forage. I should rather suppose it would require twelve boats to transport 160 horses and cattle, with the riders, drivers and necessary forage, so as not to crowd or injure the horses or cattle, and it will certainly require at least eight boats for the Artillery department. By the best calculation that I can make, it will require at least sixty boats, independent of those necessary for the Quartermaster's department—what number that may require, you are the best judge. The whole amount of the grain part of the forage ought most certainly to be procured, and the deficiency in hay to be made up by an additional quantity of grain, in the proportion of one thousand bushels of Corn for [257] every ton of Hay, which is upon the very lowest scale of allowance per ration, i.e., 14 pounds of hay and 7 quarts of corn. Enclosed is a return of articles immediately wanted, and which must be forwarded, if possible, to-morrow. All our smiths and armourers are idle for want of coal; the consumption is, at least, equal to five bushels per diem; we have made and used upwards of 150 bushels of charcoal besides the stone coal; the whole is now exhausted. We shall want 150 bushels per month. What will be the best mode of forwarding the troops under Captain Slough? Their tents, if any, may be stored at Pittsburgh; their other baggage may be sent by water, and the Detachment to be ferried over the Allegheny to-morrow and march the next morning early for this place, where they will be immediately under cover. You will, therefore, give the necessary orders, in addition to those enclosed for Captain Slough.

I am, Sir, your most obedient, humble servant,

[To JAMES O'HARA, Q. M. G., Pittsburgh.]

* * * * * *

LEGIONVILLE, March 26, 1793.

Sir:—I have the honor to enclose you an estimate of money, absolutely necessary for carrying the orders of the Commander-in-Chief into immediate effect; exclusive of $18,000 lately drawn by Mr. Hodgdon, being very apprehensive that Mr. Belli has involved the department at Fort Washington, of which I can make no estimate at present. On the 15th inst., I received orders to prepare for transporting the whole of the troops to Fort Washington. I had not one boat fit for the purpose, at that time; however, they shall be ready on the day appointed; and the forge will be complete, agreeable to the orders of September 10.

I hope Mr. Hodgden will meet no difficulty in having at [258] least $6o,ooo forwarded to me as soon as possible, that I may be enabled to furnish the necessary transportation and support on your first and best principle for ready money only. My accounts for the present Quarter, with general returns, will be presented at the Treasury by the next post, and in future they shall be particularly attended to, agreeable to your instructions.

I have reason to apprehend that the ground on which Fort Fayette is erected has not been patented. When this work was begun by Major Craig, the property was in the Penns, and he informs me that he applied for a performance of their moderate terms at the war office, and proceeded considering the ground as public property. The lots are in George Wood's Plan of the Town of Pittsburgh, numbers 55, 56, 57, 58, 91, 92, 93 and 94. Should any citizen take out Deeds for those lots and persist in their right, perhaps five times the purchase money must come out of the public treasury for the property by the common law. I therefore request that those deeds be immediately applied for in the name of the United States.

Mr. Anthony Butler is the late Proprietor's present agent and has full power to convey.

I have the honor to be your most obedient and very
humble servant, JAMES O'HARA, Q. M. G.

[The Honourable the Secretary of War.]

* * * * * *

WAR DEPARTMENT, April 6, 1793.

Sir:—I have just received your letter of the 26th of March last, with the list of articles enclosed, these shall be duly considered and application made to the Secretary of the Treasury for the necessary funds to be placed in your hands. The purchase of the lots on which Fort Fayette stands shall [259] be taken into consideration and such order taken thereon as shall appear to be authorized by the laws.

I am, sir, your humble servant,
Secretary of War.


* * * * * *

WAR DEPARTMENT, April 12, 1793.

Sir:—I have received your letter of the 6th, inst. You will receive in a few days after this letter such proportion of the monies you have required to the 1st of July, as the Secretary of the Treasury and myself shall judge sufficient, with an assurance of a further supply from time to time as shall be judged necessary.

Your deputy, Mr. Belli, is here, and has presented his accounts to the treasury for settlement for whatever sum he shall produce, proper vouchers will be credited to your account. Before you descend the Ohio it will be indispensable that your accounts and vouchers to the close of the last year, shall be presented to the treasury for settlement.

Major Craig speaks of a balance due Turnbull and Marmie for the rent of this magazine, due before your administration. This account you will pay if reasonable, and charge the same in your account in consequence of this order.

I am, sir, with respect, your very humble servant,

[JAMES O'HARA, Esq., Quartermaster General.]

* * * * * *


Sir:—In obedience to the orders and instructions received from the Secretary at War on the 25th of May, 1792, directing me if there should be any defect in the transportation or supplies of provision (on the part of the Contractors) to [260] make instant arrangements, at the public expense, to remedy the evil, in order to prevent any injury to the service. That defect having actually taken place as far as relates to the Contractor's means of transport, which is not more than one-half equal to the daily supplies and the necessary deposits ordered in advance at the respective posts and garrisons. You, as Quartermaster-General, will immediately purchase in behalf of the Public, and add 250 pack horses and 30 pair of oxen or 6o wagon horses to the Contractor's present means of transport, and for which this shall be your warrant and authority.


[JAMES O'HARA Esq., Q. M. G. of the Legion.]

* * * * * *


PHILADELPHIA, April 3, 1794.

Sir:—I embrace this first opportunity to inform you of my progress in forwarding the necessary supplies for the Legion for the present year, and of expressing my regrets for the unavoidable delay attending it, being well aware of your solicitude for the regular support of the Army. I could not, with propriety, receive money nor permission to purchase until a few days ago, the Appropriation Bill having passed into a law, the business was immediately attended to by the Secretary of War and the Treasury. The stores and articles required to be taken from this place are now preparing, and those required from the Western country shall be forwarded agreeable to the enclosed schedules regular as possible. The sheet of bar iron, stationery and tents are under way.

Enclosed you will receive a general estimate of money required for use of the Quartermaster Department for the [261] present year, to which no kind of objections has been made. Of this I have this day drawn $30,000. One half I send Mr. Belli by Mr. Carpenter; the remainder I shall also send on in a few days. You have been informed of the fate of the Army Bill in Senate, it is again brought forward and certain means will be adopted to complete the Legion, at least the old and obstinate opposition becoming more and more confounded, and the spirit to stimulate daily increasing, the effects that those changes may produce will be indebted to the universal approbation of your proceedings in the Indian country.

The Secretary of War informed me yesterday that he had received returns of Hospital and Military stores required and that they should be immediately ordered. The clothing is in a very fair way, and five months pay is preparing at bank. I will go on in the course of next week. My accounts being before the Comptroller free from all appearance of difficulty, I hope to get from this place in ten days, and as procuring and purchasing supplies on the Ohio will require some time to meet your Excellency's particular commands, either to attend to the execution of that duty or repair to the Army with such other Orders as you may think necessary, would relieve me from great anxiety in case of active operations. I wish to be with you, otherwise I may be well employed elsewhere until your supplies are better secured. We daily wait the pleasure of hearing from you, in the meantime you may be assured that every thing in my power shall be done to support the department and accommodate the Legion.

I have the honor to be sir, your most obedient servant,

* * * * * *

[262] HEADQUARTERS, GREENVILLE, June 29, 1794.

Sir:—Since my letter of the 25th inst., I have received despatches and papers from the Secretary of War down to the 4th of this month; the intelligence therein mentioned will require some artillery and stores, which together with all such articles as may be necessary in your department must be forwarded the soonest possible. All the packhorses and cattle belonging to your department and that of the Contractor's, may be forwarded under the escort that is directed to be formed at Fort Washington in the course of three or four days, viz.: all the soldiers in that garrison fit for active service that can possibly be spared, the regular Dragoons under Captain Thomas Lewis and Cornet Blew, all the volunteers that Captain Kibby can bring forward agreeably to his instructions and ready to advance with the Convoy on or before the 5th of July; to these will probably be added twenty Choctaw Indians, who are now on their way to Head-Quarters, and who had arrived at Lexington on the 21st inst. You will probably have to purchase horses or good ox teams for the artillery and Tumbrils, which must be loaded with shot and shells agreeably to the invoice with which Captain Henley will be furnished; these last articles are to come forward under the immediate escort of Major General Scott; who you will please to furnish with four Harremen's tents and thirty common tents, and with forty packhorses, taking receipts for the same to be accounted for at the close of the campaign. All the horses belonging to both your own and the Contractor's departments are, and will be, fully employed in front.

Great caution must be observed in the next escort and convoy, as it would appear that the enemy are meditating a serious blow at some quarter. The opinion of our red allies is that they are now advancing to attack the Legion.

[263] I had sent out three select parties, composed of Indians and spies, in order to take prisoners and make discoveries of the situation, force and design of the enemy, two of these parties are yet out. The other, consisting of forty-five Choctaws and ten of our best spies, were drove back to camp yesterday, by vastly superior numbers, according to the Choctaws account, who lost one of their people at a place called Girtey's Town, on the St. Mary's, thirty miles advanced of this place, in a direct line towards Grand Glaize, and a few miles to the east of Fort Recovery, for which post Major McMahon marched this morning, at reveille, with a good detachment, having under his escort a large number of horses loaded with supplies. Perhaps the enemy may endeavor to prevent his progress, in that case his orders are to charge and cut his way through them to Recovery, regardless of number.

