GAGenWeb Archives

Davidson's History of Wilkinson County (GA)



DECREASE in population. - It will be noted that there is a shrinkage in the population of Wilkinson between the Census of 1820 and that of 1830, the population in 1830 being 4,785 whites and 1,887 negroes. In all probability this was due to the hegire to the new Indian lands distributed during these years, which had been obtained from the Indians. The great drop in the slave population indicates that the emigration was not limited to those owning no slaves but including all classes.

EARLY POSTOFFICES. The first post office in the county was established at Irwinton and for many years the mail was sent here once a week from Milledgeville. However, in the early Eighteen Twenties a new postoffice, Ramah, located at the forks of the road just above Ramah church was established. In 1828 another postoffice was created at Cool Spring, the present site of Allentown. Mail was delivered once a week from Milledgeville.

THE GREAT FIRE OF 1831. On October 2, 1831, fire broke out in Irwinton burning several of the best buildings in the town, including the tavern, stores, etc. The loss fell chiefly upon Samuel Beall and Charles C. Beall, estimated at ten thousand dollars, a tremendous amount in that day. (Recorder Oct. 6, 1831.)

EARLY MEMBERS OF THE BAR. Among the members of the bar living at Irwinton between 1820 and 1830 were: Robert Hatcher, James P.H. Campbell, John S. Barry and Seaborn Delk. However, this was the day of the circuit rider and many other attorneys living in other towns would ride the circuit and practice here. The first lawyer of which we have any record of living in Irwinton was Hiram Starr.

John Richard Wiggins, a lawyer of Irwinton, (a graduate of the University of Georgia) was murdered in 1834 while away on a trip. Resolutions were passed that the members of the Ocmulgee Bar should wear crepe for a month in honor of his memory. Page 211

The Irwinton lawyers in 1856 were: James C. Bower, N.A. Carswell, Arthur E. Cochran, Eleazer Cummings and M.N. Murphy.

LAFAYETTE'S VISIT. The much heralded coming of LaFayette to Milledgeville in 1825 was a red letter day for the citizens of Wilkinson county. Within her borders still lived at that time twenty-five or thirty of the Veterans of the Revolution, among whom were Major John Hatcher, John Ussery, Jesse Vaughn, Solomon Wright, William Statham, Hardy Stewart, Brice Ragan, John Nunn, William Lindsey, William Lord, Hansell Lasseter, William Kemp, Spencer Douglas, Nathaniel Cannon, Peter Buckles, Lemuel Burkett, Ezekiel Boggs, John Bowen, William Bivins, Cornelius Bachelor, Robert Barnett, Henry Adkerson, Robert Rozar, John Tomberlin and others. These grizzled veterans, who had fought in the battles of the Revolution, some of whom had perhaps fought under the command of the great Frenchman, hearing of his coming doubtless would have been willing to sacrifice the remainder of their days for one last opportunity to grasp his hand.

Weeks before the arrival of the noble Frenchman, there came the announcement from the Governor that the militia of the state would be reviewed by LaFayette. And if Wilkinson had reason to be proud of any one thing, it was her splendid military companies. In that day when the very life of Georgia, so often threatened by foreign foes depended upon the training of her soldiers, no county had a better trained regiment than did Wilkinson. The traditions of the magnificent military figures and bearings of her military officers are handed down even to this day. I.S. King, who recently died at a very advanced age, gives the account as related to him by his father, Senator Wesley King, to the effect that Sam Beall made the most commanding appearance of any officer who had ever been seen on the regimental drill grounds of Wilkinson county. Stephen F. Miller in his Bench and Bar of Georgia tells of Col. Seaborn Delk who was colonel of the Wilkinson County Regiment. He also writes of the handsome military


figure of Lieut. Col. John S. Barry, of Irwinton.

With the patriotic pride in the military companies and the desire for Wilkinson not to be excelled in the showing made at Milledgeville, we can imagine that great preparations were going on in Wilkinson county. The militiamen were called to frequent, intensive drills so that each man would be perfect; the new uniforms for both men and officers had to be arranged.

Miller tells us how the great LaFayette embraced one after another the veterans of the Revolution, how down the lines of the soldiers he walked, shaking hands with each man, and complimenting the splendid appearance of the military companies.

THE DEATH OF LAFAYETTE. On the Fourth of July celebration at Irwinton following the death of LaFayette in 1834, as shown by a clipping from the Georgia Journal, "a respectable number of the citizens of Wilkinson County assembled at the courthouse in Irwinton, to make suitable arrangements for testifying their respect for the memory of the illustrious LaFayette," and it was

Resolved: That it is with sincere regret we learn the illustrious LaFayette, the friend of humanity and liberty, has recently departed this life.

Resolved: That as a tribute of respect due to the memory of the friend and associate of Washington, the Father of Our Country, the citizens of Wilkinson County be respectfully requested to assume the ordinary badge of mourning for the space of thirty days.

JESSE VAUGHN'S BURIED JUG OF GOLD. Jesse Vaughn, the grandfather of J.W. Vaughn and a veteran of the Revolution, originally came from Burke County, although he may have lived in Washington County, as the Vaughn family traditions tell of Indian hunters with their dogs being seen and heard across the Oconee River on the Wilkinson side. Jesse amassed great wealth in lands and money, at one time owning all the land from the B.H. Jackson Place to Commissioner Creek. It is said that he had two buckskins made into a sack in

which he kept his gold and silver but after his wife's death he got an earthen jug, filled it to the neck with water and then struck the neck so that it would break off smooth and he could cover it with a coffee pot lid. He is thought to have put his gold in this jug and buried it, as one day he called "Blind Alec" one of his slaves who was blind and had him to take the jug and a shovel to a spot and bury the jug.

A few years later Vaughn was taken sick and called his son, James, telling him he had something to say to him, but before he could do so he lapsed in unconsciousness from which he never recovered, dying not long afterwards. Search was made and the sack made of buckskins was found empty. "Blind Alec" told what he knew of the burial of the jug, but all he knew was that they had gone through a plum orchard, the thorns having stuck in him as they went along. A most diligent search was made but the gold could not be found. Parties with a "Spanish Needle" searched for it as late as 1925 but the secret hiding place of Jesse Vaughn's jug of gold is still an unsolved mystery.

JAMES M. SMITH, "Governor of Georgia in 1872, was born and lived in Wilkinson County until he was twelve years of age on lands now owned by W.T. Wall.

EARLY FRUIT ORCHARDS. The older citizens frequently tell of the excellent fruits that grew in Wilkinson County in its early days, the finest pears, May, June, Horse, and Winter apples; big red Indian Peach, the old Native Georgia Peach, a large juicy, clingstone variety with red and white splotches. Nothing seems to have been known of grafting fruit trees until 1855 when some men came through the county introducing the White English peach and while at the plantation of J.G. Hogan grafted a number of trees for him.

THE FIRST PHYSICIAN of which we have any record was Dr. Henry Winderweedle, who kept an apothecary shop where Rev. T.E. Farmer now lives. Traditions says that he brought the first Bermuda grass to Wilkinson County.




THE Central of Georgia Railroad was largely responsible for the building of the towns along its right of way and for much of the prosperity during the prosperous eras of Wilkinson. It has done much in recent years to upbuild the county. An Agricultural Agent is employed who works among the farmers, encouraging them in stock raising enterprises and in rebuilding worn out soils, besides giving those interested practical advice on agricultural questions. Greatest of all though, is the effort put forth by this company in developing the vast kaolin, fuller's earth, bauxite and other mineral resources of the county. The company spends a large sum of money each year advertising the wonderful possibilities of this section.

On the staff of the industrial development is a geologist and a ceramic engineer whose duties are to investigate the various mineral deposits near its line, and assist the owners in getting desirable purchasers interested. The thousands of dollars spent in developing the resources of the county each year in this manner have already proved very profitable to the county. The building of the Georgia White Brick Company at Gordon as a result of the railroad's extensive advertising, was followed by a visit here of the members of the American Ceramic Society, and now the Harbison-Walker Refractories Company development of their deposits at Gordon, is due to this railroad's activities. In addition to these, the promising growth of manufacturing establishments among the vast clay fields of this county may have been the means of attracting the attention of the Georgia Power Company and inducing that corporation to extend its lines through the section. It is likewise improbable that the natural gas line which is soon

expected to arrive would be run through this county except for the favorable publicity given it by this railroad. Therefore, if the rapid growth of industries in this county which appears imminent, materializes, it will be due to the policy of this road.


Throughout all these years before the advent of the railroad the need for cheap transportation was continuing to grow as the volume of products increased. The Darien market which developed rapidly after the steamboat was put on the Oconee helped much but was not altogether satisfactory. A direct connection with Savannah seemed to be the crying need of the day. During the early Eighteen Twenties, the inland canal idea seemed to be the only feasible plan with which to connect the Savannah market with the fertile plantations of Middle Georgia. Dreams of a network of canals extending into all Georgia took strong hold of the minds of the members of the Georgia Legislature. An act was passed in 1824 creating a Board of Public Works with instructions to survey a route for a canal to come from Savannah to the central part of Georgia and from here to the Tennessee River, where direct connection with the Mississippi River could be had. The Board began to function and a route from Savannah to the Altamaha River was selected, and the work on it begun. This route was not only a comparatively short one but would enable the boats plying the Oconee and Ocmulgee to unload their freight into the canal barges which would carry it on to Savannah.

Before this canal could be completed, however, the adapting of the steam engine to use on railroads was brought about and as it proved a success in those places where it was tried, the Georgia Legislature was quick to see its advantages over the slow canal transportation. The Central of Georgia Railroad was the result. Numerous surveys were made through this section before the building crews arrived. The need for avoiding steep grades and the lack of facilities for cutting through hills made necessary the selection of as level a route

as possible. One survey crossed the Oconee near Dublin and thence followed the valley of Turkey Creek. Another one followed Big Sandy Creek through this county. The one selected by the Engineering Department is traced in their report of October 31st, 1838, furnished the writer by President J.J. Pelley in 1927, as follows:

"We reach the Oconee River near a spot called `Ragpoint' about three miles above the mouth of Commissioner Creek and sixteen or eighteen miles below Milledgeville. The River Swamp is here about one mile wide on the east and two miles on the west side - for this distance it will be most safe and economical to support the grade by strong trestle work; and if hereafter it should be deemed expedient to substitute an embankment through the whole or any part of the swamp, the road will afford the means of doing it at a comparatively small cost. The river will be crossed by a bridge 200 feet in length, supported by stone abutments and a pier in the centre.

"The line having passed the river follows the valley of Commissioner Creek, which affords a very favorable route. The foundation in the creek swamp wherever we touch it, is firm. The line may be located with very easy grades and gentle curves, for the distance of twenty-seven miles up this creek; at this point and thence to the summit (5 miles) the country is similar to that described on Sand Hill Creek."

While the first rail of this line was laid in Savannah in 1835, it was some years before the rails were laid through Wilkinson. In November, 1840, the Engineering Department reported "the final and complete location of the road to the Ocmulgee at Macon." The completion of the road and the operation of through trains began in 1843.

The building of this road was, indeed, an epoch in the history of Wilkinson County. With direct and cheap transportation of her products to market, the plantations here had a vast advantage over the less favored sections. Land values increased rapidly. The next twenty years might truly be termed "The Golden Era of Wilkinson County" for never before nor since has the wealth of the county equaled what it was during

this period.


When the road was being surveyed, there was no desire among the citizens of Irwinton for the road to be run through the town. Tradition says that they were sure the trains would run over all their chickens and children and for that reason refused to consider any nearer approach than where it was located. Stations were originally established at Emmitt, "15," Wriley "16," Gordon "17," these stations being known by numbers rather than names, and it is probable that the location of these stopping points was not selected with a view of their growing into towns.

TOOMSBORO. Originally there was no station here, but it was at Emmitt, one and one-half miles distant to the east. Emmitt was at the home of Thomas McIntyre, a native of Ireland who had come as an assistant of his uncle, one of the contractors who had built the road through this section, and later bought the land at Emmett, and built his home there. In 1849, however, he was accidentally killed while repairing the Oconee River bridge. His widow, whose maiden name was Sarah Crowell Floyd, of Washington County, continued to live with their two children Stephen F. and ——. at Emmitt.

WRILEY "16". At this time Wriley was the nearest point to Irwinton and was probably the biggest shipping point in the county being patronized by the town of Irwinton. Old-timers say that Leroy Fleetwood owned all the land for a great distance all around Wriley, and refused to sell any to the railroad for a warehouse.

The company made him its agent there and he used his store as the depot. The narrative goes on to say that he insisted on selling whiskey at his place of business in spite of the protests of the officials of the railroad company, thinking that he was so strongly intrenched by owning all the land that the railroad company was obliged to continue to use his store as a depot. Whereupon the company put into effect some sweeping changes. First a tract of one hundred two and one-fourth

acres of land was purchased from M.N. Murphy in 1856 and the house now occupied by Henry Price, Jr., was built. A depot was erected. It was also desired to move the station at Emmitt to the present Toomsboro. A trade was made with Mrs. McIntyre for her lands at Emmitt, giving her the dwelling at McIntyre, making her the agent for the new depot, and naming the station McIntyre. The agency at Wriley was abandoned.

GORDON was named in honor of W.W. Gordon, the first president of the road. It is told that when the route was surveyed, Jackson Leslie owned the land where Gordon now is, his home being located where Ed Ward's house now stands, but the prospect of all his cattle and domestic animals being killed by the trains and the injury to his lands, was so dismaying to him that he sold his plantation to David Solomon, who built his home which is now the Gordon Hotel. The Gordon and Covington branch of the road was begun in 1851.

During the War Between the States, no railroad in the south was more patriotic than the Central. And, being in the path of Sherman's army in its march to the sea, the Federal forces took a bitter revenge for the loyalty of this road by tearing up its trackage for the greater part of its length.

No sooner had the invader departed, however, than the officials of the road began the work of rebuilding it and putting it in condition to help in restoring the losses inflicted by the enemy upon the prostrate South.



THE year 1860 seems to have found Wilkinson County with no political leader who stood head and shoulders above the others. Sam Beall had gone to his reward three years prior. There were several outstanding men in the county who aspired to leadership, yet each one's brilliancy seemed to have shed luster upon the others. There were Dr. R.J. Cochran, W.O. Beall, Thomas N. Beall, N.A. Carswell, Jonathan Rivers, Eli Cumming, Rollin Stanley, W.M. Whitehurst and others. Never in her history has Wilkinson County possessed such an array of capable men.

The questions of States Rights and slavery which were disturbing the Union in 1860 were also agitating the citizens of Wilkinson County. The nomination of Lincoln had the effect of coalescing the bulk of the Whigs with the Democrats and a mass meeting was called at Irwinton following the nomination of the Democratic candidates, results of which are shown in the following:

"At a meeting of the Democratic Party of Wilkinson County, Judge A. Hall in the Chair, the following resolutions were unanimously passed, viz: Resolved, that we heartily agree and adopt the platform laid down by the majority of the Committee on resolutions at the Charleston Convention and afterwards adopted by the National Democratic Convention at Baltimore.

Resolved, that we hail with unbounded gratification the nomination of Breckenridge and Lane and hereby pledge them our united support.

On motion J.C. Bower, W.O. Beall, B. O'Banion, Dr. Wm. Taylor, T.H. Parker, M.M. Bloodworth, Daniel Hudson, H.A. Solomon, J.B. Pittman, F.F. Kemp, W.A. Hall, J.L. Harvill, W.W. Lee, F.J. Rozar, George Payne and E. Green

were appointed to represent this county in the Convention at Milledgeville on the 8th inst.

On Motion the Chair was requested to appoint an Executive Committee of two from each district.

(Clipping from Macon Telegraph, August, 1860.)

The defeat of the Democratic candidates for President was a most bitter disappointment to the citizens of the county. Quickly on the heels of this came the secession of the neighboring State of South Carolina from the Union. Many citizens of Wilkinson County were either from South Carolina or were the sons or daughters of South Carolinians. Members wanted Georgia to follow the lead of that State, and when the convention was called to be held at Milledgeville in January of 1861, to determine this question, and all the counties were ordered to elect delegates, the storm broke in Wilkinson. The traditions of the bitterness engendered in this campaign is still handed down. The question, To Secede or Not To Secede, was the question of the hour. Life-long friends, members of the same family, were often found on opposite sides of this question. W.M. Whitehurst and ——————— were the Secession candidates, while N.A. Carswell and Dr. R.J. Cochran championed the cause of the Union and became Anti-secession candidates for the places of delegates to the Convention, this county being entitled to two. Barbecues and mass-meetings were called in every district and speeches by men of state-wide fame both pro and con were made. A gem from a speech made by Dr. Cochran, pleading for the Union, still lingers in the memory of S.A. Hatfield, now eighty-four years old: "An infant must be nurtured: And a nation in its infancy must not be hastily condemned!"

Mrs. Sarah Allen, widow of Willis Allen, a few years ago, (though near ninety years of age,) recounted to the compiler her recollection of an occasion when two speakers spoke at Allentown to a large audience. She stated that she heard one boast he was going to eat the other alive, and a rejoinder from his opponent said, "If you do you will have more brains in your stomach than you ever had in your head."

Turkey Creek district in which Allentown was located was strongly Union. Those leading the fight against secession were the Burkes, Carswells, Davidsons and Allens.

Irwinton district was likewise strongly Union.

In High Hill, the Ridleys, Hogans, Isaac Hall, the Bullocks, Kings, and others were for remaining in the Union while L.S. Jenkins, famous school teacher, and the Porters were leading the contest for secession.

In Lord's District a bitter fight was raging. On the Union side were William Lord, James Lord, James Stevens, Russell Thompson and Buck Dixon.

Leading the secession movement were Bunk McGowan, Noah McGowan, and others. At the election which was held at Deese's Store, where J.D. Dixon now lives, Bunk, a giant in stature and strength mounted a soap box and in a voice that roared like a lion said "Come on boys and vote the secession ticket! Me and Tony and Todd (his small sons) can whip every dam Yankee that comes on southern soil."

(A year or two later, news came to Wilkinson County that a battle was imminent in which the Wilkinson County soldiers would be in the hottest part. A crowd of old men gathered at Toomsboro to go to the scene of battle and nurse their sons, in case of wounds. Among these were James Lord, Buck Dixon, James Stevens, and Russell Thompson. Some wag exclaimed, "Send for Bunk McGowan and Tony and Todd!" Bunk was exempt from military service on account of age, but when someone told him what had been said he swore a mighty oath and had not his brother Noah forcibly held him he would have climbed aboard the train to go to the front.

(Information given by James E. Lord.)

The result of the election was a victory for Carswell and Cochran. Wilkinson thus went on record as opposing secession.



THE outbreak of the war found the militia of Wilkinson poorly organized and disciplined. The years of peace and safety from Indian attacks had eliminated the necessity for well disciplined military forces. For this reason the citizens had grown careless in attending drills required by law. The ranking military figure in the county in 1861 was J. Bloodworth, Major of what was known as the Upper Battalion, the Lower Battalion being commanded by Major John J. Todd. The following copies of letters found in the State Department of Archives and History throw light on the militia organizations in the various districts:

"State of Georgia, Wilkinson County

September 19th, 1861.

