Indian Nations Indian Territory Archives

Sac and Fox



Welcome to the Sac and Fox Tribe Archives of the state of Oklahoma!

Sac and Fox

The name Sauk is from the tribe's own name Osa'kiwug, "people of the outlet." It is also interpreted as "people of the yellow earth," distinguishing them from the Fox people whose real name is Meshkwa kihug, "red earth people," the two tribes were originally independent, though closely related in culture and language.

Both tribes are Eastern Woodland people from the Great Lakes region. When the French and other tribes began to encroach on their lands, the Sac and Fox formed an alliance. Pushed west, the tribes settled in Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois and Missouri, mainly along the Mississippi. During the American Revolution, some fought with the British. When the Missouri band ceded all their land east of the Mississippi River, Sauk war chief Black Hawk rebelled; the Black Hawk War resulted. Though defeated, he went on to dictate a powerful autobiography. By treaties, and under leadership of Chief Keokuk, the tribe bought a reservation in Kansas in 1842; in 1867 they sold it and bought a large reservation in Indian Territory. In 1885, they organized the Sac and Fox Nation, establishing a court system and a strong government. The Mokohoko band were last to move to the new land from Kansas and Iowa. In 1890-91, the tribe took allotments and on September 22, 1891 their "surplus" lands were opened to homesteaders by a land run. Maintaining a strong government, they have re-established the first complete tribal court system in Oklahoma.

Know for conservatism, they resisted the influence of white culture and missionaries. After moving to Indian Territory, many lived in bark (summer) and cattail (winter) homes. Today, eleven different clans still observe ceremonials. The Swan or Crane dance, danced by tribesmen on the shores of the Great Lakes over 300 years ago, is an annual event at the July powwow near Stroud.

Landmarks-The Old Sac and Fox Agency Brick Vault, Jim Thorpe Home, Sac and Fox National Public Library/Archives.

 Sac and Fox Archivist
Linda Simpson

 Gene Phillips-State Archivist

Linda Simpson- Archivist-Indian Nations/Indian Territory

Please help the Sac and Fox Archives Grow, Kindly Submit Data

If you have any cemetery records, bible records, deeds, applications for citizenship in the  Sac and Fox Nation, etc... please send them to  me as an attachment in an e-mail to Linda Simpson. Please be sure to identify that it is for the Sac and Fox Nation. It also needs to be a plain text file, no HTML and no images. This ensures that everybody will be able to read it, no matter what kind of web browser. Here is a help file.

The information found below has been submitted to The USGenWeb Archive Project. It is offered free to all who visit. The ownership - copyright stays with the submitter. Please read and respect the copyright on all submittals.

Please read the Guidelines.


Indian Nations/Indian Territory Archives Table of Nations

Oklahoma Archives Table of Counties

Archives Special Projects


Indian Nations/Indian Territory Rattle Logo Lettering 
and OK Archives Shield courtesy of

This page designed and maintained by Linda Simpson
2002-2009 for the US Gen Web Archive Project


Saturday, 29-Aug-2009 9:17 AM