Then I shall endeavor to draw the attention of the enemy from our escort in the rear, and to create a jealousy for their own safety, as well as for that of their women and children. In the return you will give directions for improving every moment in forwarding corn to Fort Hamilton by every possible means. It would also be necessary to purchase a reserve of at least three hundred packhorscs, to be ready in Kentucky at a moment's warning. Apropos, the war has assumed so new and so serious a complexion as not to admit of Mr. Belli's absence in furlough; on the contrary, he ought to remain at Fort Washington, and you ought to be with the Legion, together with an able assistant; you have nobody at this place but the most trifling thing, whose utmost stretch of abilities will not reach across the Counter.
You will please to inform the Contractor that his means of transport at this place is not half adequate to the purpose.

I also hope and trust that your own will be at least double [264] to what it now is at Greenville. Wishing you a speedy and safe arrival,

I am, Sir, your most obedient and humble servant,
[To JAMES O'HARA, Q. M. General.]

* * * * * *


Sir:—Yesterday I received yours, dated the 11th June, which I presume was wrote on the 11th inst. Garner's dispatches have not yet come to hand. I have no objections to your progress in procuring Forage, and wish it all safe at Fort Washington; you are informed before this time of the ample state of our granaries, and in order to relieve you from the trouble of forwarding corn in the dry season, you will please to purchase no more for this country until further notice. I wrote you on the 14th and 21st, wherein I complain of want of bags, and of the delay of Sundry Articles of the department, which I expect will be remedied as soon as possible. My calculation respecting the volunteers was perfectly right, Upwards of 1,500 are now actually cooperating with the Legion. General Scott arrived yesterday, and a forward move will be made in two days. Since my last several reconnoitering parties have returned from the Towns. Mr. Wells, one of our Spies, and his small party, brought in a Pocotawatomi, who was in the action of the 30th June; annexed you have the purport of his information; he was taken at Grand Glaize, July 21st, 1794, and being examined, says that by every account of the Delawares from Roche de Bout, the British have from fifteen to twenty pieces of Cannon at that place. That the British called upon all the Indian Nations to bring on all their warriors, and that they would bring more British soldiers than they could bring Warriors altogether. This was one moon before the action at Fort Recovery. The Indians having prepared [265] for war told the British to raise their Strong Arm and come on; their answer was to proceed and go on before, and they would wait with their Strong Arm to strike the Americans who were expected to come the other way, and strike them in the rear after the Indians would go to the war. That at the attack made on Fort Recovery on the 30th of June, there were of the Shawnese 160 warriors, Delawares 160, Wyandots 130, Six Nations 100, Pocotawatomies 40, Thawas 170, Chippewas 700, Miamis 78, Eel River 8—86—1,654, and in addition to them 650 had joined them after they were beat. Mathew Elliot and young McKee, a British officer, brought on four Matrosses and Ammunition, to batter the Fort, as soon as they could find the Cannon, that were hid by the Indians after General St. Clair's defeat, but were disappointed, as the cannon had been taken away. That the great man of Canada ordered them to go and take the first Fort and pass on and take all to the river, to overset General Wayne's army and roll them into the Ohio. The Indians thought their numbers equal to the Task, but were soon convinced of their mistake. He cannot tell the number of Indians killed before Fort Recovery; the Indians carried off all their dead, except a few that lay too near the fort, in the course of the night after the Assault. He only saw of the killed nine Shawnese, six Pocotawatomies, ten Chippewas, two Wyandots and about sixteen Tawawas—the latter suffered most. There was a great number of Wounded carried off on horseback, and a number on biers, who are since dead. The Chippewas and Tawawas, and all the other Nations secrete their dead, nor do they like to talk of them, nor let one nation know how many another had lost. The Chippewas and Tawawas put their wounded in Boats at Grand Glaize, and went off immediately by water, disgusted and angry with the Shawncse, whom they suspected of having fired on their rear whilst attacking the Fort, they were jealous of the other Nations [266] and all the other Nations were jealous of them in consequence of mutual reproach for bad conduct during the engagement.

The Shawnese, Delawares and Miamis are very uneasy for their situation; the general opinion was they would be obliged to abandon their Country, as they cannot expect any further assistance from the Chippewas or Tawawas; their attention is totally absorbed in attending to the safety of their women and children, whom they were determined to move off (as soon as the army advanced) to Detroit, and up the Bear Creek branch of the Miami.

That the fort, built by the British at Roche de Bout, is a plain Stockade, comprehending all McKee's houses and stores.

Being present at the examination of this prisoner, I am of opinion that his answers to the General's queries were very candid. He was taken within sight of the house at Au Glaize; he was the seventh on hand. A variety of circumstances correspond to confirm a belief that the Indians must have sustained very considerable loss in Warriors. Before Fort Recovery three bodies have been found in the Woods, making the number thirteen, and the information of the Pocotawatami is corroborated in some measure from other quarters. My prospect of supporting the Quartermaster Department with general approbation are very flattering; the Legion and auxiliaries are in good spirits and well supplied, and you may be perfectly assured that we shall be in possession of Grand Glaize and Roche de Bout before the 15th of next month.

July 27th.—The General beats to-morrow morning instead of the Reveille—the whole army is ready to move in the most complete order at sunrise, and you may expect to be informed of an end being put to the business of war in this quarter and of Simcoe's (Governor of Canada.) retrograde or defeat by my next letter.

I am, etc.,

[267] It is a fact that upwards of twenty of our Chickasaws fell in with the rear of the enemy and killed a number undiscovered.
[To ISAAC CRAIG, ESQ., July 26, 1794.]

* * * * * *


Sir:—The enclosed letter to Elliot & Williams, with its enclosures will show you the present disagreeable and critical situation of the army, and the measures that I have been compelled to adopt, in order to hold possession of the country and prevent a famine.

After perusing those letters, which are necessary for your information, you will seal and deliver them to Mr. Elliot. I much fear that he has been deceived by his Agents as to Cattle, Horses, etc.; if upon a free communication with him you find this to be the case and that he cannot throw in the supplies demanded, in the course of four weeks from and after the 10th instant, you are then, in behalf of the United States, to make the necessary purchases of Cattle, Horses, etc., in order to supply the defect, of which you will keep a separate and fair account, to be settled at the treasury with the Contractors at a future day. In the interim you will forward as great a quantity of whiskey as practicable, as the public are greatly in arrears with the Legion, and volunteers with the Legion in particular, who have been, on half allowance of flour for five weeks past and for these fifteen days on constant fatigue in rendering Fort Defiance impregnable to the force of Artillery and for which I have promised them, by way of a small compensation, one gill of whiskey per diem per man, when on this necessary fatigue and on short allowance.

I expect to march from this place on the 13th and to reach the Miami village on the 18th, in the evening, if not attacked by the combined force of the Enemy, whose long [268] silence and great prospects of a powerful re-inforcement from the Lakes renders that event not improbable, add to this that our force will be much reduced by the absence of General Barbee's brigade and the garrison of Defiance; we shall, however, push hard for victory.

Interim, I am your most
Hum. serv't.,


* * * * * *

FORT WASHINGTON, Oct. 16, 1794.

Sir:—I had the honor to write you from Greenville by Captain Gibson on the 18th, informing your Excellency of my great disappointment in finding the Horses on the way to Headquarters, to be under the one-fourth part of the number expected. General Barbee having but 38 instead of 300, and only 144 by Captain Gibson, instead of 400 as reported to you, on the 9th by Express and of the surprising deficiency of flour at Greenville, being 44,000 Rations instead of 120,000 by the same report. At Fort Hamilton the state of the Wagons was as suspected, not one to be found, nor the least information respecting them.

On my arrival here yesterday morning I met Mr. George Wilson, the Contractor's principal agent, setting out for Headquarters, and wasted the remainder of the day in prevailing on him to postpone this extraordinary journey, and in fruitless Altercations Notwithstanding the most liberal, pointed and repeated orders from Mr. Elliot, and the most solemn promises on his part, to have 500 Pack-horses at this place on the 1st instant, to continue purchasing until further orders, and to have 1200 Head of Cattle on the 15th. He has deceived his employers and involved the Army in a very serious scene indeed. He has not one Beef nor satisfactory information [269] respecting any, and only one hundred Horses at this place; and his apologies are if possible more criminal than his delinquencies. He asserts, that he had received neither instructions nor funds for any such purposes. That the contractor's bill had not credit. That Bank notes would not pass. That the price of Horses was too high, and on each of these ungenerous subterfuges being clearly confuted by my certain knowledge of the reverse, and after my offer of money and personal assistance to support the Contract agreeable to your requisitions, he concluded by declaring that the Horses could not be got in the state of Kentucky by any means whatever. The most favorable construction that can be put on this man's conduct is, that he has fallen into the fashionable error of thinking for others, and that the Army must return to Fort Hamilton and this Post, but his arrangements are deficient even in this case. On perceiving that I had determined to have five hundred Horses immediately brought forward for the Contractors, Mr. Wilson offered his service and actually promised to procure them in fourteen days, or, "in as short time as any man living could."

This inconsistency induced me to inform him that he could no longer be confided in, being alone culpable for all the consequences of his deception and neglect. An Express was dispatched on my arrival to forward a number of cattle, said to be at George Town. I shall receive two hundred horses on the 18th which shall be kept in motion; the purchase of these Horses was deferred, that they might not interfere with the first purchase ordered by the Contractors. One hundred were this day collected and sent to load at Hamilton, to proceed to Headquarters; this is all the visible means of assistance in my power at present, but I beg you to be perfectly assured that not one moment shall be omitted in removing your present Anxiety—of which I am very sensible—and of relieving my- [270] self from very uncommon perplexity. The wagons I have engaged to load and start from Hamilton on the 20th, having ensured them regular Escorts.