To His Excellency, Joseph E. Brown, Governor and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of this State and of the Militia Thereof, Greeting:

Sir, in obedience to the proclamations sent forth in the Southern Federal Union and the understanding I have of the same I proceed to make a report of the Militia of said County so far as I have been able to procure (viz.) from the 327th Dist. G.M. Capt. W.H. Price Nos. 80; from the 331 Dist., John H. Hatcher reported as newly elected Capt. Nos. 24; from the 330 Dist., a list numbering 90, C.D. Smith Capt.: and from the 352d Dist., G.M. No. 110 L.A. Hall, Capt.; making in all reported 435 effective men, the other three Districts having failed or neglected to report all of which is respectfully transmitted to his Excellency.

J. Bloodworth, Major.

"I will now state some facts to your Excellency with regard to the Militia from the fact that about the time I may think the several Districts are organized some Captain will resign or volunteer. And again, we have been without a colonel in this Regiment for a number of years and that brings about a great difficulty in organizing the Militia. Another difficulty of our Districts are tactics that is without Military Books of any kind and men elected find themselves inadequate to the task of drilling the men without some form or guide to direct them which I think is the prime cause of their backing out so soon after elected. I think it would be well for the proper authority to see that those difficulties are supplied. I should be glad that a Colonel was elected in this regiment as I am now close on to fifty-six years old and am the only officer acting as Major in the regiment and of course my age warrants my leaving the office but patriotism does not until the proper arrangements can be made if made speedily.

Yours most respectfully,

J. Bloodworth.

"P.S. - Since writing the above and foregoing report the Captain newly appointed in the 328 Dist. G.M. John J. Shepherd came in with his report from said District 98 effective men making an aggregate of 533 men two Districts yet untold.


Irwinton, May 15th, 1862.

"To Henry C. Wayne, A.G., of the State of Georgia:

Dear Sir: This will inform you of the date of my Commission as Major of the Lower Battalion of Wilkinson County. Also the date of the ————My Commission is dated March the 3rd 1862. I was sworn in March 21st 1862. My Postoffice is Irwinton.

Yours etc.,

John J. Todd."

Stephensville, Ga., May 15th, 1862.

"To H.C. Wayne, Adjutant and Inspector General:

In obedience to Genl. orders No. 8 I am only Commis

sioned Officer of the 332 Company Dist. G.M. in Wilkinson County Rank 1st Lieut. date of Commission 24 day of May, 1861.

Yours respectfully,

Geo. W. Payne, Lieut."


The result of the Secession Convention is only too well known. From the beginning Carswell and Cochran recognized the fact that they were battling against overwhelming odds, but continued the contest against secession to the last. When the question was finally up for voting on, they went down in defeat with the minority. Now, that Georgia no longer considered herself a member of the Union, to Carswell and to Cochran the highest duty that Georgians owed was to Georgia. A motion was now made to make the secession vote unanimous. It was now no longer a question of voting whether Georgia should secede; it was the question whether Georgians should be united on the stand that already had been taken. The votes of both Carswell and of Cochran were in the affirmative.

It was soon seen that war was inevitable. Lincoln's call for volunteers was answered in the south by a call for volunteers for the defense of her soil. Though Wilkinson had struggled to the last to prevent secession, she now rallied to the southern cause. A wave of patriotism swept the county. "The Wilkinson Rifles," later Co. F 3rd Georgia Regiment commanded by William O. Beall was the first company to be ready for service. The following letters show the alacrity with which Wilkinson County responded:

Original Documents on File in Dept. of Archives and History:

"Macon, Georgia, Jany. 16th, 1861.

Dear Sir:

Please send me a suitable number of the blank-bonds, such as are used in the distribution of arms to privates, if the State furnishes them. I will need about seventy (70), inasmuch as some of the present members may resign, and, in that event, the bonds originally executed would have to be cancelled and

new ones filled out. If the State does not furnish them, will you please send me the established form for them: Also inform me as to whether the State furnished Officers of Infantry Companies with swords: — My reason for asking this is, that it is next to impossible to purchase suitable ones within the limits of the State — I have been unable to get them in either Savannah or this City. I am, with the highest respect,

Your very obedient servant,

Sam H. Washington,

2d Lieutenant and Ordnance Officer "Wilkinson Rifles,"

Wilkinson County, Ga.

To Adjutant General H.C. Wayne,

Milledgeville, Georgia

Please direct to me at Macon.

Headquarters Wilkinson Rifles.

March 26, 1861."

"Col. H.C. Wayne, Adjt. Gen.

Milledgeville, Ga.

Dear Sir:

The service of our Company was tendered to His Excellency the Governor of Georgia some time since, and understanding a requisition has recently been made by President Davis upon Governor Brown for 2,000 soldiers, and the number to be furnished to be supplied from the Volunteer Companies of the State — Our Company is yet holding themselves in readiness. Will take into service at least sixty men, perhaps eighty.

Desiring to hear from your Department — We are,

Very respectfully, your obt. servts.,

Rollins A. Stanley, Secty.

per order of

William O. Beall,

Capt. Commanding Wilkinson Rifles."


A short time after Company F was formed, N.A. Carswell, organized the Carswell Guards, later known as Company I of the 3rd Georgia. Part of the time while it was

being organized the company was encamped at New Providence Church where the men were drilled. These two companies were soon rushed to Virginia.

"Being the first Georgia regiment organized on Virginia soil, before even the reception of that State subsequently, it was honored by a special order of thanks from the Secretary of War, for re-enlisting for the war before their first enlisted term of service had expired. For a like reason President Davis and General Lee, on the front lines around Richmond, raised their hats to this regiment, the President saying: "Third Georgians, I salute you! For myself and the people of the Confederate States I thank you."

"And well did the regiment repay these honors, for its career became brilliant, and like the face of the sun, nothing to blemish its beauty, it was not behind the foremost in every important battle of the Army of Northern Virginia. Advancing its flag furthest on Malvern Hill, within ten steps of where the enemy's guns were posted, its defenders slept upon that blood stained field of battle, and afterwards that flag was waved in triumph over a thirteen-gun battery on the crest of Gettysburg's Cemetery Ridge. But its career was none the less brilliant further on, even down to the close of the war, for but one day before the surrender at Appomattox, gathering strength from despair itself, it successfully received a charge and returned a counter charge, capturing more prisoners than its command numbered." (Augusta Evening News, July 22, 1887:)

The battles in which the Wilkinson County companies of the 3rd Georgia were engaged are as follows:

Chickacomic, N.C., Sept. '61; South Mills, N.C., April 7, '62; Below Richmond, Va., June 18, '61; King's School House, June 25, '62; Malvern Hill, July 1, '62; 2nd Manassas, Aug. 30, '62; Harper's Ferry, Sept. 15, '62; Sharpsburg, Sept. 17, '62; Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62; Chancellorsville, May 2 and 3, '63; 2nd Fredericksburg, May 4, '63; Wilderness, May 6, '64; Spotsylvania C.H., 10 and 14, '64; South Anna, 21, `64; Cold Harbor, June 10, '64; Petersburg, June 22, and July 1 and 30, '64; Deep Bottom, Aug. 2 and

21, '64; Hatcher's Run, Feb. 6, '65; High Bridge, April 3, '65; Farmville, April 8, '65; At Surrender, April 9, '65. (Bulletin, Oct. 14, 1898.)

The heroic conduct of the gallant 3rd Georgia in the battle of South Mills during 1862 so impressed Gen. Huger that he ordered "South Mills" to be inscribed on its banner as a reward.


The next Company to be organized in Wilkinson County was the Ramah Guards commanded by Robert W. Folsom, a born leader and a rigid disciplinarian. Later this was Company B of the 14th Georgia. About the 1st of July, 1861, the company was assembled at Ramah Church and the officers chosen. The field on the north side of the road just east of Ramah was converted into a drill ground. Many of the older people yet recall the company drilling here, the commanding appearance of Captain Folsom, as he drilled his men, and how after the drills were over, those who were not too tired would engage in foot races. David Solomon, Joel Rivers and others helped equip the Company with uniforms and it made a splendid appearance. The services of the Company were tendered the Confederate government and immediately accepted.

Preparations were made at once for the departure to the front. On the Fourth of July a barbecue was given the Company by the citizens.

On the 9th of July they broke camp, marching to the home of the venerable Joel Rivers, now an invalid, to pay their respects to the man they all loved. From thence the Company marched to Ramah Church. Here, suitable ceremonies for the presentation of the Company colors had been arranged. Miss Malinda Solomon, the beautiful daughter of David Solomon and the sweetheart of Lieutenant C.D. Kelly, (later Major) was selected to present the colors. After the pretty presentation speech, Captain Folsom's command rang out: "Officer of the Day, receive the colors." Of course Lieutenant Kelly happened to be serving in that capacity just at that time. (Yes, they

later married.)

The Company entrained for Atlanta where it became a part of the regiment, known as the 7th Georgia, thence was sent to Lynchburg, Virginia, where it was mustered into the Confederate service on July 21, 1861. From Lynchburg the regiment was sent to West Virginia becoming a part of Jackson's "Foot Cavalry." This regiment was now assigned to Archer's Brigade and became the 14th Georgia instead of the 7th. The first battle in which this company was engaged was the Battle of Cheat Mountain in West Virginia. A short time later the regiment became a part of the Army of Northern Virginia, and in the re-organization of the army in the Spring of 1862, became a part of the command of Brigadier General E.l. Thomas.


This company was organized with S.T. Player, Captain. The drill ground for this company was the level field near the present home of Mrs. Josie Wright. The company was armed with Enfield rifles and sent to Whitesville, Effington County, Georgia, for training, and later to Goldsboro, North Carolina, thence to Virginia, arriving in time to take part in the battle of Seven Pines.

Here McClellan had concentrated his 100,000 men against 63,000 Confederates. In addition to these odds the raw troops comprising the 49th were subjected to a most terrific barrage of artillery fire. The survivors yet tell of the vivid recollections of that awful baptism by fire.

Only a short distance from the 49th in this battle were the men of Company B of the 14th who had already experienced the smell of burning powder. These two companies of Wilkinson County men were in the front line when the battle started.

The 14th Georgia went into the battle with Wade Hamptons Brigade. Videttes had been thrown out by Company B, J.R. Kelly being one of those detailed for this purpose, and was one of the first to come into contact with the advance guard of the enemy. Company B distinguished itself that day,

fighting like veterans.

Following the battle of Seven Pines, the Wilkinson County Companies were assigned as follows: Companies F and I of the 3rd Georgia in Brigadier General Wright's Brigade, Pender's Division: Company B, of the 14th Georgia and Company A of the 49th Georgia in Thomas' Brigade, Anderson's Division, all in A.P. Hill's Corps.




IN October, 1861, two other companies were organized in Wilkinson County, one commanded by Captain R.L. Story and the other by Captain H.K. Byington.

The scarcity of arms in the South made it necessary for these companies to be armed with shotguns and such other arms as could be borrowed from the citizens of the county. Both companies were sent first to Camp Harrison and then near Savannah for training. Here the men were armed with rifles. These companies having enlisted for only six months, their term of enlistment expiring in April, 1862, the companies re-enlisted in toto, but there being an insufficient number of companies in their old regiment, and lacking only one to complete it, it was decided that twenty-five men from each of these companies together with detachments from Laurens County should form another company. This was known as Company I, with Captain Bishop commanding. The original companies were designated as Companies D and K, all three companies being incorporated in the 57th Georgia Regiment.

They were now returned to Savannah, then sent to Camp Randolph, thence to Chattanooga, Knoxville, and on to Franklin, Ky. A short time later they were sent into Mississippi where they became a part of Pemberton's Western Army.

Thus, while the bloody battles were raging about Richmond, Companies D, I and K of the 57th Georgia were doing noble service. At Baker's Creek, Mississippi, no veterans displayed more heroism. Grant was attacking Pemberton with a vastly superior force. The battle was raging in all its fury on the front, the 57th being in the reserve. The front line began

to crumble about noon and regiments of the enemy began to pour through, threatening the Southern army with destruction unless the tide could be stemmed. Orders were received by the 57th to form a line of battle and restore the breach made by the assaults of the enemy. Although raw and untried, never having before been in battle, the 57th covered itself with glory that day. As they charged they were met by a terrific fire that mowed them down by hundreds. Man after man from Wilkinson fell, but as those in front were shot down others leaped forward to fill their places. They restored the line but the enemy continued their assaults against this portion of the line vainly striving to break through. The gallant John Brooks of Gordon, color sergeant of the 57th, had every man of his squad shot dead and as the banner was falling to the ground leaped forward, seized it and bore it onward, and onward until he too, heroically fell a sacrifice to the cause. And yet, the men of Wilkinson did not die in vain that day. The line was held until an orderly withdrawal could be had and the army of Pemberton was saved from destruction.


After this battle, Pemberton's army was shut up in Vicksburg and the 57th went through that terrible seige. The compiler has heard the veterans tell of that awful forty-seven days, how they were driven to the extremity of eating mule meat, how they were exposed to the sun and to the rain and cold, how they stood guard all night long in the no-man's land between the two armies in order to prevent a surprise attack; how the sound of sappers underfoot gave notice of the fact that under the 57th Georgia a mine was being laid to blow them up; and how at last when all hope for relief from Johnson's army was gone and the mine scheduled to be exploded only two days later, the surrender of Pemberton to Grant was brought about.

After the exchange of paroled prisoners following the capture of the 57th at Vicksburg, they were sent to oppose Sherman who was now approaching Atlanta. The next battle in which the 57th was engaged was that of Kennesaw Moun

tain. In this battle the Wilkinson County men of the 57th were stationed on the south side of the mountain and did excellent service, holding the enemy back. A terrific hail of bullets and artillery fire was concentrated upon their position. Gilbert in an advanced position in front of his company, I, fell wounded and was soon calling for water. Later this regiment was in the battle of Atlanta and lost a number of men in the artillery barrage there, one shell killing near a dozen men. Then followed the battle at Jonesboro, and after this the northward march of Hood's Army into Tennessee, with the battles there. Later this command marched to North Carolina and surrendered at Goldsboro at the end of the war.

The following historical sketch written by James H. Freeman during the War throws much light on the early history of the 57th Ga. It is regretted that much of it has been lost:

"Commencing this war with James H. Freeman. First he went into six months service from which he left home the 9th day of Oct., 1861, reached Savannah at night about 8 o'clock. The Co. took lodging in livery stable for the night. Next morning we put out to the Gulf depot, took the locomotive for Camp Harrison, distance 70 miles, arrived there about 3 in the evening. Of all the smoked fellows we were that, riding on an open car. We remained there in camp, drilled and ate, slept and fared like pigs in pens. In about a month we got news the yanks were landing at Savannah. We had then to bolt up and put for Savannah, leaving in the evening about a6 o'clock and arrived in Savannah about 10 at night. There we lay all night, no fires, frost next morning, the Yanks had gone back. I had the measles, took them night before. The morning afterwards a great many officers were getting drays to haul our baggage out to camp on the C.R.R. 2 miles distance, a place called Race Track. The regiment had to march in ranks through a sandy road, the first marching we ever had done. I got nearly past walking before I arrived, having the measles with fever. It was 3 months before I did any duty. In the six months time I had a twenty-four hours furlough and made it

last 48 hours. During our stay we built fortifications down below Savannah, one place called Ft. Boggs 1 mile below town. We had to leave every morning by light, had to rise by 2 or 3 o'clock to cook for the day. Still we had a jolly old time coming back to camp stopping in town sometimes all night. One great thing with me was we had no fighting nor picketing to do during the six months, nothing only guard duty around camps. A glorious time we had then, to be in camps and to eat better food than I have had since. We threw away more than we drew since. Our time was out the 9th of ———.

James H. Freeman went into the Confederate service the 2nd of May, 1862, which he left home about the 14th for Savannah there remained nearly a month at Camp Barkaloo 4 miles from town, in which time my dearest mother took sick. Myself and brother got furloughs to come to see her. While at home she died. We stayed over our time a few days. We went back, remained down there until June the 1st. They gave the whole regiment a furlough until the 14th of June, '62, when we had orders to go to Camp Randolph Calhoun Post Office nearly 100 miles above Atlanta on the Western Atlantic R.R. We remained at Camp Randolph until the 4th of July, '62. We had orders to cook up rations for three days, to be ready to march at 8 o'clock for the depot the distance over 1 mile, leaving some of our tents or nearly all, but we got to the depot and was ready to leave by 10 o'clock for Chattanooga. We arrived in Chattanooga late that evening and lay over until the 16th of July following. While there we had the worst water and no wood. We let out from there down to (Taylor's store) Taylor's station 26 miles below Chattanooga on the Road to Nashville, Tenn. We remained down there and did picketing for a month on Tenn. river. In that time one of our regiments went over to the yanks, deserted. While there we boys could go up on the Mountain and see the Yankee camp. We drank cider and ate blackberries, drank buttermilk and had fun rolling down the mountain. About the 10th of August we got orders to cook up rations for two days for Knoxville, Tenn. We struck tents and packed to leave for the cars over a mile from

camp. I was on a detail all day loading our baggage, we got it all there and loaded that evening, next morning at ——— to leave for Chattanooga, that nasty old place. The car being overloaded we were late getting there that night. Next morning, at 6 a.m. we let out the locomotive for Knoxville, Tenn. While on the road the most pretty flags were presented to us and handkerchiefs were waved by pretty girls as we poor soldiers would pass them, and they would throw us apples. We arrived at Knoxville that night. Next morning some went to the Hotel to get warm breakfast, but I took mine out of my haversack. We struck camp one mile from town, there remained a week. Then got orders for a forced march and to carry nothing only what we carried on our backs and guns and round of cartridges, 1 wagon to 2 Companies and them to carry commissaries and few cooking things and march 20 miles to Clinton, Tenn. That was our first march to Clinton, Tenn. We camped around there nearly three weeks. No fighting yet, it being the last of August.

About Sept. 1st we took a line of march into Kentucky. We crossed the Cumberland Mountain at Pine Gap on Sunday. The hardest day's work we had there, pushing and pulling up Artillery. We were all day crossing the mountain. After crossing over we came in contact with a squad of bushwhackers of which some were killed and wounded. Some made their escape. We captured the great town of London, Tenn. Next town was Richmond, Ken. There was a fight, but my Brigade was two days after the fight. There we captured 1000 stand of arms, the prisoners were paroled. We camped 3 or 4 days, got rations a plenty while there and whiskey to drink. I remained there at the Hospital a week. This time when I got able to travel, the regiment being over 50 miles at Frankfort, Ken., a squad of 30 of us started to overtake it. We fared the best on the road, the kindest folks to us, giving us everything we wanted to eat and wine to drink, grapes to eat a plenty."


"Ordered that Gabriel Jones, Vincent Jeans and John Temples be appointed a committee in Bloodworth's District to report the families in said district destitute, whose husbands are in the war."