In order to keep the business of the contract as separate from my department as possible, I have furnished Mr. Wilson with money to assist my Agents in the purchase of five hundred Horses for the Contractors, and have instructed them in such a manner as cannot fail of success.

Mr. Samuel Culberson, one of the Contractor's agents, has charge of the horses now setting off. I expect he will be at Recovery on the 22d, and will give you all the candid information in his power, relating to the subject of this letter, having heard the disputes and equivocations to which it alludes. The state of provisions at the different Posts were October 12th, at Fort Adams, 6oo lbs. flour, and 2 head of cattle. At Fort Recovery, as stated by Lieut. Drake, Oct. 13th, at Greenville, 720 lbs. flour and 20 cattle. At Fort St. Clair, 48 bbls. of flour, 30 lbs. of beef. 14th, at Fort Hamilton, 3,500 barrels and 1,300 kegs flour. The 15th, at Fort Washington, 1,000 barrels of flour and 40 barrels salt.

I am Sir, Obt. Hbl. Servt.


* * * * * *



Gentlemen:—As contractors for supplying the Legion and the Western posts, you are to make immediate and effectual provision for 3,640 daily issues of complete rations until the first day of January, 1795, inclusively of 327,600 rations of good and wholesome provisions always in advance. The meat kind to be well and carefully salted and cured and the whole properly [271] housed and stored in the following proportions, places and deposits, viz.

Daily Issues
1st at Fort Washington
2d at Fort Steuben
3d at Fort Massac
4th at Fort Knox
5th at Fort Hamilton
6th at Fort St. Clair
7th at Fort Jefferson
8th at Greenville
9th at Fort Recovery
10th at Fort Adams
11th at the Miami Villages  
12th at Fort Defiance (Grand Glaize)  
13th at Pique Town, (Chilacothe)
14th at Lormies' Stores, N. Branch
15th at the old Tawa towns
Au Glaize

Total 3,640 daily issues, and in advance 327,600.

You will please to observe that none of the posts on the waters of the upper parts of the Ohio are mentioned, because the late commotions in the vicinity of Pittsburgh may eventually occasion material alterations, therefore, you will receive orders from the Secretary of War with respect to rations at those posts. The season for curing provisions being now arrived, you have not one moment to lose in making the necessary arrangements. The general interest of the United States, the security of the Frontier Inhabitants and the retention of the posts and Country we have recently acquired, as well as your own interest and reputation, depend upon your punctual and faithful compliance with these orders [272] and instructions. Hence I have thought it my duty to direct and order the Quartermaster-General, Colonel O'Hara, to supply any defect that may appear or happen upon your part and at your expense in behalf of the United States, to be settled at the Treasury at a future day; and he is furnished with a copy of this letter accordingly. With a sincere hope, wish and desire that you may be able to comply with those orders in due season,

I am, gentlemen,
Your most obedient, humble servant,

* * * * * *


Sir:—I have a moment only in which to inclose a return of the provisions on hand this day and to tell you that Laselles brother has been here and carried him off yesterday. I received him in the double Capacity of Spy and negotiator, being suffered to go at large. He witnessed the retreat of the volunteers and reconnoitered our Camp and fortifications. He gave us much good talk with apparent sincerity and is sanguine in his expectations of peace. The great exception which I make to him is on the score of his talks, which were all too good. The strongest circumstance picked out of him was that Simcoe, McKee and Brandt, with 100 Mohawks, landed at the post Miami on the 30th inst., direct from Niagara, and proceeded from thence with all the chiefs of this route to a grand Council now acting at the mouth of the Strait. Of what is this indicative? Peace or War? I say the latter, else why Brandt and his warriors. It appears to me that the pursuit of Peace by this route is not only enormously expensive but will eventuate in disappointment. Recollect that the transport of Army supplies by land has its limit, beyond which practicability ceases, and that the savages have [273] behind them great space in which to retire before us. It would in two years produce a saving of one million of dollars and secure the object sought, did the government now determine to abandon this Route and put their whole force by Presqu' isle. You may have peace by the mediation of the British or by expelling them from the territory of the Miami. This last is the only mode in which to break the shackles in which the savages are now held. Here are some crude ideas for you and how do you like them? I will thank you very much if you will be so good as to order six tons of good Hay to be procured for me.

Dear sir, yours,


* * * * * *


Sir:—The unfortunate death of Mr. Robert Elliott, the acting contractor at this crisis, will render more defective and greatly derange that department, already but too defective and deranged; so much so as to hold up nothing but famine to the army and the western Posts. Under this alarming situation and circumstance and the pressure of famine hard upon us, it becomes my duty to remedy those defects without a single moment's loss of time in the best manner possible. You will therefore proceed to Fort Washington immediately, visiting the respective Posts on the way, taking an invoice of the stores belonging to the Contractors at each place and at Fort Washington, together with the means of transport, forwarding without a moment's delay as great a supply of flour, salt and cattle as every means of transport in your own department, as well as that of the contractors will enable you to do, for which purpose I have ordered a detachment of Dragoons and riflemen under the command of Captain Gibson as far as Greenville to escort the convoy to this place. You [274] are not unacquainted with the small stock and state of provisions at this place—say, eight days rations only, hence the indispensable necessity of dispatch. I will furnish you with a particular list of Posts and the quantum of supplies requisite for each by the first favorable opportunity; and for the present only mention in gross the rations necessary for the army from Fort Washington to the head of the line until the first of April next, viz., 555,000 complete rations, which will be three months in advance, exclusive of the daily issues; but should the Legion be completed, it will require at least 800,000 rations up to that day, by which time it is to be presumed proper arrangements will be made at the treasury for the regular supply of the Army. You will please to keep fair and particular accounts with the Contractors in behalf of the public of all expenditures made for the supply of this Army, and if upon obtaining all the returns or invoices of provisions and stores belonging to the contractors from this Post to Fort Washington, inclusive, you should find any deficiency, you are immediately to supply the defect by purchase of horses, cattle, flour, etc., as may be found deficient in the Contractor's department, which you will make in behalf of the public and for which this shall be your warrant. You will please to consult with the Contractor's principal agent upon this interesting subject and show him their instructions, offering him at the same time every assistance in your power to enable him to comply with the Contract of his principals, but you are not to relax in obtaining the supplies whenever you discover a deficiency; let me hear from you upon this interesting subject the soonest possible.

Wishing you every possible success, I am with sincere esteem,

Your most obedient humble servant,


* * * * * *

[275] CINCINNATI, October 23, 1794.

Sir:—I had the Honor to write you on the 17th, by Pierce & Butler Express, informing your Excellency of the state I found the business of the Contractors on my arrival here, and my prospects of further supplies for the Army, which I hope you received. I shall have 200 very good Horses start this morning for Greenville with corn, 100 of the Contractors with flour, and upwards of 100 beeves, purchased by Mr. Wilson on his way to Kentucky, having yet heard of no part of his former purchases being on the way. Enclosed you have part of the correspondence that took place with the agent of the Contractors on his departure to Kentucky, by which you will perceive the difficulty that subsists in transacting this business, and of my arrangements for forcing forward the provisions. Mr. Day is the only agent present, he generally answers all my inquiries and requisitions by sublime strictures on men and measures, he writes to your Excellency by this opportunity. The clothing ordered on the 4th is safely arrived and stored at Fort Hamilton, in complete order, and the whole may be taken to Greenville by the wagons next trip, being in all thirty-three loads at 1,500 each. Should your Excellency approve of this most convenient and speedy method of transporting the clothing, the return of the wagons must be engaged by the Quartermaster, and such escort as you may please to order, made known to the owner; this will not be interfering with the business of the contractors, being of the terms agreed on between Mr. Elliott and myself on their second trip from Hamilton. As the Beef ordered for the Miami village and for Fort Defiance, which will require 300 head, is not ready, nor a sufficient number of Horses, which ought to be 400, and as I presume your Excellency intends that the whole should go under one escort, I have directed the public horses to return to Fort Hamilton [276] for another Cargo of Corn, the contractors may load with flour until the Cattle arrives. The Contractors have at this moment about 300 Horses on the line fit for service, should it appear to you that the number of 500 ordered in addition, is more than will be necessary I beg to be informed, as the purchase may yet be curtailed, and be assured that your further orders shall be most cheerfully executed.

I am with sincere esteem,
Your Excellency's obedient servant,

* * * * * *

CINCINNATI, October 29, 1794.

Sir:—I received yours of the 18th with packet for the Secretary of War, and for the Contractor, late last evening, by a Sergeant of Dragoons, who cannot account for the uncommon delay of those dispatches, which I apprehend will in some measure interfere with your Excellency's orders respecting the convoy that ought to advance from Greenville by the route of Girty's Town; however, I am in hopes that Major Buell has received your instructions in due time to support that arrangement.

I had the honor to write you on the 17th by Butler & Pierce, and on the 23d by Campbell Express from this place, and having heard of neither since their departure, I enclose you a copy of my last, no material addition being since made, either in beef or means of transportation. You have enclosed a copy of a letter from Mr. George Wilson, the Contractor's agent, dated on the 20th, at Lexington. The cattle and horses promised by this letter are yet expected, one small drove of Cattle having only arrived on the 23d, which joined those mentioned in my letter of that date. He is mistaken in his statement of the number of horses on hand the 17th instant, fit for service, which Mr. Culberson, Superintendent of the Contractor's horses, can clearly explain.

[277] The mysterious and obstinate conduct of the Contractor's agent, and of Mr. Day in particular, who has assumed the sole control of that department, renders my present situation extremely disagreeable and delicate. It appears very evident that he wishes no supplies to be furnished in front of Fort Hamilton; he on the most ungenerous, ill-founded and avowed prejudices, not only refuses to give the least information respecting his arrangements and prospects,but also endeavors to move on such supplies as were in his power, without my knowledge, and consequently irregular; protesting against all interference that has been or may be attempted, relative to the business of the contract, and instructs others to do so likewise. I take the liberty of annexing an extract of his orders to Mr. Carousay, Agent and Commissary at Fort Hamilton, per example:

"Remember well that if no Arrangement is made in writing by Mr. Elliott, signed for that purpose by his own hand, you are not to suffer a wagon to carry Whiskey for any man; nor are you on any pretence whatever to make any arrangement with the Quartermaster-General or any one of that department; each Department takes its chance." The teams here alluded to are the private property of the people who drive them, who had (as you have been already informed) quit carrying to Greenville, and were dispersed before my arrival here on the 15th, and were prevailed on by my interference to rejoin that business. In order to accommodate the contractors, and prevent disorder in engaging the teams (then upwards of sixty in number), I had made a former agreement with Mr. Elliott, that the whole should be employed in their name, reserving a right to load ten each trip from Fort Hamilton, and to have the one-half for one trip only if it should be necessary, an order in Mr. Elliott's handwriting, directing Mr. Carousay to have the number mentioned given, for use [278] of the public, was last evening presented to Mr. Day, but was not sufficiently explicit to justify his permitting "the thing to be done." As Mr. Day must be convinced that all the wagons employed might be immediately engaged by the Quartermaster, it must also be his object, in order to add to his catalogue another apology for the deficiencies at the outposts. As this is their principal mode of transporting flour at present, I shall give up my claim to any part of the teams, and endeavor at the same time to prevent any ill consequences from attending the disappointment of the department. Your Excellency's letter of the 17th instant, containing your orders to the contractors, requiring supplies of provisions for the different posts, was handed to Mr. Day last evening, copy of which I had received enclosed. I am not yet informed whether these orders are transmitted to Mr. Wilson or not, but this must be done. I have not received any further information respecting the invalid Dragoon Horses, but shall certainly attend to your orders on that point without delay. I have procured good pasture and forage at Columbia, in order to have them recruited, and shall dispose of them as may be judged most beneficial to the public and to the service. Your Excellency's orders respecting the escort are very agreeable, and will be properly applied. I now wait for the waters to rise to carry your very eligible plan of navigating the Miami to the Picquee Town into execution. Should this soon take place, the clothing being in handkerchiefs and large bales, may be transported in that way. Should it meet your approbation, and having directed the public teams to be filled up, they may be employed from Greenville to the landing to the best advantage.

I have the honor to be, etc.,

* * * * * *

[279] CINCINNATI, November 2, 1794.

Sir:—Enclosed you will receive further fair promises from Mr. Wilson. All communication with Mr. Day on public business being at an end, I cannot give the least information respecting the state of the provisions on the way, but I apprehend it remains, as I have endeavoured to represent to your Excellency by my letters of the 23d and 3oth ultimo.

The Horses ordered to be purchased in Kentucky will certainly be on very soon, and if any faith or credit remain due to the positive language of Mr. Wilson's enclosed letter, a large drove of Cattle must be also on, and shall move forward without loss of time.

By letters from Pittsburgh I find that John Wilkins & Co. are the Contractors for next year, the provision to be delivered at Fort Pitt and Washington, of which I expect you are officially informed. This circumstance I hope will be a means of relieving me from a situation which has become intolerable, as the new contractors may operate with the old if necessary, especially after the first of January. The prospect of navigating the Miami has become very fair by the present cloudy appearance of the weather, and will be attempted as soon as an escort will be ready for that purpose.

I have the honor to be
Your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant,


* * * * * *

FORT WASHINGTON, November 8, 1794.

Sir:—I had the pleasure to write you on the 2d inst., covering a letter of Mr. George Wilson's from Lexington, containing a flattering prospect of an immediate supply of Beef, which has not yet arrived. I have a number of boats now under way for Still Water, loaded with Corn and Whiskey; [280] they are bound to take in the clothing at Fort Hamilton should your Excellency please to order it on that way. The whole will rendezvous at that Post in four or five days, and must there wait your pleasure respecting the clothing and such escort as you may please to order.

Should the difficulty of transporting the clothing from the mouth of Still Water to Greenville (which will require thirty wagons) induce you to defer ordering it by water, the private team may be engaged as proposed by my letter of the 23d. On their arrival at Headquarters, which will be about the 17th, the corn, being very portable, may go on; an extra escort will be wanted even then, which I hope will be at Fort Hamilton soon as possible or orders for the quartermaster to have the boats immediately discharged. I expect the honor of writing you with more satisfaction in a few days.

I am, Sir,
Your most obedient and humble servant,


* * * * * *

CAMP, ROSTRAVE TOWNSHIP, November 8, 1794.

Sir:—Information has been received that Mr; Elliott, one of the Contractors, has been lately killed by the Savages; and Mr. Williams, his partner, has represented that this, without the aid of your department, may embarrass the measures for furnishing and forwarding the supplies required by the Commander-in-Chief. As it is all-important that these supplies should be duly furnished and conveyed to the respective posts, I must request and advise that you will co-operate in the article of transportation as far as may be necessary. For this purpose you will understand yourself with the Agents of the Contractors, ascertain what they can or cannot do, and endeavor to supply what may be deficient. In doing this [281] you will, of course, keep and furnish such a record and statement of the aid you give as will enable the United States to make the proper charges against the Contractors, who are bound by their contract to transport as well as to procure and issue the provisions. It is understood that in the course of the Campaign similar aids have been, from time to time, given by your department. Of these, also, the Treasury ought to have as accurate a view as is practicable; otherwise the public will have to pay doubly for transportation—first in the price of the rations to the contractors, and secondly, in the expense of that which you furnish in aid of them.

With consideration, etc., I am, your obt. servant,

[JAMES O'HARA, Esq., Quartermaster-General.]

* * * * * *

FORT WASHINGTON, November 9, 1794.

Sir:—I am honored by yours of the 6th instant, and highly flattered by that polite testimony of your Excellency's approbation of my conduct respecting the supplies for the Legion.

I wrote you on the 8th, by Express, and have now the pleasure to inform you that, on or before the 14th, six hundred Horses of the two departments, one hundred and sixty Cattle, and salt sufficient for the advanced Posts, will be at Greenville. I sent an Express into Kentucky yesterday, and, at his return, two hundred fresh Horses shall set off from this place, and good information, at least, relative to further supply of Beef. Ten Boats will be at Hamilton, on the 12th, loaded with corn, flour and whiskey for Still Water. The private teams start to-morrow, entirely loaded with flour for Head Quarters. The clothing may be transported, by either land or water, by next return, as you will please to order. I hope those arrangements will enable your Excellency, at length, to have the advanced posts furnished with provisions agree- [282] able to your former orders; the flour for Head Quarters, Jefferson and St. Clair, will be complete in a short time.

I am, Sir, your most obedient, humble servant,


* * * * * *



Sir:—I have to acknowledge the receipt of your several letters of the 3, 8, 9 inst., with enclosures; and am happy to find that your perseverance and decision have at last put the contractor's department into operation. Upon the receipt of your letter of the 8th inst., I ordered a detachment under Captain Bradley to proceed to Hamilton as an escort to the boats and sent Captain Shrimm to the confluence of the Stillwater with Greenville creek in order to determine the state of the water, which he found to be eighteen inches lower than it was last spring at the place where the boats unloaded, and that it was impracticable for them to get to that place until a rise of water—in fact I suspected that was the case, because when we crossed Stillwater on Hartzhorn's road on the 2d inst., it was lower than I had ever seen it, nor was this creek much raised although the St. Mary's had overflowed its banks and was swimming to the horses and detachment that escorted the cattle to the Miami villages at the usual crossing place between that Post and Fort Recovery on the 6th inst.; so that it is now reduced to a certainty that supplies may be transported by water from Girty's Town to Forts Wayne and Defiance in boats carrying fifty or sixty barrels, built in the form of the Adventurer, [283] which was sent from the Miami villages to Grand Glaize. I therefore wish you to have at least one dozen built after that construction and sent up loaded to Fort Hamilton, from whence they may proceed at a proper season to Lormies' stores and be transported on waggons to the St. Mary's along a fine, dry, level road, not exceeding ten miles distant, when they may be reloaded and proceed on their voyage to the aforesaid Posts. It was on waggons that we transported our pontoons or boats for the purpose of crossing the Delaware and North River during the late war—one of those pontoons would have carried an hundred or more barrels. I have ordered the boats to be unloaded at Hamilton and sent back to Washington. I think it's more than probable by the time they return to Hamilton the creek will be in a proper state of navigation; at least it was the case in the latter end of last November—which, from present appearances, will again be the case about the change of the moon, say on the 20th or 25th inst. The clothing will be ordered on by the by the next return of the wagons, and for which a proper escort will be furnished.

I received a letter from Mr. Charles Wilkins, dated Lexington, November 4, 1794, enclosing a copy of a contract made between Mr. Tench Coxe, Commissioner of the Revenue, and Alexander Scott and Matthew Ernest for supplying rations at Pittsburgh and Fort Washington. I really do not nor cannot understand it until I have official information of its being made and instructions upon the subject, neither of which have yet arrived. It will be necessary that Mr. Wilkins and Mr. George Wilson, as agents of the old and new Contractors, should attend immediately at Headquarters, perhaps it may be convenient for you to accompany them, in order that the present state and means of supplies, etc., may be properly understood.