The strict blockade of the coast by the Federal navy preventing imports produced a great scarcity of salt in the South. The smoke-houses of Wilkinson County were all scraped, their earth floors digged up and boiled so that the salt becoming diluted in the water could be used. Even this was insufficient and a meeting was called at Marion in Twiggs County for Wilkinson, Twiggs and Pulaski counties to devise plans by which salt could be obtained. A later meeting was held at Allentown and steps were taken for the manufacture of this salt. An overseer was appointed and slaves were sent with him to the coast.

Old Jack Whipple, a slave belonging to the Whipple family, was one of these which were sent. When he was nearly one hundred years old, he told the writer of how he went to the coast and helped make salt during the war, recalling distinctly the evaporation of the sea water in boilers and vats.


To add to the troubles of the people of the county in the fall of 1862 there was an outbreak of smallpox in Ramah District. The Inferior Court at once appointed a board of health composed of E.J. Massey, Benjamin Finney, William Rivers, J.H. Jones, David Solomon, A.O. Flemister, and M.J. Dykes. Quarantine regulations were enforced and vaccinations were provided for all unable to pay for it. Many patriotic citizens allowed their residences to be converted into hospitals for the treatment of those afflicted. Among these were the homes of the Bridges, the Barrentines, Jessups, and Sanders.

In January, 1863, the dread disease broke out in Griffin District, and a board of health was appointed, composed of T.W. Dupree, T.J. Holliman, Zenus Fordham, J.R. Billue, Benj. Fordham, Etheldred Ogburn, and James Pierce, with full power to quarantine any part of the district, appoint guards and

compel service.

Not only was there great suffering for food among the needy families of Wilkinson but there was a need for clothing. Many had no means of preparing cotton and weaving it into cloth. To remedy this situation the state distributed great quantities of cotton cards among the destitute.

With so many companies of men at the two battle fronts which were frequently calling for recruits to fill the thinning ranks, Wilkinson County rapidly "Bled herself white." However, the slaves were proving loyal and were growing large crops of foodstuffs for the Confederate armies. The tithing tax was rigidly enforced and the buildings then in front of the courthouse were converted into Confederate granaries. Leroy Fleetwood was in charge of these, and under the immediate command of Captain Dickerson of Macon.

The following extracts from the minutes of the Inferior Court tell the story of the suffering in Wilkinson County during 1864 and 1865:

"We, the court, order that the committee of each District take off all children from their list that receive help from the county over ten years (10) old and must not furnish any one over that age with anything unless disabled so they are not able to labor. We further order that they furnish no one anything unless they have no visible means of support if any question is made between them and their neighbors about their means of support it must be settled by swearing the claimant and learning their true condition. It being the intention of the court to furnish the needy in the district and such as cannot furnish themselves and none others. We further order that each committee keep a regular act book of all their acts so that fault finders and scruplers may have no chance to complain and report to the court every three months.

"March 7, 1864. It appearing to the court that the soldiers' families in some parts of this county, are greatly in need of corn. It is ordered that the Clerk of said Court forward to Captain Dickerson at Macon, Georgia, a request for the release of seven hundred (700) bushels of tithe corn for


supplying the above named families.

"April 14, 1864. It appearing to the Court that a great many of the indigent soldiers' families in this county have not made a sufficient amount of bacon to support their families which consist in many cases of helpless children: it is ordered that the Clerk of said court forward to Captain Dickerson a request allowing such families to commute their tithe bacon at government price which will greatly alleviate their suffering condition.

"April 14, 1864.

"Mr. L. Fleetwood:

"Sir, you're directed in accordance with orders from Captain Dickerson to turn over seven hundred (700) bushels of the tithe corn which has not been delivered to you to the committees appointed in each district in the following manner:

"T.W. Dupree, Griffin, 25 bu.; J.R. Thompson, Lords, 100 bu.; A. Baum, Irwinton, 100 bu.; M.M. Bloodworth, 373 1/2 bu.; James Jackson, Fork, 50 bu.; John Bragg, 51 1/2 bu. Total, 700 bu."

The following named persons were appointed as policemen for the county in July, 1864:

William Dickson, M.J. Carswell, William Manson, Nimrod Burke, I. Hanks, J.T. Coney, Joseph W. Parks, G.B. Burney, Wiley T. Holland, William A. Hall, J.N. Wall, A.O. Flemister.

"July 11, 1864. The honorable Inferior Court met for the purpose of selecting Physicians and Millers to remain at home in compliance with Governor Brown's Proclamation, and knowing the following named physicians to be men skilled in their profession, order that they be exempt from militia duty: Wm. Taylor, R.C. Carroll, and J.T. Hudson. And knowing scarcity of millers in the county recommend that all who are now engaged in that business remain at home.

"Aug. 11, 1864. It is ordered by the court that the county treasurer borrow seven thousand (7,000) dollars to be returned 1st November in the currency for the relief of sol

diers' families there being an insufficient amount on hand for said purpose.

"Aug. 11, 1864. In obedience to special order from General Waynes' office of Aug. 1st, 1864, we the Inferior Court of said county make the following report:

"Number of slaves in county, 5,000; number of men between fifty-five and sixty years of age whose names accompany this report, 26; number of men between the age of fifty-five and sixty unable to ride and perform police duty, 25.

"Aug. 11, 1864. There being a deficiency in the number of old men able to ride and perform police duty allowing one man to every five hundred slaves we recommend that the following named men subject to the late call of the Governor be detained for police duty in this county who are accustomed to the management of negroes and who we know to be men of distinction and energy and who perform their duty faithfully:

"Nimrod Burke in Captain Cumming's Company; A.O. Flemister in Captain Lingo's Company; J.N. Wall in Captain Cumming's Company; M.J. Carswell in Captain Cumming's Company; Wm. Dickson, Wm. Manson, J.T. Coney, J.W. Parks, W.A. Hall, all at home.

"Nov. 1st, 1864. Owing to the great scarcity of corn in the county it is found to be impossible to procure a sufficient quantity to relieve the necessities of the indigent soldiers' families and it being the interest of the government to relieve the wants of such families as much as possible. It is ordered by the court that Captain A. Dickerson be requested to sell this corn for the relief of such families ten thousand bushels of corn of the new crop for their consumption for the year 1865.

"Dec. 5, 1864. It is ordered by the court that the county treasurer pay over to Leroy Fleetwood, Depot Agent, One Thousand and Sixty-two no /100 Dollars in payment of the tithe corn purchased by this court for the relief of soldiers' families.

"Dec 5, 1864. It is ordered that E.F. Hughs proceed to Macon with a memorial to Capt. Dickerson requesting the


release of the tithing corn of this county and bacon for the use of families whose provisions have been destroyed by the enemy and that he draw upon the county treasurer the amount of money he expends while so engaged.

"February 6, 1865. We, the Justices of the Inferior Court, having assembled as required by law for the purpose of placing to the best of our knowledge and belief the market value upon slaves of different ages in our county do certify that we believe the following sums placed opposite each age to be the fair market value in Confederate Treasury.

"Notes of the slaves of different ages in our county, viz:

1st slaves under two years of age are worth $400.00.

2nd slaves from two to six years of age are worth $650.00.

3rd slaves from six to twelve years of age are worth $1,200.00.

4th slaves from twelve to sixteen years of age are worth $1,800.00.

5th Male slaves sixteen to twenty-five years of age are worth $3,500.00.

Female slaves sixteen to twenty-five years of age are worth $3,000.00.

6th Male slaves twenty-five to thirty-five years of age are worth $3,000.00.

Female slaves twenty-five to thirty-five years of age are worth $2,500.00.

7th Male slaves thirty-five to forty-five years of age are worth $2,500.00.

Female slaves thirty-five to forty-five years of age are worth $1,500.00.

8th Male slaves from forty-five to fifty-five years of age are worth $1,500.00.

Female slaves forty-five to fifty-five years of age are worth $700.00.

9th Male slaves fifty-five to sixty-five years of age are worth $750.00.

Female slaves fifty-five to sixty-five years of age are worth $300.00.

"April 1865. We, as Justices of the Inferior Court of said county, report that we wish our county to be supplied with her quota of cotton cards at the next distribution by the state for the benefit of the indigent wives and widows of soldiers and we hereby authorize J.B. Campbell, Esq., Secretary Executive Department, to receive and receipt for in our names the executive warrant on the State Treasury for the sum of seven hundred and fifty dollars part of the appropriation due this county for support of indigent soldiers' families and children and to pay over same to the agent of the State card factory for said cards at 20c a pair, and other expenses. The agent of the State for said factory will send the cards to Gordon consigned to Joel Deese at Milledgeville, Ga.

"Ordered that the Road Commissioners be authorized to receive ten dollars in Confederate money for every dollar on the old basis of one to three dollars a day.

"April 8, 1865. It is further ordered that John R. Bragg be appointed agent for the district of Turkey Creek, Lords, Griffin and High Hill and that to give bond in the sum of two hundred thousand dollars.

"Ordered by the court that the Clerk of the Superior and Inferior Courts and Ordinary proceed to buy books to have the minutes and such other records as are so destroyed by the recent burning of the courthouse in the different offices and that each one of the offices aforesaid proceed at once to transcribe the records aforesaid on the new books so purchased at once and that the sum of five thousand dollars be appropriated for that purpose and that we pay them for said services such terms as may be allowed by law for recording and that the clerk of this court by authorized to draw his warrant for the amount on the Treasury so specified as above.

"It appearing to the court that there is great distress among the people and no money in the treasury, it is ordered that the county treasurer be authorized to have struck at once the sum of one thousand dollars in bills of from fifty cents to five dollars which said script shall be received in payment of any tax or dues to the county hereafter accruing, said script to

be signed by the county treasurer in each and every case.

"Ordered that one hundred and seventy-five dollars be paid to G.B. Burney for the rent of two houses for a court house and that it bears interest till paid from 1st Jan. last.

"It is ordered that the county treasurer cause to be struck one thousand dollars on the same terms and conditions as the order of Jan. 8th. last, passed.

"It is ordered that Alexander Baum in Irwinton District: J.J. Todd, in High Hill District; T.W. Dupree, in Griffin District, E.J. Rozar, in Turkey Creek District; Joel Deese in Lord's District; S.J. Stubbs, in Fork District; M.M. Bloodworth, in Bloodworth's District; and V.W. Tharpe, in Ramah District be appointed agents in the several districts aforesaid to receive and to distribute such monies or provisions to the several persons entitled to the benefit of an act appropriating money to feed and provide for soldiers' families and other destitute persons."



WE now return to the Virginia front where the four Wilkinson County Companies are found in A.P. Hill's forces. McClellan with vastly superior forces was approaching Richmond and A.P. Hill stood in his direct path. Then came the Seven Days Battles Before Richmond. McClellan having received reinforcements invaded Virginia and was bent upon capturing Richmond. Again and again the Wilkinson County companies under Hill were called on and in every battle of the seven days they were found on the first line. Company B of the 14th lost twenty-three men in the campaign, or near one-fourth killed besides numbers wounded. When these battles began, Folsom, who had now been promoted to Colonel of the 14th, was ill and in the hospital. Notwithstanding this he arose from his bed and led his regiment all through these battles.

During these Seven Days Battles all the Companies from Wilkinson fought with a ferocity unexcelled in history. They were in Hill's furious charges at Mechanicsville; they were in the front ranks at Cold Harbor, when Hill was moving heaven and earth in his endeavor to hold his ground against the overwhelming odds of five to one attacking him, breaking the enemies' assaults and in the face of such odds, countercharging and driving them back, bearing up under the heavy artillery fire which was then turned upon them, decimating their ranks, and then slowly being forced back by overpowering assaults with every possible reserve in action, with defeat and possible capture staring them in the face, the timely arrival of Stone

wall Jackson turned defeat into a glorious victory.

And again at Frazier's Farm, A.P. Hill's forces were in the advance. This time the 14th and 49th were with Longstreet, the 14th forming his left wing, while the 49th formed part of his right wing. Jefferson Davis, in his Rise and Fall of the Confederacy tells in the highest of terms of how the Georgians charged like Demons that day, fighting successfully against overwhelming number. How calmly and cooly the men marched into battle at the command of Hill, and that never did soldiers display more bravery than did those at Frazier's Farm. Davis says that in many respects this was one of the most remarkable battles of the war, and tells how the infantry charged through hails of canister and grape shot capturing batteries of artillery, and how the bayonet was freely used, and when these could not be used by reason of the proximity of the combatants the butts of the guns were used (W.I. Thigpen, of Company A of the 49th Georgia, has a most vivid recollection of this battle and gave the compiler the information as to the location of the 49th.)


The enemy attacked General Early's command, and Thomas' Brigade, in which the 14th and 49th were, was sent to re-inforce him, and the battle became general. In the meantime, Jackson's left had been overpowered at one point by superior numbers and the southern army was threatened. It was there that the 3rd Georgia was called on to assist in replacing the line.


Here, the Georgians under A. P. Hill formed the entire left wing of Jackson's command. The enemy learning that Longstreet upon whom Jackson was depending for reinforcements could not get there immediately, attacked with large numbers of fresh troops. Charge after charge was made against the lines held by Wilkinson County companies. A short distance from where these were stationed, the enemy broke A. P. Hill's lines. Unless this line could be re-estab

lished it meant the defeat of the army. The 49th Georgian was called upon to hurl themselves into breach and repair the line at all costs.

It was here that they again covered themselves with glory. With the wild rebel yell they bore down upon the advancing of the troops of the enemy with such a fury that no power could resist. They restored the line, and W. I. Thigpen yet lives to tell the story of that charge and to corroborate Jefferson Davis in his Description.

In describing the Second Battle of Manassas on Aug. 29th, 1862, John Esten Cooke in his "Life of Stonewall Jackson" says:

"About that time the enemy advanced a heavy column, consisting in part, it is said of Banks', Sigel's and Pope's divisions; and supported by a heavy fire of artillery, threw themselves with great fury upon Jackson's left, consisting of the division of A.P. Hill. Their evident design was to turn his flank; and in spite of the destructive volleys poured into their faces they pressed on, crossed the cut in the railroad extending along Hill's front, and, penetrating an interval of about one hundred and seventy-five yards, separated the right of Gregg's from the left of Thomas' brigades. This success proved almost fatal at the moment to General Gregg. He was entirely isolated, and but for the stubborn stand made by the 14th South Carolina and 49th Georgia, on Thomas' left, would have been cut off and destroyed. These regiments attacked the enemy with vigor; their triumphant advance was checked at the instant when they were carrying all before them; and the Federal column was forced to retreat beyond the cut again, with heavy loss. In this sanguinary conflict the men fought almost breast to breast; and General McGowan reported that the opposing forces at one time delivered their volleys into each other at the distance of ten paces." (page 291.)


Never did two contending armies fight harder than at Chancellorsville. The first day of the battle was indecisive. Both sides had lost heavily. A.P. Hill's command was in the

reserves and at dark of the first day was sent forward to the front lines. Jackson, mistaken by his own men, was mortally wounded. The command devolved upon A.P. Hill, but he was also soon wounded and sent to the field hospital. Jeb Stuart was now in command. At daybreak the next morning every man knew the crisis of his life was at hand. Not only was A.P. Hill lying wounded a short distance in the rear, the great Jackson, himself, was also lying helpless in the same hospital. The enemy was in overwhelming force and well entrenched, but when Jeb Stuart, the Chevalier Bayard of the Confederacy, in his plumed hat and on his prancing steed came down the line to lead that charge in person, and shouted "REMEMBER JACKSON!" the cry was taken up by every man from one end of the line to the other. No power on earth could stop the mad charge that followed. It was a mass of yelling demons that swept across the bloody field that day, striking terror into the hearts of the Yankees in front. Even the officers could not stop their men after the objective had been captured. As was told me by W.I. Thigpen who was there when that cry went down the line "REMEMBER JACKSON," every man wanted to shed his last drop of blood. J.T. Dupree of the 3rd Georgia bore to his grave the wounds received that day. Mr. Thigpen of the 49th still bears his wounds.

The following clipping from the Union Recorder of September 8, 1863, will be of interest:

"Col. R.W. Folsom has presented the Governor the battle flag of the 14th Georgia Regiment. The patriotic emblem, tattered and pierced by bullets of the enemy, has been handsomely acknowledged by Gov. Brown, who gives it honorable preservation in the Executive Department."


One cannot think of the Wilkinson County Companies in the battle of Gettysburg without sinking of heart. One of Lee's generals blundered and against the army of the south, overwhelming hordes were advancing. The companies from Wilkinson were in the center and on the front lines. The second day of the battle was the hardest fighting in history. Company

B of the 14th held this ground against eight lines of the enemy. Company A of the 49th in one of the charges that made it famous was almost completely destroyed. It seems that the 3rd Georgia was supporting Longstreet and was in the terrific charges made that day. In the second day's battle they were fighting on the identical ground on which Pickett had made his ill-fated charge the day before. In charging Cemetery Heights, the 3rd Georgia penetrated the enemy's lines further than any other Confederates.


It is not generally known that two of the Wilkinson County Companies, Co. B of the 14th Ga., and Co. A, of the 49th Ga., were numbered among Pickett's immortals in that charge at Gettysburg. Historians generally fail to mention these Regiments as taking part, such however, is unquestionably true. The attention of the compiler was called to this fact by Hon. Warren Grice, of Macon, who also supplied him with an article published in the Macon Telegraph by James Callaway, several years ago on Gen. Edward Loyd Thomas, who commanded the brigade in which the 14th and 49th Georgia Regiments were. Quoting Mr. Callaway's article:

"He (Thomas) was in every battle fought by Gen. Lee in Virginia, and only missed Sharpsburg by reason of being detached at Harper's Ferry to receive the parole of nearly 12,000 prisoners captured.

The Count of Paris, in his history of our civil war, states that in one of the battles, when the front line of one of the Confederates had been broken by the federal forces, Gen. Thomas struck the advancing column in such a way as to turn their expected victory into defeat.

His brigade was in the storming of Missionary Ridge by A.P. Hill, at Gettysburg, and was then retained by A.P. Hill to meet the threatened advance of the enemy from the left.

Pickett's division, composed of Virginians, is famous for the charge at Round Top. They charged by orders. But Gen. E.L. Thomas' brigade of Georgians reached the highest point in that memorable and historic charge. His brigade was the

35th and 45th regiments (and also the 49th and 14th.) Historians may have regarded these as a part of Pickett's division as they voluntarily joined in the charge.

That splendid soldier and grand old man, Judge W.L. Grice, of Hawkinsville, commanding the 45th regiment, gives this account of Thomas' charge:

"There was a great artillery duel, one hundred cannon from the Confederate side alone belching forth. Thomas' brigade was in line of battle between these opposing forces, the cannon balls from each side passing over the brigade, crouched in the ravine. Thomas' brigade had been detached from its division and was sent after dark on the night of July 2 to a position in the valley or ravine. Here it remained that night and until the evening of the next day, exposed to the hot July sun and to the fire of the federal sharpshooters, who harrassed us. We were in a precarious condition, so long under such a fire as this. Did ever a brigade before witness such a cannon duel?

When the firing ceased, Gen Pickett was ordered to charge the enemy on the opposite hill. His charge was along the valley where Thomas' men were lying. The 45th Georgia (my regiment) was on the right of Thomas' brigade next to the ground over which Pickett's men were to march, the 49th next to the 45th and the 14th and 35th forming left wing of the brigade.

As Pickett's men swept by, Gen. Thomas gave the command, "Forward!"

Pickett had to ascend the slope leading to Round Top, the enemy's artillery pouring its fire upon them, not a tree or bush to offer shelter or protection.

I was with Thomas at the right of the brigade. It was a magnificent sight to see Pickett's men as they came with martial step down that long incline. As they passed by us, Gen. Thomas could not resist. He exclaimed, Forward! We were on the extreme left of Pickett's men and the enemy's cannon had been trained to strike the Virginians by reason of position, so our loss was not so great. Thomas mounted the outer breast-

works and looking to the right saw Pickett's line waver, after they had taken possession of the enemy's works at certain points. Thomas, pointing out the situation to me, asked what should be done. We agreed the position could not be held without support, and the union forces moving to retake their line. No support in sight. Thomas ordered a retreat."


It was in this battle that the 14th Georgia as well as the 49th was again almost wiped out. Both regiments were stationed near the plank road and were exposed to the heaviest kind of artillery fire. The 14th held the apex of a wedge extending towards the enemy and was exposed to a terrific cross fire. Color Sergeant Rabe Grooms of the 14th had been killed. First Lieutenant Henry Solomon of Gordon was killed. 3rd Lieutenant W.N. Ryle of Gordon was captured and it seemed no mortal could remain in the line held by the 14th Georgia and live. For once this regiment facing utter annihilation was slowly but surely being forced back. His line broken, Col. Bob Folsom was everywhere in the thickest of the fight encouraging and rallying his men. At last when his line was completely broken and his decimated ranks were on the verge of retreat he made one last effort to rally them. Throwing himself in front of his men, he pleaded: "Men, if you love me die with me!" A cheer ran down the lines of gray. The wild rebel yell resounded. A countercharge was made and that portion of the line was restored, but Folsom fell mortally wounded. To add to the troubles of the men from Wilkinson the wilderness caught on fire and numbers of the wounded were burned to death.


This was the next drawn battle in which the men from Wilkinson were engaged. Here the North Carolina brigade holding the front line broke and the enemy poured his forces in. The Wilkinson county companies under Thomas were ordered to help retake the line. They succeeded but the brigade lost heavily.

Then comes the period of the war when outnumbered

it became evident that it was only a question of time before the end. We thus find the companies from Wilkinson in every battle around Petersburg. The men of the 3rd Georgia could hear the sappers under the fort at the Crater before it was blown up, yet stuck nobly to their posts. Then when the terrible explosion came, those remaining alive helped hold back the hordes of Yankees that poured into the breach.

And finally, in that last battle before Petersburg on the day before the retreat began, the gallant A.P. Hill, under whom the men of Wilkinson fought so nobly, fell at the head of his men. That night the retreat began which culminated at Appomattox.

Yet in defeat, in the moment of surrender, the hopes of the Confederacy at an end, we find the nobility and courage that characterized the men from Wilkinson so nobly portrayed in the act of one of her sons. The colors of the gallant 3rd Georgia, which in so many battles had proudly waved at the head of this regiment, battle scarred, torn by shrapnel, and shell, never captured, never having fallen into the hands of the enemy was now about to be surrendered. Color Sergeant J.C. Hicks of Company I as he furled it that morning and realized that the noble banner which he had sworn to defend so long as life lasted must soon fall into the hands of those who would doubtless trample it into the dust, resolved that come what may, whether it meant northern prison or even the firing squad, he would save that flag. He seized the flag, tore it from its standard, some accounts say he wrapped it about his body underneath his tattered uniform and when the approaching foemen appeared no flag could be seen and that he walked home with his flag. Other accounts are that he gave it to Col. Snead. Suffice to say that the battle torn banner now can be seen in the Capitol of Georgia, never besmirched by foemen's hands, and on it is inscribed the account of the deed of the man from Wilkinson.




ABOUT the first of August of 1864 a small band of Stoneman's Raiders which had been sent in this direc-

tion by Sherman, appeared at Gordon, burning box cars and destroying other property. Being pursued, they hurried down the railroad, destroying as many trestles as they had time. According to information given the writer by Professor O.M. Sanders, arriving at Wriley, the raiders turned across Commissioner creek and took the road by the McCook farm. In the lane between the Robinson and Jones farms they met Mr. Lawrence Smith, the father of M.G. Smith, who was riding a mule. They opened fire upon him, wounding him, but he rode his mule down the steep hill at the head of Buck Creek on the Jones place amid a hail of bullets, and escaped. The mule, however, died from over-exertion. The alarm was given and efforts were made to capture the band. Finding it was impossible to continue down the railroad and destroy the river bridge, they turned about and tried to return to Sherman's command, but were captured.


When the news reached Wilkinson that Sherman was invading Georgia, although with its small population Wilkinson County was maintaining seven companies in the field, the seventeen year old boys and old men who were able to bear arms formed two more companies. Company D of the 8th Georgia Militia and Company H of the 2nd Georgia Militia. These two companies did excellent service. Both were sent to Atlanta to assist in its defense. Falling back after Atlanta fell, they were stationed at Macon when the news came that Sherman had captured Milledgeville and was sending a force towards Wilkinson county. Marching to Griswoldville their


advance was opposed by batteries of Federal artillery stationed on the hill across the branch just east of Griswoldville supported by Kilpatrick's hordes of cavalry. It was madness to fight the battle of Griswoldville, but there was much at stake for these boys. Their homes and loved ones were depending upon what they did that day. If this battle could be won, Wilkinson County would be saved from the torch and the insults of the bluecoat army. And when this thought was borne to the minds of these seventeen year old boys, they fought as few soldiers have ever fought before. Although a hopeless undertaking these boys charged the bristling batteries. It seemed that no living thing could cross that hail of shot and shell which was poured into them as they charged up that slope. Driven back they rallied for the second time and again charged, with the same result. And yet, they reformed the line and again charged this time almost reaching the belching guns themselves, when overpowered, they were again forced back.

It is said that there was not a cornstalk nor a bush left standing on that slope that day. Henry Mercer, still living was the first man to fall wounded. A.A. Beall, captain of the company, seized Mercer's gun and fought with it with the rest of the company.

Historians writing of this charge justly compare it with Pickett's charge at Gettysburg in the bravery shown by the militia companies.

But they could not overcome the overwhelming forces in front of them and there was mourning in many a Wilkinson County home that night for the boys and old men who had so nobly but vainly died that Wilkinson might be spared.

In the meanwhile other portions of Howard's Division were approaching Gordon from the direction of Milledgeville. Gen. Henry C. Wayne, Adjutant General of Georgia, was at Gordon commanding a mixed force of cadets from the military school at Marietta, and convicts from the State Penetentiary, the latter having been given their liberty on condition that they do military service. The following is an extract from the thrilling account of the occasion in the sketch, "Kelly's

Defense of Gordon," published in the Confederate Veteran which was written by T.D. Tinsley of Macon who was a member of Wayne's staff and an eye-witness to the part played by J.R. Kelly:

"On reaching Gordon in the afternoon, General Wayne made his headquarters at the Old Solomon Hotel. The morning following our arrival, while General Wayne, Major Capers, and I were sitting on the porch of the tavern, a man on horseback dashed up. From the pommel of his saddle on one side was swinging his Winchester, while on the other was a pair of crutches. He had but one leg, having left the other on a battlefield in Virginia. Giving his name as Kelly, he offered his services as a vidette. General Wayne thanked him very courteously and accepted his services. Kelly saluted again, touched his mare with his spur and, bending in his saddle, galloped rapidly off in the direction of Griswoldville.

"About noon of the same day he returned and reported the enemy leaving Griswoldville, heading for Milledgeville, via Gordon. He left a second time, and soon thereafter General Wayne requested me to notify the conductor we were to leave for Oconee Station as soon as his engineer could get up steam, also to instruct Major Capers to form his battalion at once and have them board the train.

"This was done, and when the conductor was ready to move his train, General Wayne remarked to me: `Well, Adjutant, we had as well get aboard also. Let's take the rear coach.' He had hardly taken his seat when Kelly galloped up to report the Yankee army in sight, but, seeing the battalion embarked, said: `General, what does this mean? Don't we make a stand?' General Wayne, from his window, said: `No, Mr. Kelly, it would be ridiculous to attempt to check Sherman's army of one hundred thousand or more men with a force of seven hundred. We go to Oconee, where I may make a stand at the long bridge which spans the Oconee.' Then it was that Mr. Kelly turned loose his wrath, cursing General Wayne for a white-livered cur with not a drop of red blood in his veins. His vocabulary of profanity was equaled only by his reckless

bravery. Finally he said: `Well, you damned band of tuck-tails, if you have no manhood left in you, I will defend the women and children of Gordon.'

"He unlimbered his old Winchester, rose in his stirrups and began firing at Sherman's army, then plainly in sight. I was on the rear platform as the train moved slowly out, and we left him holding the fort, `alone in his glory.'"

In recounting the story to the writer of his defying a whole Yankee regiment, Mr. Kelly said he and John R. Bragg who had joined him fired upon the advance guard of the enemy, killing one of them. The others retreated and as it was known that Wheeler's Cavalry was operating in this section the Yankees were slow to attack in force. For this reason it was some considerable time that they remained in undisturbed possession of the town. But suddenly as he described it, "The whole world turned to Yankees." So he and Bragg beat a hasty retreat east along the railroad. Thinking it advisable to separate, Kelly told Bragg to turn into the swamp on the right while he would ride on further before turning. In the meanwhile the pursuing bluecoats were firing a hail of bullets at Kelly and Bragg. In attempting to turn his horse into the woods, Kelly's horse stumbled and before he could regain his mount he was surrounded and captured. A courtmartial tried Kelly and sentenced him to die. A few nights later, however, in crossing the Ogeechee swamp, he being carried in a wagon, he succeeded in eluding his guards and made his escape.


The news was continually reaching Irwinton of the rapid advance of Sherman's army toward the sea, with rumors of burnings, pillaging and destruction that marked the places it passed. News came that the Yankees were at Milledgeville. Then came the roar of the federal artillery at Griswoldville, twenty miles away to the west. If the Confederate forces could be successful, the enemy would have to fall back towards Milledgeville to cross the Oconee River for General Wayne's troops supported by Wheeler's Cavalry block their passage at Ball's Ferry and at the railroad crossing, and this section

would be saved.

However, John R. Bragg, having escaped in the fight at Gordon, came with the news of that encounter. Knowing that the Yankees were within a few miles of the town and that possibly everything would be destroyed, everybody began hiding all their valuables. Horses and cows were carried to the swamps, hogs were penned off in the thickets, trunks and boxes of valuables were buried. To this day many can point with pride to some old trunk and tell how it was buried full of articles when Sherman came. However, in many cases these precautions were of no avail.

A few soldiers who had been disabled by wounds were at home at the time. Among these were John W. Lindsey, later Pension Commissioner of Georgia, who had been wounded in Virginia and was partly recovered. He with several others rode out along the Ridge Road to reconnoiter. Just as they came to the bend of the road just west of the Lingo farm they spied the federal cavalry regiment coming at a gallop and only a short distance away. The Yankees saw them at the same time and opened a hot fire upon them. Being outnumbered ten to one they turned their horses and outran the Yankees, turning to the right at W.L. Pennington's farm and escaping across Big Sandy Creek before other detachments from the other roads could cut them off. Once across the creek they were safe since Wheeler's Cavalry was known to be there in force and there was no danger of Yankee patrols venturing that far. A few hours later from one of the hills near Red Level Church they watched the flames as the town was burned.

Close on the heels of the regiment of cavalry others began to arrive in Irwinton by hundreds. Soon the whole town was one mass of tents. The private homes were commandeered for the officers. Gen. Wm. F. ("Baldy") Smith who commanded the brigade made his headquarters in the house where Hon. Geo. H. Carswell now lives. To guard against a possible surprise attack from Wheeler's Cavalry, breastworks were thrown up on the sides of the town at strategic points, guarding the approach from every direction. In most cases the

traces of these old redoubts are yet to be seen.

No sooner had their camp duties been completed than the Yankees began their work of destruction. Not a chicken, turkey, goose, pig or anything eatable was left alive. Barns and smokehouses were emptied of everything left in them, homes were looted, trunks broken into and everywhere that the marauders could think of was searched for hidden articles. Late in the afternoon, they began applying the torch; first came the courthouse, then the granaries in front of it and from there to the old red brick schoolhouse built in 1824, which was then also being used as a granary. By some means, possibly by slaves betraying their hiding places, the Yankees learned of the whereabouts of the horses, mules and cows which had been carried to the swamps and these were brought into the camps, the cows being slain for beef and the horses and mules taken away.

E.J. Gilbert had several fine horses taken this way. In the drove of horses was a mule named "Cuff" which possessed the same faithful love for these horses that Ruth bore for Naomi, and when the Yankees captured the horses, the mule was determined to be captured too, so willy, nilly, the Yankees had a mule on their hands. One of the characteristics of this mule was that no one could ride her except the negro slave who was accustomed to plow her and everyone who attempted to do so regretted it. One of the Yankees needing a fresh mount leaped on this mule, and a moment later picked himself profanely from the ground about twenty feet away. For the next thirty minutes one after another of these cavalarymen rolled in the dust. Then a lanky western broncho buster was detailed to conquer the plucky, long-eared rebel and he finally succeeded in riding off a dejected looking mule.

On account of the fact that Wayne and Wheeler were disputing the crossing of the Oconee River the divisions here were held up several days, until Sherman with the main army could advance down the road from Milledgeville towards Sandersville and threaten the rear. In the meantime, detachments were sent out from Irwinton throughout the surround

ing country to pillage, burn and destroy. So well did they perform these orders that when they finally left, this whole section was on the verge of starvation. Those who were living here at the time still tell of how they would pick up the grains of corn where the horses did not eat it and use it for food. There would have been terrible suffering had not the plantations outside this path of destruction sent in provisions in abundance.

The trackage of the Central of Georgia railroad was torn up from one end of the county to the other, the trestles, depots and all other property belonging to it that could be were burned.


In the meantime, bands of the Yankees would go on pillaging expeditions. Tradition says that W.M. Whitehurst near Gordon had hidden $16,000 in gold and that several of the blue-coats seized his youngest son and threatened him until the little fellow carried them to the hiding place.

Another band hearing of the wealth of W.E. Carswell near New Providence made him a prisoner. Failing to frighten him into giving up his valuables, and learning that "Old Ben" knew where the money was hidden, they hurried to the field where they were told Ben was at work. Seeing a slave fitting the description of Ben, they made him prisoner and demanded that he tell where his master's gold was hidden. The robbers were disappointed, however, when their captive burst out in such a convincing manner: "Marsters, Marsters, you done cotch de rong nigger! Dis ain't Ben! Dis is Peter! Ben is right under de hill yonder!" Turning him loose they hurried on to find the elusive Ben under the hill. As soon as they were at a safe distance, their erstwhile captive darted into the swamp, keeping safe his master's secret, for he was Ben.

Another striking instance of the loyalty of a slave was that of "Injun Jack" Deese, belonging to Joel Deese.

In order to save his horses Mr. Deese and Jack drove them across Big Sandy Creek where Wheeler's Cavalry was counted on to keep Sherman's forces at a distance. Jack was

hastening back to take care of his "Missuses" when Federal guerillas came upon him and made him prisoner. Learning who he was, they demanded to know the whereabouts of his Master. Upon his refusing to divulge, they put a rope around Jack's neck and throwing it over the limb of a tree swung Jack into the air, keeping him aloft until he was about to strangle then letting him down. Again he refused and again he went up. The third time he defied them and they vowed he should die. This time while he was in the agonies of death the timely appearance of a regular army officer who dispersed the murdering gang and cut the rope saved Jack's life.

Later, while Robert Toombs was making his escape to the coast, Deese sent Jack with him for a portion of the journey.


During this time Wesley King gathered into a Company every boy, old man, and wounded soldier at home recuperating south of Big Sandy Creek who could bear arms and kept patrols at every crossing holding back the Yankees who would attempt to cross. It is said that at Lightwood Knot Bridge, at Stephensville, a mob of them attempted to cross but that Dr. J.B. Duggan, armed with a shotgun, fired into them putting all of them to flight. As a measure of safety it was deemed necessary to destroy this bridge and fire was applied to it.

Throughout Lord's District the citizens were suffering severely from the pillaging Yankees. Everything that could be was stolen and carried away. So great were the injuries and insults inflicted that at the house on the road leading from Ebenezer to Outlaw's Bridge, just west of its junction with the Irwinton and Ball's Ferry road, a Wilkinson County man came upon two Yankees attempting to rob the helpless inmates. He opened fire killing one of the Yankees and the other fled. A peculiar thing about this killing is that the credit for doing so has been given to at least three separate and distinct individuals, neither of whom, so far as the writer has ever heard, ever denied being the perpetrator. We must therefore consider it an

unsolved mystery as to the man who killed this yankee who was buried near Ebenezer Church and whose body after the close of the war was disinterred and sent to his native State.


In the meantime, General Wayne had stationed his cadets and his armed convicts at the Bridge of the Central of Georgia railroad. Pieces of artillery were placed in commanding positions and every possible defense arranged. Upon the approach of the advanced guard of the Yankees the companies of convicts scattered leaving the cadets and Wheeler's Cavalry to do the fighting. The attack was soon general. The Yankees threw out sharp shooters along the Wilkinson County side who were continuously picking off the young defenders. However, there were crack shots among these cadets, and they were adept at hitting the enemy. T.D. Tinsley, whom we have heretofore mentioned, wrote the compiler of this fight, and mentioned one incident where a sharp shooter could not be located for a long time until after several cadets were wounded. Finally, he was located and a well aimed rifle brought him down out of the top of a tall tree.


While the fight was in progress at the River Bridge news came to Wheeler whose forces were supporting Wayne that the Yankees had driven off the six men he had posted to guard Ball's Ferry and were crossing with the purpose of attacking him in the rear. At once assembling a portion of his cavalry he repaired to Ball's Ferry. About one hundred of the enemy were already on the Washington County side. Sounding the charge he swooped down upon them. The Yankees, panic stricken, fled. Throwing aside everything that impeded them, they leaped into the river and swam across. Abandoning the newly built entrenchments, which may yet be seen, they sought safety in distance. Wheeler's men crossed the river and picked up twenty-three cavalry guns, a number of overcoats, knapsacks, etc., capturing one man. Wheeler's loss in killed was two men, while the Yankees had ten killed, the number of wounded unknown. (Julius in Constitutionalist, Nov. 24,


Other portions of Sherman's Army approaching from Milledgeville and threatening Wheeler's rear made it impossible to hold the Oconee line of battle any longer and an orderly retreat was made. The Yankee soldiers pent up in Wilkinson now crossed the river and the county was freed of their presence.


Not alone on the fields of battle were deeds of patriotism and bravery of sacrifice displayed. From the opening of the war the women of Wilkinson threw their all into the titanic struggle and to their untiring devotion, their deeds of love, and that determination to win with which they inspired their gray clad husbands, brothers, sweethearts and friends were largely responsible for the unexcelled feats performed by the Soldiers of Wilkinson.