[284] I have ordered Mr. Newman to be sent to this place under a proper guard, which may serve as an escort to you. Captain Pierce will be directed to consult upon the occasion. Captain De Butts will trouble you with an invoice of certain articles of which we stand much in want. I pray you to procure them or let them be forwarded with Mr. Newman. I believe we have sufficient proof to establish the charge which will be exhibited against him.

Wishing you a safe arrival, I am with sincere esteem,

Your most obedient humble servant,

* * * * * *


Sir:—I have to acknowledge the receipt of your several letters of the 17th, 23d and 29th ultimo, with their respective enclosures; and sincerely thank you for the part you have taken and the pointed manner in which you have detailed the defects upon the part of the Contractors in point of supplies for and at the respective posts, as also their deficiency of means of transport. The enclosed report of provisions at this place will best demonstrate the indispensable necessity of your utmost exertions to supply, or to compel the Contractors agents to supply, the rations mentioned in my letter of the 18th ult. At this moment we are on half allowance of beef, and even at that rate we have not six days issues now on hand, you will therefore call upon the Contractors for beef cattle, and upon Captain Pierce, to furnish an escort to proceed with them to this place, without a moment's delay. All the cattle that came in were sent to the advanced Posts—say 250 head—except a small supply at each of the intermediate posts from Hamilton to Adams inclusive. All those Posts were destitute of beef at the time that supply was on the way, and until it arrived. One-fourth of those sent to the Miami [285] villages were ordered to Fort Defiance, where I hope they have arrived, but there is not salt at either of those Posts to cure one thousand weight of beef, and should the Enemy determine to persevere in hostilities, those cattle must inevitably be lost; add to this that the pasture has totally failed, hence the immediate necessity of a full supply of salt, by the first convoy, and perhaps this will be the most favorable opportunity, as I have now at this place two hostages, one of them a chief of the Wyandots, until the return of a flag from Sandusky, which will be on or about the 20th inst. You will therefore, please to communicate the contents of this letter to the Contractors or their agents, and should you find any demur on their part in immediately furnishing the supplies called for, you are to supply the defect agreeably to the orders given you on the 10th and 18th ultimo.

I am, with esteem and respect,

Your most humble servant,


* * * * * *

FORT WASHINGTON, September 16, 1794.

Sir:—You will please to receive of Captain Peirce all the Quartermaster's stores and other public property delivered to him by Mr. Belli, and continue to perform the duty of Deputy Quartermaster-General until further orders. In order to prevent any deficiency in the Ordnance Department, I leave Mr. Hanagan and Mr. Oliver in the Quartermaster's stores, those gentlemen being well acquainted with the forms and method of doing the business, will enable you to attend to both departments till more permanent arrangements can be made, for which you will be allowed a reasonable compensation in addition to your pay as Commissary of Military Stores; being apprehensive that the clothing lately arrived is not in good order, you will have it immediately examined and [286] repacked into casks and stored under cover at all events. Your knowledge of the different duties required of you and for which you will be accountable, render it unnecessary for me to be more particular in explaining them at present; therefore in perfect confidence that the interest of the public, the dignity of the department and your own honor, are safe in your hands, and wishing you health and pleasure in the execution of those duties,

I am your humble servant,



* * * * * *

GREENVILLE, November 14, 1794.

Dear Sir:—I had the pleasure to receive your favor of the 9th, the friendly and polite attention you have uniformly shown to me and to my interests has impressed me with very warm sentiments of gratitude and personal esteem towards you, and with a strong desire of being favdred with an opportunity of evincing, by a reciprocity of good offices, that I am neither insensible nor unworthy of your regard. Although I shall feel much regret at your departure from the army, at any period whilst I shall remain in it; yet my friendship would not permit me to wish your stay one moment to the injury of your domestic happiness and interest. I have been long of Opinion that your private concerns called you loudly into private life; but I had hopes that your appointment would be placed on a more liberal and respectable establishment; such as might in some measure compensate for your relinquishment of other pursuits. I felicitate you most sincerely upon the happiness you will experience in carrying with you the releasing reflections of having discharged the important duties confided to you with ability and [287] integrity, and to the entire satisfaction of all those whose approbation is desirable. I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you at the time mentioned in the General's letter— enclosed is the invoice of which he speaks. I hope you are aware that the drawing of the Federal lottery commences on the 22d of December; sooner, if the tickets should be sold. Your convoy arrived this morning; the cattle yesterday and before.

Believe me to be, dear sir,
Your sincere friend,


* * * * * *

Nemat Calistai:—Kahela noolabindam ailey m'bindamin K langandawokan? N'winga Kahama Kinémin, Kee, ock Kinashawshin (Sheeky aughqué) ock abschy Meetchy Ki mitcheewouckan, ock miney K'wine, Shuck, thamsy alindy matta Gusky ninélay, unéy Kisquee Paghaquike, qui Kwique indagh.

Neeshee okunachoky uney,

Brother, Calistai:—Yes I rejoice because we hear you make peace? I am willing, if we know, you go, and shall take care (assuredly) and always. Already your provisions I have gathered here, and fit for you to eat. But sometime some if not to-day certainly, a guide about Noon goes to visit towards you; he will travel the road alone.


[Original in the writing of James O'Hara, Quartermaster-General. Translated by Mary O'H. Darlington.]

* * * * * *

[288] HEADQUARTERS, GREENVILLE, 3 February, 1795.

Sir:—Agreeably to the verbal orders I gave you at this place, you will previously to your departure from Fort Washington make the necessary and effectual arrangements for the transport of every species of supplies for the use of the Legion and for the respective posts and garrisons in every direction, as by the new Contract with Messrs. Scott & Ernest the public are to be the carriers of all the rations in future, from the general deposits at Pittsburgh and Fort Washington, add to this the defect on the part of the old Contractors of 120,000 Rations from this place to the head of the Line, inclusive; nor is there the least prospect of this deficiency being made up, as Mr. Wilson has not as yet sent forward but 15,800 rations of flour towards it, notwithstanding his promise to complete the whole by the 8th Instant. We have but twenty days issues of flour now at this place and but fifteen at Recovery; nor have we at this moment more than eight weeks issues at any of our Posts. Hence you will have to commence the transport of provision under the New Contract earlier than what was expected—say, on the 1st of March, i. e., in the course of three weeks, and of which you will please to give M. Wilkins (their agent) immediate Notice so as to have the flour part ready to deliver at Fort Washington on or before that day, agreeably to the orders given him on the 13th ultimo, to the end that advantage may be taken of the first rise of the waters upon the breaking up of the ice, & which from present appearances will soon be the case. I therefore wish you to have the boats in readiness at Hamilton, etc., for the transport to this place and Lormies' Stores, & hold the wagons and pack-horses in readiness for the portages at the shortest notice, with proper persons to superintend and direct the water & land carriage, so that there may be no time lost upon any occasion whatever, and send [289] forward Mr. Sharp upon sight to build the boats for the St. Mary's.

The prospect of a General Treaty of Peace, with all the Hostile tribes of Indians North West of the Ohio on or about the 13th of June, renders it expedient that you repair to Philadelphia via Pittsburgh as soon as you have made the arrangements before mentioned, in order to procure and forward the articles wanted in your department for the present year, as also the Indian goods and articles wanted for the pending treaty, agreeably to the invoice, provided it meets the approbation of government upon being presented to the Secretary of War.

In the interim it will be indispensably necessary that you forward (from your own private Stores at Pittsburgh), a temporary supply of clothing, Wampum, etc., for the use of such deputies as will naturally be coming in with overtures from the different tribes of Indians, between this time and the day appointed for holding the General Treaty. Had I the means I would prefer separate treaties, in order to avoid the idea of a General Confederacy, but the disposition of those people must be consulted. You will also please to forward all such Public Stores as may be at Pittsburgh for the use of the Legion and designed for this Quarter, belonging to your own and to the ordnance and Hospital departments, immediately upon your arrival there, in order to take advantage of the water transport to this place and to the head of the line, which you know we can't count upon after the Middle of April at furthest, either on the Miami or the Ohio, or the St. Mary's or Au Glaize; this is an object of very considerable consequence and will save an immense expense, trouble and fatigue if timely attended to.

I begin to feel very uneasy with respect to flour. The New Contractors have none at Washington, and the ice will [290] prevent any from descending the Ohio for some time yet; perhaps not before the middle of March; they therefore must purchase from the old Contractors at all events, and which might have been done with advantage to the Public and themselves some time since; perhaps it will not be the case now; yet the thing must be done and the sooner the better. From this statement of facts you will see the absolute necessity of putting everything in a proper train before you leave Washington. Among other Matters, provisional means ought to be directed for mounting the Dragoons in case it should be found expedient, and materials furnished for repairing the old furniture, to serve until new comes forward. Wishing you a safe and speedy arrival at Pittsburgh and Philadelphia (after you have put everything in a proper way) and a speedy return to this place,

I am, with Sincere Esteem,
Your most obt., humble servant,


* * * * * *

FORT WASHINGTON, Feb. 8, 1795.

Sir:—I am honored with your letter of the 3d instant and find your apprehensions, respecting the immediate transportation of flour to headquarters but too well founded, none of that article having yet come to hand. The Ohio and Miami rivers being in very good order I was tempted to load and dispatch twelve Boats with corn for Still Water, and if they meet with no unforseen demurage, they may be returned to Hamilton and the mouth of the Miamis before the provisions will arrive for a second Cargo. The necessary and effectual arrangements shall be made for the transporting and furnishing the necessary provisions and every species of supplies for the Legion and for the respective Posts and Garrisons on [291] the line before my departure from this Post, and preparation shall be made for carrying your Excellency's orders, respecting Massac, Fort Knox and Steuben, into immediate effect as soon as you will please to direct. By the enclosed papers you will see all the communication that I have had with the Agents of the new Contractors. My arrangements for forming further means of transportation and the rates of freight for Still Water established with the owners of Craft on that Service.

Your Excellency will perceive the necessity of a covering Party at the landing of the cargoes; as much depends on the Boats being instantly discharged, in order to meet the flour at the mouth of the Miami in due time.

Mr. Mathews is ordered to attend to the receiving of the cargoes and forwarding the property to Headquarters. Mr. Donwoddie, with a few additional teams, will attend to the transportation and Mr. George Adams has charge of the public Boats now under way.

The extravagant speculations held in View by the owners of the private teams that have been employed by the Contractors having rendered it absolutely necessary to erect a number of public teams for the road, I beg leave to submit the propriety of having the road from Hamilton to Recovery repaired soon as possible, being at present impassable for wagons. If the old road from Hamilton was cleared out and a few swamps Bridged or causway'd it would, in wet weather, be preferable to the new, at all events, it will be a good alternation.

I have conversed with the old Contractors agent here and have some reason to expect that they will yet furnish the stipulated quantity of provisions. They have sent on seventy-five fresh Horses, lately purchased, which will increase their whole number perhaps to one hundred and fifty and may be a means of supplying the outposts without delay.

[292] A number of Horses start to-morrow with a supply of iron, stationery and other stores for headquarters.

The time of my going from this place being very uncertain, I may be yet honored with your further commands, which, with those enjoined by your last letters, shall be religiously complied with.

I have the honor to be with the most sincere attachment

Your Excellency's most Ob't, Hum. Serv't,


* * * * * *


WAR OFFICE, March 14, 1795.

Sir:—On looking over the return of Indian goods on hand at Greenville, I am inclined to think that a small additional supply will suffice for the occasional demands of the Indians, until the treaty should be held for making peace. The following articles are all that I would have forwarded until the terms of purchase shall be settled here between you and the treasury department. About 400 calico shirts No. 8; the smallest trunk of linen shirts containing 189. Case No. 13 containing blue, green, brown and white, half thicks and two diaper rugs. The bale No. 15, containing twelve pieces of blue stroud, one piece of Scarlet stroud of 17 yards and one of blue containing 15 yards.

Seventeen hundred of black Wampum and the 5-1/2 pounds of vermillion. The whole should be examined, and particularly the woolens before they are forwarded; there is much danger that woolens are moth eaten, as they have lain so long on hand. Nothing should be sent that is not in good order. Colonel Meigs will be employed to take charge of the goods in the Indian department, and perhaps of the clothing of the [293] Army; I expect if not now, that he will shortly be at Pittsburgh. Should he not arrive in time, Major Craig may receipt for them.

I am your humble servant,

* * * * * *

WAR OFFICE, April 23, 1795.

Sir:—The articles requisite to be purchased here in the quartermaster's department were selected, and the list thereof with the supposed prices yesterday presented to the treasury.

I shall be obliged by your making out a list of Indian goods to the amount of twenty-five or thirty thousand dollars, assorted according to your opinion of the wants and conveniences of the Western Indians.

I am Sir, your obedient servant,



* * * * * *

GREENVILLE, Sept. 21, 1795.

Dear Sir:—I don't know whether my impatience to have the papers (now sent) dispatched from hence, equalled yours, but I am correct in assuring you it was very great. I could have wished the trunk to have gone sooner—and it had been ready waiting in the Quartermaster's possession for several days—but it was not thought expedient to send it before yesterday, as the dispatches for you could not follow it before to-day. I send the key by Captain Taylor, which I pray you to return after forcing open the trunk deposited in your stores at Washington in 1793, and transferring its material contents into the One now sent.

The General has received your letter of the 15th and I yours of the 18th instants ; they afforded the same satisfaction which your letters have uniformly imparted.

A knowledge of Mr. Harragan's unadorned worth, renders his appointment in your department very pleasing to the [294] General, and no attention in my power shall be wanting to give him support and confidence in his office. Mr. Clark's equipment, in your hands, was expected to be as respectable as the occasion required. His barge and crew—should they make a speedy voyage—may return time enough for a certain expedition; this is to be wished, as the crew are chosen men and will in all probability be well trained.

Mr. Caldwell has not yet applied; your wishes respecting him shall be complied with.

I think you will have not a disagreeable passage at this time to Pittsburgh; the season is favorable and the equinox may perhaps afford you water sufficient. I congratulate you sincerely on your return to your family after your long and eminent services, and I wish you from my soul, every success which your most sanguine wishes may lead you to hope for, in the execution of the designs which shall for the future employ your attention.

It appears rather problematical at this moment whether I shall ever be so fortunate as to derive advantage from your knowledge and experience by a partial union of our respective interests, and as I cannot at present advance anything new or decisive on this subject, I am constrained to be silent until I shall have the pleasure of again seeing you. I transmit enclosed with many thanks for the loan, three hundred and fifty-six dollars, the amount of my note in your hands.

I hope you will have the goodness to write me a few lines before you leave Fort Washington, and be ever persuaded that the best and warmest wishes will attend you, of

Dear Sir, yours with real esteem and friendship,


* * * * * *

[295] GREENVILLE, September 22, 1795.

Dear Sir:The business of yesterday, in despatching Captain Taylor with the General's packets for you, occupied my time so completely that I could scarce find enough to scratch the few lines I sent you by him, and induced me to keep one of his dragoons until this morning in order to have the pleasure of talking a little more to you. I received unfeigned pleasure in reading and transmitting the General's letter of yesterday to you. So just and so full a testimony of your abilities and conduct, of his approbation and friendship, I am sure you will consider as the dearest reward that an officer can receive for his public labors. A copy of it, and of yours of the 25th ultimo to the General, are contained in the dispatches you carry forward, accompanied by a long paragraph, in one of his public letters, expressive of the regret he feels at your retiring from the service, of the entire confidence he has always so justly placed in your worth and conduct, of the high sense he entertains of your ability and resource, and of his fears lest the office should not be filled by a successor of equal merit. These are tributes, my dear sir, that will ever attend worth and virtue, and administer the sweetest satisfaction, not only to the object to whom they are offered, but to all those who are interested in our fame and happiness. What would you think of the General's partial regard for and opinion of me when, almost in the same sentence in which he pronounces your eulogium, he should propose me as your successor? However strange and unexpected the thing may appear, the fact is so; and he has fortified his recommendation with so many flattering expressions, and so much further strengthened them by his voluntary responsibility for my conduct at the head of the department, that I shall not be much surprised should I really be appointed. He deems it advisable that I should acquaint you, in con- [296] fidence, with this circumstance, as he imagines your regard for me would interest you in the issue; and you may be persuaded my reliance on your friendship and judgment anticipated the advice. I shall say nothing further to you but to request that if any name should occur during your intercourse with the Secretary of War on the subject of your vacancy, that you would be good enough to advise me with your observations of the occasion. This matter is intended, for the present, to rest silent In the General's, in yours, and in the breast of

Your sincere friend,


* * * * * *

PHILADELPHIA, February 24, 1797.

Sir:—A Regiment of Troops is ordered to rendezvous at the mouth of the Big Miamis on or before the 20th of April next, from whence, after a few days halt, they will be marched by the most direct route to Knoxville in the State of Tennessee. I give you this reasonable information of the movement for your accommodation and have to require that you may take the necessary arrangements for provisioning the troops, at mouth of the Miami and on the march, at such times and places as Lieutenant Colonel Butler may regulate with you

With respect, I am, Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
JA. WILKINSON, B. General.


* * * * * *

COMPTROLLER'S OFFICE, December 28, 1798.

Sir:—Your accompt as Deputy Quartermaster-General at Fort Washington for services performed and supplies pur- [297] chased to the 30th of June, 1796, has been adjusted at the Treasury, and the amount disbursed found to be ninety-nine thousand seven hundred and twenty-seven dollars and ninety-nine cents, which will be passed to the credit of James O'Hara, Esq., late Quartermaster-General in the books of the Treasury.

The amount of the Abstracts, on which this settlement is predicated, is one hundred thousand three hundred and seventy-seven dollars and eight cents; is six hundred and forty-nine dollars and nine cents more than the amount above stated, and arises from the following deductions, viz:

This sum being the amount of sundry errors, $25.23; this sum being the amount for public horses sold, $508.86; this sum being an advance to Captain Shaumburg, pursuant to General Wilkinson's Warrant, which is referred to the War Department for settlement, $100; this sum being a payment for services performed in September, 1796, which will hereafter constitute a credit to the present Quartermaster-General, as per receipt in his favor, $18. Difference above stated, $649.09.

I am, Sir, very respectfully,
Your obedient servant,
JAMES STEELE, Comptroller.

[DANIEL HARAGAN, ESQ., Deputy Quartermaster-General, Fort Washington, Northwestern Territory.]

* * * * * *


Sir:—Your account as late Quartermaster-General, for disbursements made at Philadelphia, by your Agent, Samuel Hodgdon, from the 1st of January to the 30th of June, 1796, has been adjusted at the Treasury, in consequence of which, the amount so disbursed, being $10,816.70, will be passed to [298] your credit in the books of the treasury. Your account in the capacity aforesaid, for disbursements made at Pittsburgh by your deputy, Isaac Craig, from the 1st of February to the 14th of October, 1796, has also been adjusted at the Treasury, and the amount so disbursed found to be $30,064.12, which will likewise be passed to your credit in the books aforesaid.