No sooner had the companies begun to assemble than the women started their work. Hundreds of uniforms must be made with the least possible delay. Hands that heretofore were never known to labor now soon were engaged in the patriotic work necessary to equip the soldiers for the campaigns.

With the departure to the front of the several companies and the expected short duration of the war lengthening into months and then into years, the horrors of the war began to break upon the brave women in Wilkinson. The management of the slaves, the cultivation of the crops now fell upon the shoulders of the women. The poorer families whose only means of support was now in the war began to feel the pangs of hunger. In addition to the providing of the necessities of life for the children at home there was the ever-growing need of sending supplies, clothing, and bandages for the wounded, to the battle fronts. The looms were kept busy, the knitting of socks, and everything else woman could do was done.

Soon the great battles were taking their toll of the Wilkinson county soldiers, and the pangs of grief were added to the other troubles of the women back home. The rude army hospitals were overflowing with the wounded and when

someone conceived the idea of the Wayside Homes the women of Wilkinson quickly adopted the idea. One was provided in Toomsboro, another in Gordon, and whether from Wilkinson or other locality the wounded or sick soldier in gray found no "lack of woman's nursing" in these homes.

Every position that a woman could fill was now filled by them. The schools, many vacant by reason of the men teachers being in the army, were now filled by the women. And it shall ever be to their credit that throughout the four years war, even during the darkest days, so strongly did they desire that their children should possess an education that the schools were kept open and were well attended.

At McIntyre the efforts of a woman to save her home from burning at the hands of the Federal Officer, so impressed the people of the county that it is yet told. It was none other than the Mrs. McIntyre, heretofore mentioned in this history who was still serving as depot agent, now married again, this time to H.E. Hyman, her last husband serving in the southern army. When Sherman's forces were destroying all the property of the Central of Georgia Railroad, the detachment sent to burn that in and about McIntyre was informed that the house where the depot agent lived belonged to the railroad. The house and yard were filled with soldiers and the torch was about to be applied when Mrs. Hyman, whose husband was a Mason, recalled that her husband had once told her that if she was ever in great danger to make a certain Masonic sign. In a despairing effort she made this sign. The Captain commanding the detachment who had already mounted his horse and was riding down the hill towards the depot which under his orders had already been fired, paused, and being a member of the fraternity, turned his horse and rode back up the hill. Questioning her concerning her husband and also as to the title to the house which she explained belonged to her and not to the railroad company, the Captain ordered the soldiers out, countermanding the order to burn the house and placed a guard about the premises for her protection. (Letter of Stephen F. McIntyre to compiler.)

The destruction by Sherman's army, and the mounting toll of death in the bloody battles were sufficient to discourage anyone possessing less courage than the women of Wilkinson. But instead of murmuring, instead of discouraging the men who were fighting the battles by recounting their woes, the women set about repairing the work of the destroying northern army.

And, thus, the men of Wilkinson at the end of the war came back to find their slaves freed, their property destroyed, all lost save honor. Yet, with the aid of noble womanhood of Wilkinson they set about restoring the county to its own. None of their former foemen have proved their loyalty to the flag of the nation more than have these heroes and heroines of the Sixties.



OF all the people of Georgia, Bob Toombs had no more loyal friends than those of Wilkinson County. This loyalty remained steadfast not only while he was such a power in the legislature prior to the war but throughout the war, during his escape, and also when he returned from his exile. Especially did they prove their love for him after the Yankee soldiers went to his home at Louisville and failed to catch him, thanks to the presence of mind of his wife. He immediately fled towards his friends in Wilkinson County. Joel Deese got word of his coming and went to meet him on the way. Finding him, he returned to his home, the large two-story house, known as the Deese Old Place, with his noted guest. They arrived at night and Toombs was given one of the rooms up stairs. The curiosity of the negroes on the place was aroused at the mysterious visitor, and it is probable that Mr. Deese gave them such information as to cause a superstitious fear, since there is a story among the negroes to the effect that the nocturnal visitor so haunted this house that to this day he can be heard to go up the stair steps dragging his saddle bags. Deese kept him at his home for several days and then as Toombs was planning to make his way to the coast one day started with him towards the home of Wesley King, a former Senator from Wilkinson who was another loyal friend of Toombs. Taking by-roads and avoiding the town of Irwinton where there might be detachments of Federal soldiers, they, by some means, took the wrong road and when they discovered their whereabouts they were at Bethel church. Services were being conducted by Rev. Green B. Hughes and the sermon was in progress. Mr. Deese, however, not being well-acquainted with the way, was in a quandary and knowing that the greatest of secrecy was

necessary, went into the church to see if there was any one in whom absolute dependence could be placed to keep silent. He recognized Rev. Mr. Hughes as the most likely man and calling him from the pulpit to one side stated the predicament. The preacher realizing the danger, lost no time in deciding that the "ox was in the ditch," and possibly without even a benediction, mounted his horse and proceeded to direct Deese and Toombs through plantation roads to Mr. King's. Toombs spent the remainder of the day at King's and was escorted from there to the home of Hon. Dan Hughes at the present town of Danville.

The abrupt closing of the services at Bethel caused somewhat of a commotion among the congregation and the community and everybody was asking who was the man with Mr. Deese. Dr. R.J. Cochran, a former member of the legislature was then living close to Bethel church, where Mr. Barlow now lives, and seeing the horsemen, thought he recognized Mr. Toombs, having known him while in the legislature. A few hours later, seeing Mr. I.S. King, son of Mr. Wesley King, he inquired of him if this was not Toombs, but it seems that Mr. King did not give him a very satisfactory answer. As soon as Mr. King could do so he returned home and told his father of the occurrence. Immediately it was thought imperative that Toombs be notified that he had been recognized and I.S. King was sent to find Mr. Toombs and acquaint him with this information. He was overtaken at Mr. Hughes' at Danville and when Mr. King arrived and told Mr. Hughes his business he was sent to the General's room. Gen. Toombs after inquiring closely of Mr. King and learning who the man was that recognized him with all the particulars seemed satisfied and thanked him for coming.


Confederate statesman; Congressman from Georgia, 1845-53; U.S. Senator, 1853-61; Confederate Secretary of State, 1861; Confederate brigadier general, after July, 1861; Fought to end Reconstruction and regulate railroads and corporations, 1870s.

During a deep sectional crisis over slavery in June, 1850, Georgia Congressman (1845-53) Robert Augustus Toombs delivered a speech in the U.S. House of Representative that became famous throughout the South. Likening himself to ancient Rome's sworn enemy, the Carthaginian general Hamilcar, father of Hannibal, Georgia-born (1810) Toombs warned the North: "I will ... bring my children and my constituents to the altar of liberty, and like Hamilcar I would swear them to eternal hostility to your foul domination." Ironically, Toombs was soon supporting acceptance of the "Compromise of 1850" to heal sectional wounds. Elevated to the Senate in 1853, he again made a Unionist gesture by supporting the last-ditch Crittenden Compromise after Abraham Lincoln's election to the Presidency in 1860. But when it failed, he returned home in January, 1861, to help draft Georgia's ordinance of secession and by February he had been named Secretary of State of the newly formed Confederate States of America.

Falling out with Jefferson Davis, Toombs resigned his post to accept a brigadier generalship and command of a Georgia brigade in July, 1861. Wounded at Antietam, he fled to Britain at war's end. By 1867 Toombs had returned to Georgia. Though he refused to seek a pardon for his role as a high Confederate official and would not take an oath of allegiance, he freely practiced law, while actively speaking out against Radical Republican rule and local Carpetbaggers. He was instrumental in obtaining state legislation for control of railroad rates and corporations. In 1877 Toombs supported President Rutherford B. Hayes' program of appeasing the South as the best hope for ending Reconstruction and restoring white supremacist rule to Georgia. He died in 1885.





THOUGH crushed by the disasters occasioned by the war, the people of Wilkinson went to work with a will. As they reached their homes from the battlefields, they set about planting their crops. This was a year of privation. The path of Sherman's army was as if a cyclone had swept away the foodstuffs, but the more favored sections sent succor out of their meager supplies.

With the harvest, however, conditions improved. The high prices paid for cotton helped. Soon the necessities of life were supplied and the people were no longer in danger of actual suffering.

Nevertheless, there were other factors which were proving very disturbing. The slaves freed from their former masters, untrained in managing their own affairs, were falling into idleness and crime. The carpet bagger and scalawag began their exploiting of the negro vote.

The effect of this was to fuse the Whig faction of Wilkinson with the Democrat and from thence through fear of "black heels on white necks" presented a united front against the threat of negro domination. This was intensified by the disfranchisement of numbers of white voters.

Federal troops were stationed at Irwinton and took charge of the elections. Negroes in lines near a quarter of a mile long were marched to the polls and voted. The Republican carpet baggers aided by the scalawags were then soon able to elect some of the county officers. Then occurred an orgy of misrule which can never be forgotten.

Criminals, both white and black, apparently freed from restraint burst forth in a series of crimes throughout the length and breadth of the county such as never had been heard

of before, murders, assaults, robberies, homes burned, and whether in the fields at work, or at the home no man, no woman felt safe. Some of the officers of the law whose duty it was to protect the homes and arrest offenders were flagrantly refusing to perform their duties and openly violating the laws, themselves. Though the court records show by far the greatest number of criminal cases ever before or since docketed in the length of time, yet, justice had broken down.

So alarmed were the citizens of the outlying districts in many cases whole communities gathered their families together at night and posted sentries for protection. In one instance one of the frightened women's heart began throbbing so violently that she thought it was a negro army's drum beating, — a near panic ensued.

Not only did the people of the rural districts sense the impending dangers but Irwinton, especially, was chafing under the situation. Several cases occurred where insolent blacks jostled white persons off the sidewalks and one or two instances where white ladies were insulted.

The county government was paralyzed, but the State government was if possible in worse hands. Deveaux, a negro from Jones County, had been elected to represent Wilkinson, Twiggs and Jones in the Senate.

Conditions continued to grow worse and all Wilkinson was thrown into a panic such as was never known even during the years when Indian massacres were threatened. On all tongues were rumors of negro uprisings. Notes were intercepted near Toomsboro that showed unmistakably that the negroes, incited by the Republican carpetbagers and scalawags were on the verge of rising against the whites and all the horrors of a racial war seemed imminent.

Under the stress of the dangerous situation there suddenly rose the "Invisible Empire." It is said that Dr. T.A. Simmons was the head of the Wilkinson County Klansmen. Many, both white and black, were warned to change their manner of living. Those who refused were punished.

In the meantime, however, Congress had enacted a

law which interfered with the Klan's activities and which gave Federal courts jurisdiction to try cases charged to the Klan.

In 1872, a very serious offense having been committed near Irwinton by a negro, he was punished by a delegation sent by the Klan. A report was made to the Federal district court then sitting in Savannah and unknown to the citizens of the county, warrants were issued for a large number of prominent men of the county alleged to have been recognized by the negro.

Quickly and without warning a detachment of Federal troops disembarked from the midnight train at McIntyre one night and took up the line of march towards Irwinton, Harry Loauther and two other negroes guiding them.

The negroes knew exactly where the men lived they were seeking. First, they went to the home of Dr. T.A. Simmons, whom they arrested, then to H.F. Hyman, Milton Lindsey, Eli Peacock, Charley Peacock, W.C.D. Carlisle and G.G. Gilbert in succession. Other detachments were sent for Buck Dixon, Jethro VanLandingham and Bob Hyman who lived at and near Toomsboro. By nine o'clock the next day ten had been arrested and were enroute to Savannah, while many others named in the warrants were unable to be found.

For some unknown reason the forces of soldiers ordered to arrest some of the citizens of Gordon failed to reach their destination until the night following the arrests at Irwinton. With the necessary information they went from house to house until they had arrested a large number, estimated by some as about twenty-five men, a portion of whom were B.I. Stevens, later sheriff of the county, Frank Jones, Dock Sanders, Bill Bridgers, Lawrence Butts, Tom Whitehurst, Jim Fountain, Frank Kennington, Cicero Dennard, Charley Solomon and Jim Kirkpatrick.

Having arrested the above named men, the soldiers advanced to the home of "Shoog" Smith and invited him to come out and surrender. His reply, however, was to consign the whole of yankeedom to the fiery flames. Whereupon, they started to batter down his door and take him by force. "Shoog"

waxed more eloquent with epithets growing in venom and swore that the first one to cross the threshold would die. He soon succeeded in convincing the soldiers that a resumption of the war was imminent and they departed for Savannah, leaving "Shoog" in triumphant possession of the scene of hostilities.

At Savannah every possible courtesy was shown them by the citizens of that city. They were met at the train by a delegation of friends and upon their arrival at the jail, the jailer, Warren Russell, treated them more like guests than prisoners.

The greatest excitement was rife in the county as the crowds gathered at Irwinton to send aid to their friends. No man knew but what if he showed much interest in the defense of the men he would be arrested as a member of the Klan. The ruin of their fortunes by the war had left the county so badly impoverished that only a small number were acceptable on bonds. But few flinched from their duty to their imprisoned countrymen. Every road to Irwinton was soon crowded by men from all sections of the county as the news spread that these men were arrested and soon the trains were crowded by citizens bent on gaining the release of these men on bond. It is said that no man was exerting himself more than John W. Lindsey, later Pension Commissioner of Georgia and Alexander Baum, a Polish Jew, who twenty-five years before had come from Poland, settled at Irwinton and opened a store, and whose memory is revered to this day by the people of Wilkinson for what he did in this crisis.

Immediately after their arrival at the Savannah jail motion was made for the bonds for the defendants to be fixed. The exorbitant amount of $10,000 was fixed on each one except Dr. Simmons and Bob Hyman, and theirs was assessed at $100,000 each. The months in jails awaiting trial seemed the only alternative for the prisoners.

But no sooner had Baum arrived than things began to happen. Undauntedly he got busy and from one wealthy Jew to another he went and made an appeal for them to rally to his aid. Thanks to the help of the Jews, the wealthy merchants, and

cotton-buyers of Savannah, bonds were arranged after eight days of effort.

In the meantime, the Federal grand jury was called into session to take up this case, whose foreman was the well known Macon negro, Jeff Long, later postmaster of Macon, and on the grand jury was a lone white man, all the others being negroes. This was not an encouraging prospect for the Wilkinson County men who were facing the indictments, especially in view of the fact that the negro witnesses were swearing positively as to the identity of the accused, the majority of whom were innocent of the charges. To add to the trouble of the defendants it was learned that every traverse juror was a negro.

However, to the astonishment of everyone, interest began to lag in the prosecution of the case. Though with positive evidence from the negro witnesses, the grand jury refused to indict any except Dr. Simmons, H.E. Hyman, and Robert Hyman. Even these indictments were never brought to trial, but were nol-prossed at a later term of court.

About this time the Democrats regained control of the management of the county affairs, as well as of the state government, and there was a general disbanding of the Ku Klux Klan.


However, there was an after effect of the activities of this organization. In the lower section of the county a crowd of irresponsible younger men determined upon imitating the Klan and formed one of their own. A fancied grievance of a member against a prominent citizen of the section arising it was decided that the offender should suffer the Klan penalty. The meeting of the pseudo Klan was to be near Walnut Creek Church at a fixed hour one night. The secret leaked out, and the members of the old Klan notified. Quickly a peremptory summons was sent out to every available member of the disbanded Klan to meet. The discarded hoods were resurrected and that night the roads were filled with white clad horsemen hastening to the point of rendezvous. In the mean

time, the clandestine Klan had met and arranged their plans. Just before they were ready to start there came a clatter of horse feet from every direction and before a man could escape, the real Klan had completely surrounded the band and made prisoners of every one. Then followed the disrobing of the prisoners who were dressed in the Klan robes and hoods. A warning was deemed sufficient and upon their promises no further action was taken.

The following may help in showing how the Democratic ticket carried the election of 1872:

A candidate for one office had as his opponent a negro. In recounting the story to the writer he said, "This nigger had me beat to a frazzle and I knew it, so I went to him the day before the election and said to him, `Nigger, when me and you started in this race, this county was a mighty big county, but it has been getting smaller and smaller. It is now so small that it is too little for me and you, too. One of us has just got to move. My business is so arranged that it is inconvenient for me to move, so it is just up to you. Well, do you know, the next day that nigger was gone, and I didn't have any opposition. Ki! Yi!"


Wilkinson County from its earliest days had numerous citizens who recognized the pernicious effects of whiskey and were always ready to do all in their power to stop its sale. It was in 1881 before an Act of the Legislature was passed prohibiting the sale of it here. During all these years many of the stores sold whiskey as a drawing card for trade. "Penny Row," the row of stores in front of the courthouse, was notorious for its open bars. On public days considerable drunkenness was in evidence. Especially on election days, during the time the negro vote was such a factor in the county administration, the town was filled with drunken men, both white and black. On such occasions bloody brawls were frequent occurrences.

These, perhaps, did more than anything else to bring to pass the efforts of such men as Charles Culpepper, William I. Chambers, Charles Hooks and other prohibitionists.


The county depended on others for its newspapers until about 1870 when the "Appeal" began its publication at Toomsboro. A little later the "Southerner" was begun at Irwinton. Soon after this these two were consolidated and until 1889 this was the "Southerner-Appeal" and was the official organ of the county. In that year it was moved to Gordon and became known as the "Gordon Press." For a short while "The Blade" was published at Gordon. Later the "World" was published at Irwinton. In 1894 the "Bulletin" was started at Irwinton and this was the only paper of the county until a few years ago the "Wilkinson County News" was begun at Gordon.


Documents, abstracts from records, lists of County officers, rosters of Wilkinson County companies in the War Between the States, etc.



A Treaty of Limits Between the United States of America and the Creek Nation of Indians.

Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States of America, by James Wilkinson, of the State of Maryland, brigadier general in the army of the United States; Benjamin Hawkins, of North Carolina, and Andrew Pickens, of South Carolina, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States on the one part, and the Kings, Chiefs, Head Men and Warriors of the Creek Nation, in council assembled, on the other part, have entered into the following articles and conditions, viz:

ARTICLE 1. The Kings, Chiefs, Head Men and Warriors of the Creek Nation in behalf of the said Nation, do by these presents cede to the United States of America, all that tract and tracts of land, situate, lying and being within and between the following bounds, and the lines and limits of the extinguished claims of the said nation heretofore ascertained and established by treaty. That is to say: beginning at the upper extremity of the high shoals of the Appalachee river, the same being a branch of the Oconee river, and on the southern bank of the same; running thence a direct course to a noted ford of the south branch of Little river, called by the Indians Chat-to-chuc-co-hat-chee; thence a direct line to the main branch of Commissioners Creek, where the same is intersected by the path leading from the Rock landing to the Ocmulgee Old Towns; thence a direct line to Palmetto creek, where the same is intersected by the Uchee path, leading from the Oconee to the Ocmulgee river; thence down the middle waters of the said creek to the Oconee river, and with the western bank of the same to its junction with the Ocmulgee river; thence across the Ocmulgee river to the south bank of the Altamaha river, and down the same a low water mark to the lower bank of Goose creek; and from thence by a direct line to the mounts on the margin of the Okeinokan swamp, raised and established by the commissioners of the United States and Spain, at the head of the St. Mary's river; thence down the middle waters of the said river to the point where the old line of demarcation strikes the

same; thence with the said old line to the Altamaha river, and up the same to Goose creek; and the said Kings, Chiefs, Head Men, and Warriors, do relinquish and quit claim to the United States, all their right, title, interest and pretentions, in and to the tract and tracts of land within and between the bounds and limits aforesaid forever.