I am, Sir, very respectfully
Your obedient servant,


* * * * * *

NEW YORK, May 12, 1799.

Sir:—If you have not previously been apprised of it, it is proper you should be informed that an Act of Congress of March last entitled "An Act for the better organizing the troops of the United States and for other purposes," contains the following provisions:

SECTION 19. That a ration of provisions shall henceforth consist of eighteen ounces of bread or flour, or when neither can be obtained, of one quart of rice or one and a half pounds of sifted or riddled Indian meal, one pound and a quarter of fresh beef, or one pound of salted beef, or three-quarters of a pound of salted pork, and when fresh meat is issued, salt at the rate of two quarts for every hundred rations; soap at the rate of four pounds, and candles at the rate of a pound and a half for every hundred rations: Provided always, that there shall be no diminution of the ration to which any of the troops now in service may be entitled by the terms of their enlistment.

SECTION 22. That it shall be lawful for the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, or the commanding officer of any separate detachment or garrison thereof, at his discretion to cause to be issued from time to time to the troops under his command, [299] out of such supplies as shall have been provided for the purpose, in quantities not exceeding half a gill of rum, whiskey or other ardent spirits, to each man per day, excepting in cases of fatigue service or other extraordinary occasions, and that whensoever supplies thereof shall be on hand, there shall be issued to the troops vinegar at the rate of two quarts for every hundred rations.

These provisions are, of course, to govern your future issues. But as the promise with regard to troops who may have enlisted on the stipulation of a different ration may require circumspection on the application of the new rule, the commanding officer must concert with you this application.

With consideration, I am, Sir,
Your obedient servant,

[JAMES O'HARA, ESQ., Contractor, Pittsburgh.]

* * * * * *


NEW YORK, November 7, 1799.

Sir:—The recruiting rendezvous in Virginia are: 1. New London; 2. Powhatan Courthouse; 3. Petersburgh; 4. Suffolk and Kemperville, either or both for one; 5. City of Richmond; 6. Williamsburgh; 7. Acomac Courthouse; 8. Northumberland Courthouse; 9. Bowling Green; 10. Culpepper Courthouse; 11. Fauquier Courthouse; 12. Leesburgh; 13. Fredericksburgh; 14. Charlotteville; 15. Winchester; 16. Staunton; 17. Fincastle; 18. Abingdon; 19. Moorefield; 20. Morgantown.

The rendezvouses in Maryland are: Georgetown, Hagerstown, Porto Bacco, Annapolis, Fredericktown, Easton, City of Baltimore, Centreville, Elkton, Close.

In Delaware the rendezvouses are: Wilmington, Dover, and New Castle.

[300] In Pennsylvania they are: Wyoming, Reading, Northumberland, Philadelphia, Lancaster, Bristol, Yorktown, Carlisle, Lewistown, Bedford, Greensburgh, Washington, Pittsburgh.

Some changes may have taken place, which you will learn from the particular officers. There are two companies at Fort Mifflin, one company on the Schuylkill, two at Norfolk, and one at Baltimore. It is intended to station three regiments at Harper's Ferry on the Potomac, and a battalion of artillery too. But the difficulty of obtaining winter quarters at this place may cause two of the regiments to be stationed at Fredericktown, in Maryland, or Carlisle, in Pennsylvania, one or both of these places. The Seventh Regiment, under the command of Colonel Bentley, will pass the winter in the vicinity of Richmond. For more particular information concerning Virginia it will be proper to consult General Pinckney.

With great consideration, I am Sir,
Your obedient servant,


P. S.—By letter received this day, it appears that there will be no troops quartered at Fredericktown, but pretty certain that one, Colonel Moore's, the 10th, will be stationed at Carlisle.

NOTE.—Fort Lafayette contains two barracks, three hexagonal towers in wood, containing artillery and powder magazine. The inclosure is composed of large pointed stakes, closed together, fifteen or sixteen feet high, the fort is square, of weak defence.

* * * * * *



1785. The earliest movement towards forming the county of Allegheny appears to have been in the year 1785, when, on Monday, the 7th day of March, in the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, "A petition from a number of the inhabitants of the town of Pittsburgh and county adjoining, within the counties of Westmoreland and Washington, was read, praying that part of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington may be erectcd into a new county, and that the seat of justice may be fixed at the town of Pittsburgh, or upon the tract reserved by the State, on the west side of the Allegheny." The petition was laid on the table, nor does it appear that it was taken up for consideration during that session.

The representatives from Westmoreland, William Findley; Thomas Morton and William Todd, probably were opposed to it. On September 2, 1786, a like petition was presented the Assembly, read and laid on the table. The term of the Assembly ended at the close of the same month.

In October following at the general election, Hugh H. Brackenridge, of Pittsburgh, William Findley and James Barr were chosen members from Westmoreland County for the ensuing year.

The first session of the next House of Representatives opened at Philadelphia, October 23, 1786.

[302] The returns from Westmoreland County were not received until November 2d. Mr. Brackenridge took his seat in the House on the 13th of November. On the 16th of the same month "Petitions from a considerable number of the inhabitants of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington, read in the late and former House of Assembly, March 7, 1785, and September 2d last; praying a part of the said counties may be created into a new county" were presented to the chair, read and ordered to lie on the table. On the 21st they were taken up, read the second time and referred to Messrs. Ross, of Lancaster; Piper, of Bedford County; Finley, of Westmoreland; Brackenridge, of Pittsburgh, in Westmoreland County; Flenniken, of Washington County; Gilchrist, of Fayette County, and Carson, of Dauphin.

On the 29th of November the report of the Committee was read the first time, and on the next day, the 30th, a second time, and adopted as follows, viz.: The Committee on the Petition praying that a new county be laid off, comprising the town of Pittsburgh, are of opinion that it may be expedient, and offer the following resolution:

Resolved, That a new county be laid off by the following boundaries, viz.: Beginning on the Ohio River, at the mouth of Flaharty's Run, and thence with a direct line to a point on Chartier's River, two miles below the mouth of Miller's Run, and thence with a direct line to the Monongehela River, at the mouth of Youghiogheny River, and with that river to the mouth of Turtle Creek, and with that creek to the mouth of the most northerly branch, and with that branch to the head, and from the head of said branch to the head of Plumb Run, and with that run to the Allegheny River, and ascending that river to the boundary of Northumberland County, at the mouth of Conewago River, and with that river to the northern boundary of the State, if the said river shall extend [303] so far, or if it shall not extend so far, then with a north line to the said northern boundary, and with the said boundary to the western boundary of this State, and with that line to the Ohio River, and with that river to the place of beginning.

Your committee also taking into view the value it will give to the tract of land reserved by this State on the west of the Ohio and opposite the town of Pittsburgh, to have the seat of justice located on that tract, and also that but small segments have been taken from the counties of Westmoreland and Washington on this side the Ohio to the new county, offer a further resolution:

Resolved, That the seat of justice be located on the said reserved tract, and that in the meantime, until a courthouse and gaol can be built on the said tract, the courts shall be held in the town of Pittsburgh, and the commissioners of the county shall be empowered to rent convenient buildings for a courthouse and gaol, at the expense of the county; that the sum to be expended in building a courthouse and gaol shall not exceed £—.

Ordered, That Mr. Ross, Mr. Piper, Mr. Findley, Mr. Brackenridge, M. Flennikin, M. Gilchrist, and M. Carson be a committee to bring in a bill agreeably to the foregoing resolution.

On December 6th the committee reported a bill, which was read the first time and ordered to lie on the table.

December 8th, the bill was read a second time and debated by paragraphs. It was then ordered to be transcribed, and in due time printed for public consideration. Nothing further was done with the Act that session of the Assembly, which adjourned on December 30th, until February 20, 1787, sat until the 29th of March, and then adjourned to the 4th day of September next.

On the 7th of September, 1787, it was, on motion of Mr. [304] Brackenridge, seconded by Mr. D. Clymer, ordered that the bill be called for reading on Friday next (14th inst.). On Saturday, September 8th, Mr. Brackenridge presented petitions from 1,363 inhabitants of Washington County, praying that the lines of the new county proposed might be extended so that they might be annexed. On September 13, 1787, petitions from 753 inhabitants of the counties of Westmoreland, Washington and Fayette were read, praying parts of the said counties may be erected into a new county. Ordered to lie on the table. On the 14th, the bill being the order of the day, was read the third time, and on the question "Will the House take up the same for debating by paragraphs?" And upon reading it over a long debate occurred. Mr. Whitehill opposed it; he thought something should be done to show the propriety or necessity of passing it before going further with it; he thought the expense would be too great for the population. He said it was too late to run the boundaries, the people could not be informed before the next election. Mr. Brackenridge, in reply, urged the disadvantages of the distance of the courthouses of Washington and Westmoreland from the centre of population. At the erection of Washington County, Pittsburgh expected to be made the seat of justice, but it was not obtained, though they deserved it. Mr. Wright opposed it on account of the small population and the expense. He remarked, "Will five hundred people be able to support the expense, especially if we consider the law laying out a town on the Allegheny River and the Ohio? The people will all have to cross the river to attend the courts, the county town and gaol being on the west side, and there is not a soul to commit unless it is the bears, for there is not a soul living on that side of the river Ohio." Mr. D. Clymer referred to a petition sent in to fix the new county seat at Milmont, near the habitation of Mr. De Yore. The question [305] was now put on taking the bill up by paragraphs, when the yeas were 25, nays 33.

On October 22, 1787, the Assembly convened at Philadelphia. At the late election Mr. Brackenridge was not a candidate, Messrs. Findley and Barr, old members, with John Irwin, new, were thc representatives from Westmoreland. From Washington the old members were chosen. On November 20th, a petition of a committee chosen by the inhabitants of Pittsburgh and the neighboring county was read, referring to the petition to former members of Assembly, and praying that the parts of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington may be erected into a new county, and by special order the same was read a second time. Ordered that it be referred to Mr. Clymer, Mr. Lewis, Mr. Lowrey, Mr. G. Heister, Mr. Findley, Mr. Irvine, Mr. McDowell, Mr. Philips and Mr. Schott to report thereon.

On the 21st of November, the petitions read in the last House of Assembly, on the 13th of September, were presented to the chair and read and referred to the above committee.

On the 27th of November the report read on the 21st was read the second time, and the further consideration of it postponed. The committee again reported on the 29th. Ordered to lie on the table. Nothing further on the subject was brought up during the remainder of the session. The Assembly adjourned on the 29th of November to the 19th of February, 1788.

February 23, 1788. A petition from 90 inhabitants of the county of Washington was read, remonstrating against the petitions presented to this and former Houses of Assembly, for erecting parts of the counties of Westmoreland, Washington and Fayette into a separate county and establishing the seat of justice for the same at the town of Pittsburgh, and suggesting the propriety, in case it should be deemed ex- [306] pedient to erect a new county, that the courts of justice may be established at the mouth of Beaver Creek, or at Old Logs-town.

Ordered to lie on the table.

March 22, 1788. The House resumed the consideration of the report postponed November 27th last on the petitions of a number of the inhabitants of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington and appointed a committee to decide on the boundaries of a new county.

The committee reported March 26th.

Ordered to lie on the table.

House adjourned March 29, 1788.

House met September 2, 1788.

September 9th. Petitions presented from 700 inhabitants of the county of Westmoreland were read, praying that the bill entitled "An Act for erecting parts of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington into a separate county," may be so amended as not to extend further up the Youghiogheny than Crawford's sleeping place and from thence by a straight line to the mouth of Plum Creek on the Allegheny River. Ordered to lie on the table.

September 11th Ordered that Tuesday next be assigned for the third reading of the bill entitled "An Act for erecting parts of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington into a separate county," and that it be the order of the day.

September 16th. The bill was read the third time and the further consideration postponed until Saturday.

September 19th. Petitions from 1,573 inhabitants of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington were read, praying that the bill may be passed into a law. Ordered to lie on the table.

September 22d. A petition from a number of the inhabitants of the county of Washington was read. Ordered to lie on the table.

[307] September 24th. The bill entitled "An Act for erecting certain parts of the counties of Westmoreland and Washington into a separate county," having been brought in engrossed, was compared at the table, enacted into a law and the Speaker directed to sign the same.


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[309] INDEX

Alarms, orders relative to, 153
Allegheny County, Organization of, 301
Allegheny County, Members of Legislature, 301, 305
Alliquippa, 27
Amherst, General, Orders, 155, 187
Andrews, an Indian Express from Detroit, 108, 109
Atlee, Samuel, 210

Baillie, Lieutenant, 133
Baird, Mr., Orderly Book, 148-199
Barnsley, Captain, Orderly Book, 148-199
Bassett, Captain, 122, 132, 133
Bedford, Fort, Letter from, 138, 140 142
Bedford, Army from, 168
Block-house, orders to construct, 213
Bouquet, Colonel, Letter to General Amherst, 75-81
Bouquet, Colonel, Letter to Major Gladwin, 144
Bouquet, Colonel, thanks to garrison, 169
Brackenridge, H. H., 218
Brodhead, General, Letters of, 235, 236
Bullock Guard, 110
Burd, James, Letter to Colonel Bouquet, 81
Burd, Fort, 127
Burd, Colonel, 157
Burent, Captain, 119, 122, 128, 134
Bushy Run, Battle of, 107, 127
Butler, Richard, 241

Calhoon, Mr., 87, 127
Campaign in the South, 207
Campbell, Captain, arrived with provisions, 108
Campbell, Captain, commands militia on march, 179
Carson, Joseph, 216
Carson, William, 208
Carre, Capt., Orderly Book, 148
Celeron, Captain, Journal of, 1
Celeron, Captain, lead plates, 15, 24, 39, 40, 52
Chatterbox, Speech to McKee, 97, 98
Clarke, George Rogers, General, 202
Clapham, Colonel, 85, 125, 184
Collier, Daniel, 126
Commission as Quartermaster-General, 212
Conference, Indian, 17, 30, 32, 36, 37
Cornwallis, General, 207
Corn to cut, 164
Council held with officers, 14
Court-martial, 178
Cowpens, 207
[310] Cows, order to sell, 163
Craig, Major, 216
Crawford, Hugh, 86
Croghan, George, 123, 124, 130, 135
Cuyler, Lieutenant, 89, 130

De Butts, Captain, 286, 293, 295
Deerskins, 161
Deserters, 139, 141
D'Troit, Ecuyer, Journal of, 84
Dogs to be tied up or killed, 152, 179
Donelon, Captain, and Lieutenant Boyd fight, 120
Douglas, Ephraim, 201

Ecuyer, Captain, Journal, 84
Ecuyer Orderly Book, 148-199
Ecuyer Letters, 110-144
Ecuyer Wounded, 105
Elliot, Robert, death of, 214
Ellis, Letter, 174

Firelocks, 167
Flour, 164
Forbes, General, Letter to Colonel Bouquet, 71
Fort Recovery, Wayne's Letters, 263, 282
Forts, names of forts supplied by O'Hara, 211

General Hospital, 206
Gladwin, Major, Letter from Bouquet, 144
Glassworks, 216
Grass to cut, 156
Grand Glaize, 215
Grandidier, Mr., 133
Grant, Major, Letters, 63
Grant s Hill, Indians on, 92, 93, 97-99
Greenville, Fort, 214
Greene, General, 208

Hamilton, Alex., 299, 300
Hand, Ed., General, Letters of, 223-227, 230-233
Harmar, General Josiah, Letters, 211
Harmar's Defeat, 212
Heckwelder, John, Letters, 204-206
Hodgdon, S., Letters to O'Hara, 249
Hopkins, John Henry, 218
Horseshoe Plain, 202
Horses and Cows, 160
Hudson, John, 134
Hulings, Marcus, 132
Hutchins, Ensign, 125, 144

Indian Conferences, 17, 30, 32, 36, 37, 45, 53, 56, 57, 63, 221
Indian Letter, 287
Indians drive off cattle, 136
Inundation, March 12, 1763, 114
Indian Corn, price of, 155
Indians on river shore, 102 103
Inventory of provisions, 173
Irvine, Wm., General, Letters, 237-241

Kaskaskie, 202
Kanawha, 201
Keys of the gates, 159
Kirkpatrick, W., General, 215
Kiashuta, 221
Knox, Henry, General, 245—247
Kuskusky, 201
Lead plates buried, 15, 24, 39, 40, 52
Le Bœuf, Fort, Ensign Price's escape from, 93, 94
Lee, Arthur, Letter, 241
[311] Letter to Philadelphia, 26
Ligonier, 146
Lochry, Colonel, Letters to, 224-229, 231-233.
Louis Phillippe, 219

Miami Villages, 202
McIntosh, Fort, 210
McIntosh, General, letters, 234
McMasters, John, 213
McKee, 90, 91, 133, 135, 136
Militia to march to Bedford, 179
Mifflin, Governor, 213
Miller shot, 90
Mingoes sell skins, 124
Moreau, General, 219
Moravian town, 203

Neville, John, General, 215
North Carolina, 207
Nourse, Jos., Register, Letters, 212, 245
Notes by General O'Hara, 219

O'Hara, James, General, Life of, 200
O'Hara, James, General, Letters, 203, 210, 245, 260, 264, 268, 275-281, 285,  290
O'Hara, William Carson, 217
Ourry, Captain, 121
Orderly Book, Fort Pitt, 148-199

Philadelphia, Letter to, by Celeron, 26
Pickering, Timothy, Letters, 292-293
Pipe, Captain, 201
Pitt, Fort, Ecuyer's Journal, 84
Presidential Elector, 217
Price, Ensign, escape of, 93, 94
Presbyterian Church, 217
Putnam, Brigadier-General, 212

Rations reduced, 171, 172
Redstone, Fort, 89
Ross, James, 218
Roche De Bout, Fort, 214

Sick and wounded, 179
Salt, 217
Sandusky, report of destruction of, 89
Saw-mill in Allegheny, 216
Sentinel, orders to, 156, 180 181
Ship, General Butler, 216, 217
Smith, Devereux, 200
Smallpox, 93, 182
Simeral, Alex., 223
Spanish schooner, 217
Spelt field, 100, 153
Stagg, Jos., 212
St. Clair's Defeat, 213
Steele, Letters, 297-298
Stewart, Captain, orders to march, 199
Summons made to the English, 61

Tarleton, General, 207
Thompson, James, killed, 92
Trent, Major, 129
Troops to march for Ligonier, 171
Turtle's Heart, Speech to McKee, 92

Venango in ashes, 94, 130
Vincennes, 202

Washington, Fort, Wayne's Letters, 262, 263, 273, 274, 283, 288, 289
Wayne, General, 208, 264, 267, 270-272, 282-285, 288-290
[312] Whiskey Insurrection, 215
Wilkins, John, 215
Wilkinson, General, 273, 296
Women, orders about work, 153-155, 158, 160
Wood, orders relative to, 158, 162, 177
Written rocks, 28

Yellow Bird, a Shawnee Chief, 104

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