ARTICLE 2. The commissioners of the United States, for and in consideration of the foregoing concession on the part of the Creek nation, and in full satisfaction for the same, do hereby covenant and agree with the said nation, in behalf of the United States, that the said States shall pay to the said nation, annually and every year, the sum of three thousand dollars, and one thousand dollars for the term of ten years, to the Chiefs who administer the government agreeable to a certificate under the hands and seals of the commissioners of the United States of this date; and also twenty-five thousand dollars in the manner and form following, viz: Ten thousand dollars in goods and merchandise, the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged; ten thousand dollars to satisfy certain debts due from Indians and white persons of the Creek country to the factory of the United States; the said debts after the payment aforesaid, to become the right and property of the Creek nation, and to be recovered for their use in such way and manner as the President of the United States may think proper to direct; five thousand dollars to satisfy claims for property taken by individuals of the said nation from the citizens of the United States, subsequent to the treaty of Colerain, which has been or may be claimed and established agreeably to the provisions of the act for regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes, and to preserve peace on the frontiers. And it is further agreed that the United States shall furnish to the said nation two sets of blacksmiths' tools, and men to work them, for the term of three years.

ARTICLE 3. It is agreed by the contracting parties, that the garrison or garrisons which may be found necessary for the protection of the frontiers, shall be established upon the land of the Indians, at such place or places as the President of the


United States may think proper to direct, in the manner and on the terms established by the treaty of Colerain.

ARTICLE 4. The contracting parties to these presents do agree that this treaty shall become obligatory and of full effect, so soon as the same shall be ratified by the President of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, the commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States, the Kings, Chiefs, Head Men and Warriors of the Creek Nation, have hereunto subscribed their names and affixed their seals at the camp of the commissioners of the United States, near Fort Wilkinson, on the Oconee river, this sixteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and two, and of the Independence of the United States the twenty-sixth.




Efau X Haujo Toosce XX Hatche-micco

1 Tustunnuggee X Thlucco Hopoie X Yauholo

2 Hopoie X Micco Hoithlewau X Le-Micco

3 Hopoie X O-Lah-Tau Efau-Haujo X of Cooloome

Tallassee X Micco Cus-Se-Tuh X Tus-tun-nug-gee

Tusseikia X Micco Tal-atis-chau X Micco

Micco X Thluc-co Yauf-kee X Emauatla Haujo

Tuskenhau X Chapco Coosaudee X Tus-tun-nug-gee

Chou-Wacke X Le-Micco Tal-tis-chau X Micco


Is Fau-nau X Tus-tun-nug-gee Cowetuh X Tus-tun-nug-gee

Eufaulau X Tus-tun-nug-gee Hopoithle X Haujo

Tustunnue X Hoithle Poyuch Woc-See Haujo

Is-Hopei X Tus-tun-nug-gee


Okelsau X Hut-Kee Ochewee X Tus-tun-nug-gee

Pahose X Micco Toosehatchee Haujo

Micke X Emautlau Isfau-nee X Haujo

Hoethle-Po-Yau X Haujo Ho-Poith-Le X Ho-Poi-E

Cusseuh X Haujo Oloh-Tuh-Emautlau


Timothy Barnard Alexander Cornells

Joseph Islands

ALEXANDER MACOMB, JUN'R, Secretary to the Commissioners

WILLIAM R. BOOTHE, Captain 2d Regiment Infantry

T. BLACKBURN, Lieutenant Com. Comp. D

JOHN B. BARNES, Lieutenant United States A.

WM. HILL, Agt. C.D.

NOW BE IT KNOWN, That I, Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States of America, having seen and considered the said treaty, do, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, accept, ratify, and confirm the same, and every clause and article thereof.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, I have caused the seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed, and signed the same with my hand.

DONE at the City of Washington the eleventh day of January, in the year of our Lord, one thousand, eight hundred and three, and of the Independence of the United States the twenty-seventh.


By the President,

JAMES MADISON, Secretary of State.


Justices of the Inferior Court

(Held office during good behavior)

Samuel Beckham, Dec. 7, 1805-6; Thomas Gilbert, Dec. 7, 1805-6; Lewis Lanier, Dec. 7, 1805-6; William O'Neal, Dec. 7, 1805-6; William Randolph, . . . . (service closed Jan. 2, 1806).

Robert Jackson, 1806; Thomas Fairchild, 1806; Samuel Dick, 1808; Charles Ray, Jr., 1808; Stephen Johnston (Johnson), Dec. 1809; William Cauley (Collsey), Dec., 1809, 13; Abraham, 1810 (vice Thomas Fairchild, resigned) 13, 17, 33.


James S. Baskin,, 1813; William Lord, Sr., 1813; Charles Wright, 1813; Robert Jackson, 1814 (vice William Lord, Sr., resigned); James C. Cunningham, 1816 (vice Charles Wright, resigned); Adam Hunter, 1816 (vice William Cawley, resigned); John Hatcher, Jr., 1817; Samuel Williams, 1817; George Dykes, 1817; Joseph Ross, 1817; Samuel Beall, 1819 (vice Ross resigned) 33, 37, 41, 45, 49, 53, 57; Anson Ball, 1819 (vice Dykes resigned); Osborn Wiggins, 1820 (vice Williams resigned); Peter McArthur, 1821; Thomas McGinty, 1821; John Hardy (Hardie) 1821, 25, 29; Merrit Etheridge (Etheredge), 1821, 34, 37, 41, 45; John Smith, 1821; Gerard Burch, 1822 (vice Smith, deceased), 25; Lewellen (or Lluellen) M. Robison, 1825; James Neal, 1825, 29; John F. Simmons, 1825; Thomas Crutchfield, 1825 (vice Burch, resigned) Solomon B. Murphy, 1826 (vice Robison) Robert Crutchfield . . . . (service closed Jan., 1828); Richard Lewis, 1828 (vice Crutchfield); James Mooring, 1829; Carlton Grier, 1829; Adam Brannen, 1829; Charles Riley, 1831; Thomas T. Prestwood, 1831; Peter Burkholts, 1831; Daniel M. Hall, 1833, Benjamin Mitchell, 1833; Charles Wright, 1833; Lewellen Robison, 1833; Thomas T. Prestwood . . . (found serving in Jan., 1835); Henry Chambers, 1834; William G. Little, 1835; Jesse Peacock, 1836, 37, 41; L.M. Robinson (Robison) 1837; William Fisher, 1837; Solomon Arnold, 1838; Jethro Dean, 1841; Benjamin L. Scott, 1841; James Fountain, 1841; Cary Cox, 1845; Green B. Burney, 1845, 49; William Hughes, 1845; James Gibson, 1847; James C. Bower, 1848; James C. Bowen, 1849; James Bigson, 1849; Ellis Harrel, 1849; William N. Bowen, 1850; Wyatt Meredith, 1851; William O. Beall, 1853; Leroy Fleetwood, 1853; Charles Young, 1853; John M. Ware, 1853; George W. Bishop, 1855; John M. Clark, 1855; Joel Hardie, 1856, 57; Josiah H. Jones,

1857; William A. Hall, 1857; Jonathan Rivers, 1857; Seaborn J. Stubbs, 1858; Eson Green, 1858; Eliazar Cumming, 1859, 65; Wiley Holland, 1861; J.T. Hughes, 1861; O.H.P. Rawls, 1861, 65; James Lord, 1861; W.M. Whitehurst, 1861, 65; R.F. Rozar, 1865; Daniel Bourke, 1865.


Tax Receivers

Arthur Burney, 1807, 08; Daniel S. Pearce, 1809, 10; Thomas Hughs, 1811; John Hatcher, Jr., 1812, 14; Henry W. Raley, 1813; William Beck, 1815; James Lindsey, 1816, 17; Wright Mims, 1818; Robert Rozar, 1819; Osborn Wiggins, 1820; Benjamin Exum, 1821, 22, 23; John Riley, 1824, 25, 26, 27; Abram Stephens, 1828; James Jackson, 1829, 30,31, 32; James Lewis, 1833, 34, 35; James Young, 1836; Norman McCrainy, 1837, 38, 39; Wiley (or Wiley B.) Shepherd, 1840, 41; George W. Tarpley, 1842, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49; James Hartley, 1850, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57; Jackson Pearson, 1855-56; Iverson Cannon, 1857; Jesse B. Carroll, 1857-58; William Pace, 1858-59-60-61; J.T. Brannan, 1862-64; N.W. Hughes, 1864-66, 83, 87, 89; Lewis M. Ethridge, 1866; R. Nelson, 1868-71; Lawrence Butts, 1873, 77; L.L. Hall, 1875; J.F. Burke, 1879; Augustus H. Rice, 1881; J.W. Boone, 1885; W.M. Poole, 1891-93; J.F. Lindsey, 1895; J.W. Brooks, 1896; J.B. Butler, 1898, 1900-02, 1908-10-12-14-16; C.W. Bell, 1906; G.T. Stapleton, 1920 to date.


Tax Collectors

William Oneal, 1807-08; Benjamin Exum, 1809-10; Joseph Jackson, 1811; Daniel S. Pearce, 1812; Jesse Smith, 1813; Thomas T. Prestwood, 1814, 15, 16, 35, 36; Thomas McGinty, 1817; Isaac Hall, 1818, 19, 20, 21, 22; Charles Riley, 1822, 25, 26, 27, 28; Jesse Pittman, 1823, 28, 29, 30, 32;

Abraham Stevens (Stephens), 1833, 34; Wiley Miller, 1837; Briant O'Bannion, 1838, 39, 42-43; Jesse C. Jackson, 1840; James Jackson, 1841; Wiley Holland, 1844, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53; James P. Granade, 1853-54; Isaac Lindsey, 1854-55-56-57-58; John T. Brannan, 1858-59-60-61-64; John McArthur, 1864-66; Elbert J. Davidson, 1866; George Payne, 1868-71; W.C. D. Carslisle, 1873, 1881; J.M. Langford, 1875; James H. Jackson, 1877-79; Andrew Chambers, 1880; Joel A. Smith, 1883; S.I. Dennard, 1885; J.P. Bloodworth, 1887; Joel T. Pierce, 1889-91; J.H. Bateman, 1893-95; B.H. Jackson, 1896-98; W.T. Dupree, 1900-02; J.A. Branan, 1905-06; J.H. Pennington, 1908-10-12; J.B. McCook, 1915-16; I.B. Stinson, 1920-24; R.A. Bell, 1924-30; O.W. Bell, 1930.


Britton, McCullers, 1806; John Thomas, 1807; Francis Beck 1809; David Rowland, 1811, 14; James Rabb, 1817; Levin McBride, 1818; John Moreland, 1820, 24; John W. Hyde, 1822; Jesse Moreland, 1826; James Kenna, 1828; James Kinney, 1830-32-34-48-40-42-44; Norman McRaeny, 1834-36, 1852, 54-56; John T. Branan, 1846-48-56-58, 64, 71, 79-81, 83-85-87-89-91-95; Joseph McCook, 1861; J.H. Fleetwood, 1862-64; Henry K. Boyington, 1866; H.F. Carswell, 1873-75; J.H. Hoover, 1877, 93, 1905, 06, 08; J.L. Farmer, 1896-98-1900; J.T. McArthur, 1900; W.F. Cannon, Jr., 1902; P.Z. Lord, 1912-15-16, 24-28-32; L.H. Temples, 1920-24.


Archibald McIntire, 1806, 1809; Andrew Shepherd, 1810; Joseph Delk, 1811, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26; Seaborn Delk, 1828; Jeremiah Beall, 1829, 32, 34, 36, 37; Benjamin Exum, 18337-38; Thos. M. Tarpley, 1838, 40, 42, 44, 46-47; Alfred V. McCardel, 1847, 48, 52, 54; George W. Tarpley, 1854-56, 58, 60-61-62, 64, 66, 68, 73; E.T. Hughes, 1864-66; A.J. Porter, 1871; John T. Hughes, 1874, 75, 1881, 83-85-87-

89-91-93; H.F. Carswell, 1877, 79; J.W. Weaver, 1895; A.E. Burney, 1896-98, 1900, 02-04; Ira B. Stinson, 1906-08-10-12-14-16; A.S. Boone, 1920 to date.


Charles Ray, 1806; James Taylor, 1807; John Eady, Jr., 1809; Robert Garrett, 1811; Job McClendon, 1814, 18; Thomas Lewis, 1816; John Hardy, 1817; Thomas Gray, 1820-22-24, 32-34; Richard Waters, 1826-28, 1834-36-38-40, 44; Thomas Jackson, 1841-42, 48-50-52; John Temples, 1846-47; William Davis, 1847-48; Samuel J. Bush, 1852-54-56-58, 62-64-66-68-71; William Kennington, 1858-60; Henry Bloodworth, 1861; S.A. McCarty, 1873; L.L. Peacock, 1875-77, 81-83-85; W.B. Ethridge, 1887-89; R.D. McCullars, 1891, 95, 1912; W.J. Player, 1893-95-96; J.E. Hancock, 1898-1900-02-04-06; W.A. Deason, 190-8-10, 14, 20; Ivey Justice, 1916-19; C.C. Thompson, to date.


Edmund Hogan, 1806; Willis Anderson, 1807; Edmund Nunn, 1809; Reddick Bell, 1810; William Beck, 1811, 16; Joseph Jackson, 1814, 18; James Lindsey, 1820, 24, 28; Wright Mims, 1822; Daniel M. Hall, 1826; John Riley, 1828; Isaac Hall, 1829, 32; James Ross, 1830-32; Solomon Murphy, 1832-34, 36, 42, 46-48; William Cooper, 1840-41; Ellis Harville, 1841-42; Enoch Garrett, 1844; Walter W. Beall, 1844, 48, 52-53; James Taylor, 1850-52; William P. Johns, 1854; Bryant O'Bannon, 1856, 58-60; James Bloodworth, 1858; Leroy Fleetwood, 1861; Isaac Lindsey, 1862-64; James Pittman, 1864-66; J.W. Brannan, 1866, 1875; M. Deason, 1871; T.M. Freeman, 1873; R.J. Carr, 1877; George W. Wright, 1879; Israel J. Fontaine, 1881-83-85-87-89-91; Nat Hughes, 1893; E.C. Pierce, 1895; B.I. Stevens, 1896-98; J.M. Burke, 1900-02; J.L. Byington, 1904-06-08; W.J. Player, 1910; L.P. Player, 1912, 16, 20-24-28; C.H. Parker, 1914. Thurmond Sanders, 1929.


William Brown, 1806; Samuel Durham, 1807; Thomas Durham, 1809; Joseph Culpepper, 1811; Ransom Worrell, 1814; William Calhoun, 1816-18; Richard L. Watson, 1820; Jesse Smith, 1822; Littleton Maddox, 1824, 26; Hansford Davis, 1828; Valentine A. Brazeal, 1832-34-35; Ambrose R. Wright, 1835-36-38; William H. Wright, 1840; Thos. M. Beall, 1842, 47, 48-50-52-54-56-58-60-61-62-64; Augustus B. Raiford 1844-46-47; Frank Chambers, 1866; E. J. Gilbert, 1866.

(This Court was abolished in 1866).


E.J. Gilbert, 1866, A.H. Cumming, 1868; J.N. Mason, 1871; T.N.. Beall, 1873; Ellis Harville, 1875-77; A.A. Beall, 1878-79; Eli Peacock, 1881; S.A. McCarty, 1882-83; W. I. Chambers, 1885-87; G.R. Butler, 1889-91-93; Joel T. Pierce, 1895; J.F. Williams, 1896-98-1900; E.C. Lindsey, 1902-04-06-08-10-12; J.T. Stanley, 1913-14; Joe Youngblood, 1916-20.

(Treasurer's Office was abolished in 1920).


John Thomas Fairchilds, 1806-07-08, 11-12, 17-18-19-20-21-22; Arthur Fort, 1809; Daniel Hicks 1810; Abram Miles, 1813; Matthew Carswell, 1814-15; Chas. Culpepper, 1816; Joseph Ross, 1819; John Pearson, 1821; Morton N. Burch, 1822-23; Osborn Wiggins, 1823-24-25-26-27; Benjamin Mitchell, 1824-25; Benjamin Exum, 1826-27, 31-32; Robert Hatcher, 1828-29-30-31-32; John F. Simmons, 1828; James Neal, 1829-30; Joel Rivers, 1833-34-35-36-37-39; Wm. G. Little, 1833-34; James Hatcher, 1835-36-37, 40-41; Wesley King, 1838-39; Solomon B. Murphy, 1838-40; Robt. Rozar, 1841-42-43, 45-47; Wm. A. Vincent, 1842-43; Bryant

O'Bannon, 1849-50; E.J. Gilbert, 1851-52; James Taylor, 1853-4-5-6; T.R. Conley, 1857-58-59; R.J. Cochran, 1861-62; S.T. Player, 1863-64; John Bragg, 1865-6; C.H. Hooks, 1868-69-70, 770, 71-72; W.C. Adams, 1873-4; J.B. Duggan, 1875-6; N.C. Hughes, 1877; Frank Chambers, 1878-9; Benjamin F. Fordham, 1880-1-6-7; M.G. Smith, 1882-3; J.W. Lindsey, 1884-5; Joel A. Smith, 1888-9; J.U. Parker, 1890-1; J.P. Bloodworth, 1892-3-4-5; J.F. Burke, 1896-7; James R. Rawls, 1898-9; G.O.A. Daughtry, 1900-1; G.H. Carswell, 1902-3-4, 1909-10, 1919-20-21-22; C.H. Adams, 1905-6-7-8; J.L. Byington, 1911-12 (died) John T. Dupree (2nd Term); W.W. Lee, 1913-14; W.A. Jones, 1915-16-17-18; W.L. Dixon, 1923-24; J.F. Bloodworth, 1926-26-27-28; E.B. Hubbard, 1929-30.


The Board of County Commissioners of Roads and Revenue for Wilkinson County was created Feb. 13, 1873, and Wiilliam A. Hall, Oliver H.P. Rawls, Augustus Pennington, John McArthur and Nathaniel C. Hughes were appointed commissioners. (Acts 1873, p. 303).

Wiley Holland, L.A. Hall, Isaac Johnson, C.H. Branan, Joshua Walker, 1875; Thos. M. Freeman, Jno. R. Green, Liman A. Hall, Isaac W. Davis, Andrew W. Spence, 1877; J.B. Duggan, N.C. Hughes, J.R. Bearfield, J.W. Davis, A.W. Spence, 1879; H.A. Hall, 1880; Morgan M. Bloodworth, Jas. R. Rawls, John R. Bearfield, Hansford A. Hall, James A. Mason, 1881; R.H. Carswell, H.A. Hall, M.M. Bloodworth, J.R. Rawls, Andrew Chanbers 1883; J.R. Rawls, Andrew Chambers, Vinson S. James, H.A. Hall, R.H. Carswell, 1885; M.G. Smith, B.I. Stevens, J.K. Arrington, J.A. Sheffield, T.M. Freeman, 1887; W.A. Hall, Jr., 1888; T.M. Freeman, W.A. Hall, B.I. Stevens, J.K. Arrington, W.W. Pool, 1889; W.W. Pool, T.M. Freeman, W.A. Hall, Jr., J.K. Arrington, B.I. Stevens, Joel A. Smith, 1891; T.M. Freeman, D.J. Stevens,

J.K. Arrington, W.A. Hall, Jr.,Joel A. Smith, 1893; A.G. Bailey, R. C. Hall, J.T. Davis, J.L. Robertson, J.P. Jones, 1895; M. Meredith, 1896; R.S. Smith, John Lord, J.D. Bales, M. Davis, J.R. Green, 1896; J.T. Dupree, Ira E. Dupree, C.E. Davis, J.A. Smith, J.K. Arrington, 1898; William A. Jones, 1899; J.L. Dupriest, J.T. Dupree, W.P. Duncan, C.H. Adams, J.L. Freeman, 1900; J.L. Freeman, C.H. Adams, J.U. Parker, J.R. Hatfield, B.I. Stevens, 1902; J.U. Parker, J.M. Shepherd, W.A. Hall, Sr., J.J. Butler, J.M. Fountain, 1904; W.E. Burney, L.W. Lee, C.H. Richardson, J.A. Yarborough, W.I. Dixon, 1907; D.E. Tindall, R.E. Spears, J.R. Hatfield, F. Lord, R.J. Stuckey, 1908; J.R. Hatfield, W.H. Freeman, Edgar Adams, 1911; B.I. Stevens, 1913; J.R. Hudson, 1915; S.W. Lee, 1917; Dr. J.H. Duggan, 1918-1924; W.C. Dennard, 1920-26; E.O. Smith, 1920-28; Joe Brown Green, 1927 to date; C.T. Lord, 1929, R.E. Evans, 1925 to date.


William S. Baker, 1885-88-92-96-1900; Paul F. Duggan, 1900-1908; J.S. Wood, 1908-10.

(Changed to County Superintendent of Education in 1911.)

J.H. Hoover, 1910-17; Victor Davidson, 1917-1925; J.T. Dupree, Jr., 1925-29; J.L. Lawrence, 1929 (died); J.L. Pittman, 1929.


Drury Gilbert, 1807; Archibald McIntire, 1808; Nevin McBride, 1810-13-15, Samuel Beall, 1852-56-58; James C. Bower, 1858-60; Ellis Harville, 1861; J. Rivers, 1864-66; Franklin Chambers, 1866; C.M. Lindsey, 1868; W.F. Cannon, 1873; Thomas N. Beall, 1877-1881; W.C.D. Carlisle, 1885; H.F. Carswell, 1889-93-96; J.E. Butler, 1899-1900-04-08-12-14, 25-29-32; J.S. Davis, 1916-24.


John Ball, 1808, 10; Robert Jackson, 1806, 09, 11;

John Hatcher, 1812-13-14-15-16-17-18, 20; Wm. Beck, 1819, 21; Samuel Beall, 1822-23-24-25-26-27, 34, 36-37-38-39-40; Daniel M. Hall, 1828-29-30-313-323-33; W.G. Little, 1835; Joel Rivers, 1841-42; W. Meredith, 1843; 10th District (Old System). Wesley King, 1845; Augustus B. Raiford, 1847; Edward J. Blackshear, 1849-50; James Ross, 1851-52; Wilkinson County, A.E. Cochran, 1853-54; E. Cumming, 1855-56; R.J. Cochran, 1857-58; Wm. M. Whitehurst, 1859-60; 21st District (New System); D.N. Smith, 1861-62; E.S. Griffin, 1863-4-5-6; Wm. Griffin, 1868-69-70; James B. Deveaux (1) 1871-72-73-74; W. O'Daniel, 1875-76-77; A.S. Hamilton, 1878-79; R.L. Story, 1880-81; D.M. Hughes, 1882-83; H.B. Ridley, 1884-85; D.N. Smith, 1886-87; L.D. Shannon, 1888-89; Richard Johnson, 1890-91; Frank Chambers, 1892-93; W.J. Harrison, 1894-95; James R. VanBuren, 1896-97, 1902-3-4; J.S. Wood, 1898-99; S.W. Yopp, 1900-01; G.H. Carswell, 1905-06-17-18, 23-24; H.F. Griffin, 1907-08; J.B. Jackson, 1909-10, 21-22, 27-28; J.S. Davis, 1911-12, 29-30; S.E. Jones, 1913-14; T.R. Turner, 1915-16; A.J. Wood, 1919-20.

Note: (1) James B. Deveaux was the only negro Senator that ever represented Wilkinson County. Reconstruction politics in many cases had put the negroes in office and Deveaux, a Jones County negro, was elected as Senator.


There are four Volumes of Records in the Ordinary's Office which have escaped conflagrations, from which the following abstracts of Wills and Estates have been taken. The first volume contains the records covering 1820 to 1828 and in the back of it there has been copied the records of 1848 to 1853: the second volume covers the years 1828 to 1838: the third volume, that from 1838 to 1848, and the fourth volume from 1853 to 1858.

It will be noted that occasionally parts of these records run into more than one volume and in such events only that volume where first found is mentioned. Sometimes the estate

was administered several years after the death of the intestate.

As a key to understand the abbreviations: w. is for wife; d. daughter; s. son; b. brother; c. child or children; h. heirs; g.c. grandchildren; m. mother; f. father; s.l. son-in-law; d.l. daughter-in-law; b.l. brother-in-law; sis, sister.

WILLS - RECORD OF RETURNS - 1820-1828, 1848-1853

JAMES LAMBERT, w. Esther; d. Mary, Amealey S.; s. Irwin.

JOSEPH PORTER, w. Rose; d. Mary Elizabeth, Behethland; s. Ambrose, Richard.

JOEL MEADOR, w. Elifair; "sons and other heirs."

JOHN TALIAFERRO, wife; d. Rose, Elizabeth, Anne, Judith, Mary, Behethland, Lucy; s. Richard, Charles, Benjamin; Richard's, d. Jean, Mary, Judy.

HIRAM STARR, sis. Hannah Starr Allen, Catherine Starr Washburn, Jerathea Starr Joiner; b. Hugan Star, deceased.

BENJAMIN LANGSTON, w. Phoebe; s. Leonard.

ZADOCK SIMMONS, s. John; g.c. Lacy, John, Zadock, Sally, Claborn.

FRANCIS BECK, w. Catherine; d. Polly Smith, Grace Hicks; s. William.

HANNER DOWNING, Edmond, Arch Vann, Benjamin, Polly Tials, Stacy McOnely, asy.

DAVID HOLMES, w. Abigal; d. Sally Godin, Mary Panncy, Louvicy, Silvina; s. Elijah, Silas, Josiah, Jeremiah.

JOHN MANDERSON, w. Susannah; "all my children."

LEVY PEACOCK, w. Martha; d. Caty Keatin, Amy Burteson, Margaret Ann; s. John, Purson, Jesse, Levy, Joseph, Freeman M.

JOHN PAULK [POLK], w. Caty; Dorcas; s. William, Micajah.

LEVI VALENTINE, w. Susanna; d. Syntha, Vicea; s. Thomas, Andrew, Levi.

JOHN DAVIS, w. Judith; d. Ann, Sarah, Mary, Archeor, Elizabeth Rowland, Martha Welch; s. William, John Fletcher,


JOHN MORELAND, w. Delela; "sons and daughters."

WILLIAM PROCTOR, w. Sarah; d. Mary, Elizabeth Aycock, Fanny Johnson, Catherine Williams, Nancy Bush, Selrah Caldwell; s. Joshua, John.

JAMES THOMAS, w. Charity; d. Catherine Davis, Angelina Garrett; s. David Kenedy, Zechariah.

/eldest of his children by former wife, Sarah Hennery; Nancy, Elbert, John, Rachel, Sarah, James.

JIMMIE LAWSON, s. John, Davenport, Thomas, Amos.

MASON McLENDON, m. Mary Brooks; b.l. David Delk, b. John Barnett, b.l. Solomon B. Murphy's two chilcren, Morton N. and Francis Louiza.

WILLIAM BIVINS, Polly; d. Ellafair English, Sally Donnally, Abigail Barker; d.l. Susan, widow of s. John; g.c. William, Appleton, sons of John); s. Martin Luther.

EDMOND STEVENS, b. Bartlett; s. James Jackson Collins.

EDWIN TARPLEY, mother; b. Geo. W., William, Edward I., Wingfield.

JAMES TODD, w. Mary c; d. Mary Hooks, Rebecca Vincent; s. James B., John J., Bartlett W., (all under age).

THOMAS UNDERWOOD, w. Elizabeth; d. Nicy, Malinda, wife of John G. Smith; s. Thomas, John; g.c. Joseph, Matthew, Anderson, William, Mary Elizabeth, James, Nancy Matilda, John Washington, (all c. of Gabriel Jones).

JOHN HALL, w. Mary; d. Lydia, Mary Jane Shinholser, Sarah L., Pamelia Ezeel; s. James M.

JOHN HARDIE, w. Damans; d. Nancy Bridges, Martha Dixon, Damanis Ridley; s. Robert, Joel, John E.

JAMES BRANAN, w. Sarah; "two of my sons, Alfred and Harris," "chilcren".

JOHN HOWELL, w. Sarah (lived with her 34 yrs.)

JOHN RUTHERFORD, w. Rebeckah; s. James, Samuel, John, Franklin, Nathan, Elbert; s.l. William Meritt, Daniel Fann?.

ISAAC MITCHELL, d. Sina (w. of Joseph Payne) and her c.

KELLY GLOVER, w. Elizabeth; "my children," "my daugh

ter," adopted s. Newton Glover.

WILLIAM BLOODWORTH, d. Lydear; s. John Edwards.


LANFAIR W. WHITEHURST, w. Unity; father; d. Elizabeth C., Nancy W., Susannah R., Polly Ann C.

JESSE VAUGHN, d. Sally Belcher, Bettey Matthews, Polly Low, Eliza Meredith; s. John, James, William; g.c. Mariah McMillan, Alexander McMillan.

DAVID INGRAM, s. James, Anderson, Hughs, David, William, Washington, Richmond; g.c. James, David, Drewry, Winney, c. of Margaret Ingram w. of Joseph Davison, Jr.

LUCY NEWSOM, cousin Lucy Culpepper d. of Joel Culpepper; Arreny? Stokes (d. of Henry Stokes) sis. Patsy Butler and c.

JAMES WILCOX, w. Zilpha; b. Thomas; Thomas' s. James; Joseph Jno. Floyd Blackshear.

JOHN L. JONES, w. Lucy; d. Nancy, Sarah, Latha; b. Thomas.

NATHAN JACKSON, w. Ludia; d. Nancy, Lucy; s. James.

LEWIS NOBLES, Mary (only heir).

CORNELIUS BACHELOR, "wife and children" (see Rec. of Ret. est.)

JOHN LEATHERS, w. Flora; sis. Betsy, Juddeth, Jane, Racheal; b. William, Peter.

ELIJAH VINSON, w. Mary Ann; "heirs."

JOHN RYLE, w. Ann; step-s. Andrew Seals; g.c. John Floyd Ryle.

FREDERICK DOMINI, w. Elizabeth; s. Andrew, Frederick, Isiah.

WILLIAM JACKSON, w. Mary; d. Elizabeth Odom; s. Nathan, Absolon; "g.c. in Ala." Archibald Thompson; Elizabeth Weight.

WILLIAM SMITH, w. Athaleah; d. Lydia Ellis w. of William R. Ellis, Elizabeth Salter; Susannah E.; s. Archibald Bryant, William Jackson, Martin C.; Henry H.; Laban T.?; Lucius ? E.

SARAH HUBBARD, Bershaba Calvin.


JAMES MANSON, w. Margaret; d. Margaret Mariah, Caroline E.S., Mary Ann Methvin; s. John, William, James; s.l. Samuel M. Carswell, Williamson Calhoun; g.c. James A.J. ? Gates.

JOHN THOMPSON, Mother; b. Moses; "brothers and sisters."

SARAH CARSWELL, d. Nancy Wateson? and her heirs by William Wateson?; s. Samuel M., William E.; g.c. Blache?, Martha A. Gilbert, Mary Jane Brown, Matthew C. Fowler, John M. Fowler, Matthew Wm. Brown; "orphans of Alexander Carswell."

CHARLES WHITEHURST, w. Elizabeth; d. Esther Bass; s. James Stanley, Howell Little, Josiah; sis. Frances Whitehurst.

STARLING STUCKEY, w. Mary, d. Mary; s. Alexander, John, Starling, Simon, Daniel, Allison, Howell, Nelson (s.l. Wiley Womack).

REUBEN HARRALL, w. Mary, s. William C.; g.c. William R. Welch, Reuben Ross; s.l. William M. Ross, David Welch, Herschal S.C. Steely.

JESSE SIMPSON, w. Delilah; infant s. John Martindale; b. James Clark, Martindale.

JOSEPH HANCOCK, w. Mary; d. Elizar; s. William, James, Edmund, Willis, John.

ROBERT ROZAR, SR., w. Mary; s. Robert, Jr., Alexander; Alexander's c.

JOHN DAVIDSON, w. Linsy; d. Mary, Elizabeth; s. Jehu H., A.R., James A., Eli L., John M., Joseph F., Benjamin R.

ABRAHAM LASSETER, w. Susannah; d. Polly Waters w. of Richard Waters; s. David, William, James.

MARY NIXON, sis. Elizabeth Brooner.

NOAH KEEL, w. Sallety; d. Sarah Broxton, Nancy Thomas, Bethany Smith, Arny; s. Hardie, Ivy or Iry; Isaac; s.l. Daniel Hall. (Est. Sarah w. Hiram Broxton; Bethany w. William Smith; Nancy w. William Thomas).

JAMES HATCHER, w. Sarah; s. William G.; Sarah Ann, Harietta, James, John Edmond, heirs.

RICHARD WHITAKER, w. Margaret; d. Francis B. Graham, Rowsamon; Mary C. Beall, Nathaniel P..; Hutson, Mildred; s. Richard Thomas, "my three sons."

NATHANIEL CANNON, w. Frances; d. Lucretia Turner; s. Wiley, Miles, Allen, James; s.l. Jesse Harris, George Brack; g.c. William N. Bowen, Elizabeth Harrison.

BENJAMIN J. STUBBS, d. Nancy, Eliza, Hannah Ann M. Underwood, Falby; s. Seaborn, Robert.

RACHEL CALHOUN, d. Polly Collins, Jane Lee; s. Williamson, Daniel Triplett; g.c. James (son of Polly); g.c. Elizabeth (d. of Jane); Lott Warren a relative.

ROBERT GARROTT, w. Elizabeth; d. Susan, Elizabeth Orrison, Jincy; s. James, William, John; g.s. Jefferson Garrott.

JAMES KING, Mother; Washington Kinney, Mary Kinney, Lucinda Borland.

HYRAM JONES, w. Sarah; "the child;" b. Gabriel.

JAMES EXUM, d. Sarah Frances; s. John Munroe, Benjamin E.T.

JOEL YOUNGBLOOD, "my children;" "youngest d. Amanda."

ADAM JONES, d. Sally Ward, Frances Ryle, Patsy P. Pitman, Patience Gibson; s. Daniel; s.l. James Gibson, James Ward.

WILLIAM BROWN, w. Artimecia; d. Sarah Eliza, Mary, Neomy; s. William Francis Manon?, Augustus Clayton, Nimrod Jefferson, David John Franklin.

THOMAS PEARCE, wife; s. James, William Walter; s.l. George M. Murcason.

MAJOR C. COLLINS, w. Mary; d. Narcissa w. of John Kemp; s. Francis, William, James, Major C., Franklin C., Daniel E.; g.c. Enoch Collins.

THOMAS SPENCE, w. Jane; s. Andrew W., John M.

STEPHEN WHIPPLE, w. Eliza; s. Stephen B., Benjamin A., Knight; d. Frances, Rutha M.

ISRAEL FOUNTAIN, wife; d. Sabrina, Cissa w. of Enoch Garrett Hezehous?; s. Jackson, Job, William, James, Mitchell, Lewis; g.c. Richard, John and Sarah Batchellor c. of Sabrina;

g.c. William, Bartlett, Elizabeth, Mar c. of Hezehous; g.c. Priscilla Webb.

ALLEN CANNON, (Deeds to land to take effect when dead) d. Leah Jane; s. Iverson, William Franklin.

JOHN STEPHENS, Sr., wife; d. Polly, Rebecca and Leathy (twins), s. Bartlett, John, Isaac; s.l. Thomas Allen, John Garrot.

MERET ETHRIDGE, w. Hopey; d. Tabitha Hooks, Demarius Wheeler, Nancy Fleatwood, Rebeckah Jones, Amelia Ethridge; s. Joseph, Harris, Wiley; g.c. heirs of s. William, heirs of s. Wiley; Tibitha w. of Archabald Hooks.

MARY DOMINY, d. Aley, Jane; s. Thomas Jasper; sis. Frances Howerd, "deceased husband."


JAMES, WILLIAM, POLLY BENTON, (bros. and sis.); c. of b. Isaac.

NANCY DAVIS, d. Sarah Potts; "other children;" s.l. John Dixon.

SUSAN RICE, (was from Baldwin Co.) the executrix was Mrs. Francis Ready.

JOHN O'BANION, w. Elizabeth; d. Sarah Lucas, Martha J. Dean, Ruth R. Adkins; s. William.

RICHARD WILLIAMS, w. Patsy; s. John E.V., William; "other children;" c. of John E.V.

WASHINGTON WILLIAMS, "wife and children;" s. J.D. Williams.

JOHN GANEY, "wife;" d. Ann Elizer, Martha Brewer; s. Richard C.; g.c. Hariette E.E. Gardner; s.l. Jonathan Rivers.

HENRY GREENFIELD CHAMBERS, m. Martha Chambers; sis. Elizabeth M. Lord, Martha Ann; c. of John B. viz: Green and John.

WM. F.M. BROWN, sis. Mary, Sarah w. of Washington Ingram, Neoma; b. Nimrod J., Daniel F. Augustus C.

SARA C. BRYAN, Mary J. Meredith; John B. Sears.

ELI SEARS, w. Elenny; "my children."


JOHN T. WRIGHT, w. Lucinda H.; s. James A.

JAMES T. WRIGHT, c. George W., Jesse C., Mary, Dorcas C., James G., Isabel T., Sarah M.; s.l. John Ross, Jr.

ZEPHANEAH JOHNS, h. John, Isaac L., William L., Robert N. Parker.

ISAAC GOODMAN, "widow;" h. Isaac, Jr., Henry S. Pickle, J.C. Webb, R.H., Mary Pickle, K.D. Robertson, N.W. Isler, Pinia.

MILES CANNON, h. W.L., N.W., Nancy, Nathan J., David S., Miles J.

WILLIAM HOOKS, c. Mary Elizabeth

WILLIAM WYNN, JR., h. Josiah Wynn, Andrew D., John E. Duncan, W.H. Bailey, James R. Thompson, Jesse Crumnbley, Obadiah Wynn.

WILLIAM FISHER, "Mrs. Fisher;" c. Harriet, Laura.

WILEY VINCENT, "Mrs. Charlotte Vinson;" h. James R.M. Wilson, Winniford, Caroline.

JAMES W. TODD, sis. Martha C.; h. w. Mary C., James D., John J., Barlet W. all of full age and Erastus R., William W. minor h. of Rebecca Vincent deceased, d. Mary, Henry Hooks.

GRIFFIN SMITH, c. Bryant, John, William; Caroline, Mary.

ELIZABETH DIXON, h. Aaron, Edward, Kinman.

WILLIAM JOHNS, H. Mary w. of Wm. J. Shinholser, Elizabeth A. w of S.J. Lord, h. of James H., Rebecca, c. of Zephaneah.

NANCY DAVIS, h. Sarah Poots, Levecy w. of John Dixon, minors of William and Nancy Davis Shepherd, viz: Mary B., Sarah J., Nancy C., William F., Missouri H., Luizer E., Willis J.

JOHN UNDERWOOD, h. Sarah E. w of Thomas H. Pennington, Thomas B., William J.



HENRY DAVIS, h. John Dixon, Eli, James, William F.

Shepherd, Elias Barnes, Oren, James A. Deans, Henry.

BENJAMIN D. LEWIS, h. Sarah Jane Williams formerly w. of Benjamin D.; c. Mary E. John.

ISAAC STEVENS, SR., h. Leathy minor of Joel Hoover, James, Isaac, William, Sarah w. of john Hoover.

CHARLOTTE VINCENT, (w. of Wiley J.); h. Wiley J., Frederick, Winniford, Charlotte, Caroline, Caleb Stevens.

WILLIAM BINION of Columbia Co., h. William H., Laura Ann w. of Thos. M. Bailey.

JOHN TAYLOR, SR., Bennet King, John, Richard A., J.W. Cross.

ALEXANDER PASSMORE, h. "widow" Lemuel, Louisa w. of Thomas J. Smith, Martha w. of James Davis, John J., Samuel S. Alexander, Elizabeth, Milly A., Simon H., Wiley S., George W.C., Phirily, Wm. D. Matthews, Stephen.

JOHN RYE, w. Sarah, c. Franklin, Sarah Ann, Hesta, Larry?

MRS. MARY HALL, w. of John.

WM. VINCENT, c. Erastus R., William W.


ARTIMISSA BROWN, h. Sarah E. w. of Washington Ingram, Wm. F.M., Augustus C., Nimrod J., Mary J., Daniel F., Neoma.

SAMUEL WHEELER, c. Ira, Lenna, Martha J., Sarah Ann.

EVERETT RIDLEY, h. Demarius, Nancy and Robert.

MRS. MARY SHINHOLSER, d. of Wm. Johns and w. of William J.

MERIT ETHRIDGE, h. Leroy Fleetwood, F.M. Jones, John Wheeler, Geo. W. Tarpley, Archibald Hooks for Tabitha.

WILLIAM M. BRAGG, h. R.L. Rivers, Thomas, John T. Lingo, h. of James F. dec'd, viz: J.S., J.F.; R.A. and S.T. s. of Alexander Chappell.

JAMES CANNON, "widow Leah."

WM. McGOWIN, w. Sara; h. Alexander, Noah, Jimpsey, Sarah, Jacob, Hilliard, William.

JOSEPH M. LORD, w. Ariminta.


IVERSON G. HUGHES, h. b. Green B., N.W., T.J.; nephew

John P.

LEWIS ETHERIDGE, w. Lucy; h. Benjamin F., Joseph F., Jonah P., Sarah w. of John T. Branan, Elizabeth C., w of Jesse Mackey, Lucinda S. w. of Jonathan Pearson, Lewis, Lucius, Francis M., Exa Ann.

ANDREW DOMINY, c. Alsea, Elizabeth.

JACKSON DEESE, w. Mary, STEPHEN LORD, h. Elizabeth A., Stpen J.

ANDREW J. HOWARD, h. James H. Wood, Isaac Watkins, George F. Howard, John Jasper Howard, Angeline A. May d. of Sidney May formerly Sidney Howard.

WILLIAM HUGHS, s. Nathaniel C., James C., William W., Erasmus F., John T., d. Elizabeth Bush.


MARTIN G. PHILLIPS, h. Wm. M., Jesse C. Lord.

WILLIAM SMITH, SR., h. David W. Smith, Richard, Susannah.

JOHN LORD, SR., c. James, Mills M., John H. or W., Milly w. of John M. Boon.

DANIEL BURKE, h. James H.P. Methvin, Walter W. Lee, Samuel Meredith, Mary, Daniel P., Artimissa by William Brown.

ARCHIBALD SMITH, h. Mrs. Elizabeth Smith, Richard, Elijah S. Kinney, Archibald, Benjamin, Francis, Washington.

SAMUEL BRAGG, h. Sarah, John, Elizabeth, Thomas, Franklin, Richard Rivers, c. of Alexander Chappells, viz: Rufus A. Thomas, William Duncan.

JONATHAN HOOKS, "minor children;" Reubin, Sarah Ann.

JAMES BRANNEN, (see wills) h. James, Sarah, Winna McCook, Love Herndon, Harris Etheridge, Joseph S. Ethridge, Thomas H. Parker for L.R. Parker, Caswell, John T., Joseph, Samuel Montgomery, Littleton, Pascal, Thomas Temples, Joseph for Alzana Branan now Murphey.

RICHARD WADKINS, w. Celia; h. Francis, Johnson, David C.

JAMES M. FOLSOM, h. Mary D., James M., Richard A.,

Mary C. with Robert W. Gr.

MICHAEL R. PICKLE, h. c. of B. Kemp.


THEOPHILUS MASON, c. Mary, Nancy, Frances, James, Joycy, Rachael, Amanda, Offan.

ELISHA DELK, h. Ellafair, Daniel T., Seaborn, Robert, Lucy Prior, S. Harrell, Warren Shiver, Wilaford, Benjamin, Winney, Almarine Martin, David, D.R. Pittman for Noel Pittman.

JAMES ALLEN, h. James Willis, William, Wyuatt Meredith.

SETH HONEYCUT, c. Caroline, Louisa, Wesley, Marganna, Ropsanna, Meredith.

ELIJAH HOGAN, w. Sarah; c. and h. Susannah, Sarah J., Eliza F. Griffin, E. Columbus, David M.D., Elijah C., John G.R., John D. Vann, James Exum (his heirs Frances and Benjamin), Linche B. Porter, John E. Hardie for Susannah, Richard T. Porter.

HENRY CHAMBERS, Martha; c. John B., Aplen T., Henry G., Elizabeth, Martha Ann, Marilla Ann.

THOMAS TAYLOR, h. James, Isaac, Grace, Alfred Willis, William, Thomas, Adalissa.

WILLIAM HOOKS, h. Jonathan.

ALLEN SMITH, w. Mary later w. of James Vickers; h. Richard Randolph, Mary, Wilson E. Sears, Larke B. Allen, John Allen, Madison Smith, Joel E.J., Mary Ann Rebecca, Susan Caroline, Francis Marion, Mantury Ann Missouri.

WILLIAM DIXON, c. Jeremiah, Aaron, Kinman.

MATTHEW UNDERWOOD, h. John, Thomas, Jr., Gabriel Jones.

JAMES HATCHER, h. James, John, Henrietta later w. of Hiram M. Pace, Edmond D., Sarah Ann later w. of George W. Shinholser.

WM. STOKES, w. Elizabeth; c. John, Nancy.

ALLEN L. WARREN, "E.A. Warren for his w. who was the w. of Dec'd;" c. Hall J., A.L.

BUCKNER PITTMAN, h. Nancy, James, Jesse, Green, Martha, Elizabeth, Benjamin Jackson for w. Jinsey, Martha was later w. of J.T. Hughes.

MATTHEW GAINEY, h. Pleasant, William Henry Hegans, Wm. G. Fountain, George E. McCook.

SYLVANUS GIBSON, c. William, Jas., Martha later w. of Patrick H., McCook.

SAMUEL CARR, "Mrs. Carr;" h. Hiram P.

JOHN HOOKS, c. and h. John, M.D. Simpson, Catherine, S.T. Player, Jacob Paulk.

JOHN HUGHS, w. Margaret; c. Benjamin J., Green B. Nicholas W., James T., Iverson G.

SAMPSON DIXON, w. Savil; c. and h. J.C., J.W., Harriet, Aaron, H.E. Morgan, Mason Hartley for his w.

JOHN KITTLES, "widow;" h. Franklin A., Amanda, Newton, James H. Mills.

GRIFFIN SMITH, c. James, Mary Ann, James J., William J.

VINSON OR VINCENT HARDIE, w. Abigail; c. Sarah Jane.

JOEL BREWER, h. John L. Johnson, Thadeus Ward, Jesse B. Cornell, Holden Brown, Hyman Mercer, Nicy Brewer, Green Brewer.

WILLIAM SMITH, h. Athaliah, Sewanna Ann Elizabeth, Lewis D., Elizabeth S. Greer, William J., Archibald B., James, Isaac Perkins.

ABNER J. HICKS, a minor; h. John J. Hudson.

JACOB WITT, h. Lydia, James M., John Nickles for his w., Benjamin Aycock.


ISAAC TAYLOR, c. William, Isaac, Ardellissa, Thomas.

JOEL HOOVER, w. Sarah; c. and h. Sarah, Elizabeth, Leatha, John, Samuel, Henry, Hamilton G. Daniels.

CAROLINE E.S. MANSON, h. Mary A. Methvin, James, William, S.M. Carswell.

JOHN EADY, h. William Colson, Oren Davis, Samuel M. Pittman, Allen H. Eady, Henry H. Eady, Daniel Pittman, Elizabeth Eady, John Eady, Hansford Davis.

JOSEPH JONES, h. Mary, John.

WILLIAM SMITH, JR., h. Susannah, J.J. Upson, William, Richard.

MARY JONES, h. Franklin, Lewis Manderson, c. Lewis B.D.

FRANCES JONES, c. Ann, William Carr, h. David W.

JOHN FREEMAN, SR., w. Sarah; h. Thomas J. Mason, James G. Freeman, Mary Chambers.

JOHN CRUMBLEY, c. Rebecca later w. of Daniel Ussery, Burrel.

SARAH HOGAN, c. and h. L.B. Porter, John D. Vann, Moses J. Thompson, G.E.D. Hogan, John E. Hardie, orphans of James Exum, Richard T. Porter, Elijah C.


FRANCIS M. SMITH, h. John A.M., Richard R., Wilson C. Sears, Missouri, R.F. Rozar, Lark B. Allen, Joel E.J. Smith.

ALLEN CANNON, div of est. to Wiley Fordham, Thomas Dixon, James Pearce, Iverson Cannon, Leah J., William F. (also see wills.)

WILEY C. PHILLIPS, h. Wiley A.M., Mariah, Isabella Francis, Mary Missouri, John Gabriel.


THOMAS ARD, w. Dorothy; c. John Sears, Andrew Walton, Charles S., Sarah F. later w. of Waya? W. Eiland.

JOHN SMITH, "Mrs. Smith;" h. Lucy w. of Jesse Ashley.

JOHN S. DAVIS, Sarah Davis, Joseph Bunning, Jane L. Bunning.

JOHN THOMPSON, c. Macajah, Hanna, Sary, Mary, Rebecca, John T. Moses (14 mos) w. Mary later w. of Zachus Lord.

JOSEPH RILEY, Charles, Lucy, Jas? Elisha Padgett, Rhody, Tanner.

FORD BUTLER, Martha called Patsy; h. Mallekia, Sally. (Ford died about 1816-'17, old burned records showed this, in copying old records the scribe mistook F for H and wrote Hord when it should have been Ford.)

THOMAS MITCHELL, w. Mary; Francis, John, Elizabeth, Edward, Herchey.

JNO. BALL, Anson Ball, James Pugh, Edgworth Pugh.

EZEKIEL ADAMS, "widow;" c. Polly, Nancy, Simeon.

SAMPSON SMITH, Martha, Sofia; h. Sofia Anderson, Archibald Smith, John Freman for his wife, John G. Smith.

SOLOMON THOMPSON, w. Rebecca later w. of Aaron Davis; Russel, Maria, Mary Ann.

NATHAN BOWEN, Nathan, Sparksman, John Session, William Bivin?

DANIEL KINGERY, h. John Sanders, Sarah Craft, Daniel H., Moore Avrea, Katherine, Ruth, Seaborn, Robert W. Vinson, Abraham.

ROBERT MOSES, Delphi; h. Joshua, Polly, Samuel, Sarah.

DAVID CLAY, Mahany later w. of Thomas C.? Wynn, Edmond B., Paten, Rober.

THOMAS FORT, Pinnah, Zelpha. William Brown, William, Sarah.

WILLIS McCLENDON, h. Francis, Jack Willis, Mason.

WILLIAM McMONTGOMERY, Margaret; h. Thomas Boseman, Elender Montgomery, Gideon T. Stewart.

LEWIS HICKS, Narcissa, James, John B., Stephen Law, h. Nancy.

JOHN GUERRY, "Mrs. Margaret Guerry;" Petter V. Theodore, Anna, Charlot.

BENJ. AYCOCK, c. Wm., Joshua, Isaac, Benjamin, Catherine.

JOHN V. SHINHOLSTER, George, James, John.

WILLIAM GILMORE, Catherine, Precella D., Stephen Gilmore, Rachael.

JOHN MANDERSON, w. Susanna; c. Jno. H. Millsy S., Martha L. later w. of John N. Brady, Elizabeth, Lewis D.B.

JOHN GILBERT, w. Nancy; c. Elizabeth Jane, Margaret, Jesse, John, Polly Ann, Nancy, Thomas B., Amelia Demarius, Nathan.

FRANCIS BECK, h. Charles W. Smith, Daniel Hicks, William, Catherine.

JACOB SHOFNER, Henry, Martin Elizabeth, Martha Shofner,


DAVID BALES, Elizabeth, Julrus N., William White, Martha, Almelia Ann.

JONATHAN RIGBY, h. Mary, Lyddy, Lucindy, James Jackson, Allen Cannon.

WILLIAM LORD, SR., John William, Stephen, Thomas, Samuel, Sarah, Joseph Barnet.

JAMES B. WHITE, w. Elizabeth; Eliza, Amsen C; c. Sarah, James M.

WILEY HOPSON, w. Elizabeth the widow of James B. White later the w. of James Vickers; c. Edward, Sabra, Angeline.

HARDY JONES, "widow;" Hollen?, Needham.

WILLIAM LEE, William Jr., Archibald, Alexander.

JAMES BELLFLOWER, w. Elizabeth; William, Joseph Jones, Mary Nancy.

FRANCES POWELL, William J.?F. Mitchell, Stephen Loird, Elizabeth.

JOEL JACKSON, "widow;" Unity. Samuel Burkett, "widow;" Frances, John.



JAMES LINDSEY, h. Sarah Lindsey, Daniel M. Hall.

JAMES SMITH, John and Belinda Smith; "Joel Butler in right of his wife," John M.

JAMES DIXON, d. Mary Ann.

AMBROSE MURPHY, Martha, Matilda, Osburn, William, Horne, Ambrose.

BRICE PAUL, c. James T., Hester S., Elizabeth B., Martha Ann D., Rutha C., John T.; Elizabeth w. of Linch B. Porter, Hester w. of Perry McCarroll, Rutha w. of Matthew Owens.

JOHN S. HAWTHORNE, h. Hannah Brewer, William, Robert, John, Martha, Bethtah.

JAMES JUSTICE, w. Lucretia later w. of John W. Rye; Jacob Barnet, Emily, Gerrard.

JOHN F. SIMMONS, h. John H. Herndon, Samuel, Christopher Columbus, John, Sarah, Jas., Lucy, Charles Claborn, Lacey.

LEVIN VINCENT, Nelly, Jane, James W.

BALIS CARR, w. Ann; h. William Hood or Hook, William, D.W.M., James B., David B.

SARAH JUSTICE, h. Jno., Noah Kullor Keel, David Daniels, Jno. Lu——n? F. Lands, Oden Oliver, William Harrison, James Harrison.

MARY MANN, "Zelpha and Elizabeth two youngest h. of David and Mary Mann."

ISAAC BARNETT, c. Robert, Maggy Lou, Eliza Ann, Sarah Ann; h. Amos Johnson.

CHARLES S. ARD, h. Sarah S., John S., Andrew W.

SAMUEL MEREDITH, c. Nancy, Wiley, Wyatt, Charity, Samuel, Chas?

ELEAZER BRACK, h. John M., Richard, James Morgan, William B., James, George, Edmund Taylor, Elizabeth, Benj. H.

ICHABOD SCARBOROUGH, A.M., Sarah, James J., Aaron Searcy, c. John.

WILLIAM A. HALL, h. Mrs. Zelpha Hall, Jane, Mary Ann, Sarah F., Hollin E., (James Chambers w. Mary Ann, James M. Willis w. Hollan Hepsbeth, William J. Willis w. Sarah Francis).

WASHINGTON FREEMAN, "Mrs. Freeman;" h. John.

POLLY P. LEE, h. Lewis, Lovard, Winnefred Pierce, Gilbert McNair.

MARKE DEES, c. Mark, Jackson W., Ira G., Epsey or Betsy. [wife Betty Lord].

JAMES COOK, c. William, Elijah, Puty, Henry; h. Nicholas Lewis, Stephen Sutton.

MARTIN WITT, h. Michael L., D.J., Benjamin Aycock for w. Rachael, Elbert, Martha J., David McMurray, Nathaniel Highs, Wm. Cobb, Daniel Jones.

ABNER HICKS, h. Susan Ann, Mary B. Hall, E.W. Dennis, Mary, Piety Elifair, Clarissa C., Jones A., Edwin C. Mayo, Mrs. Mary Hicks.

BRITON PRICE, h. Mary Ann Price later Woodward.

RICHARD GANEY, h. William, J., James Meadows.

JOSHUA WEST, h. James S., Frances E. later w. of James M. Helton.

JOHN NUNN, h. Carlton Nunn, Zephiniah John, Timothy Bloodworth, John Wheeler, Eli Wheeler, Samuel Wheeler, Miles Bloodworth, John Nicholson.

AGNES SMITH, h. John Davidson, James Smith, Allen Smith, Jesse Ashley, William J. Smith for Elizabeth Tyson, Ephriam Hightower, John Smith, Benjamin S. Henderson.

DANIEL PEARCE, "widow;" c. Wm. H., John, Winfield.

ADAM BRANAN, w. Netty later w. of Alexander Nesbit; c. Alzana later w. of Milton C. Murphy, Alzada later w. of Larkin R. Parker, Artebanus.